Communication by TlDmH0mc

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									  Chapter 9

Communication




 Michael A. Hitt
 C. Chet Miller
Adrienne Colella

  Slides by R. Dennis Middlemist
Knowledge Objectives
1. Explain why communication is strategically important
   to organizations.
2. Describe the communication process.
3. Discuss important aspects of communication within
   organizations, including networks and the direction of
   communication flow.
Knowledge Objectives

4. Define interpersonal communication and discuss the
   roles of formal versus informal communication,
   communication media, communication technology,
   and nonverbal communication in the interpersonal
   communication process.
5. Describe organizational and individual barriers to
   effective communication.
6. Understand how organizations and individuals can
   overcome communication barriers.
Communication Process

   Communication
    –   Sharing information
    –   Two or more people
    –   Common understanding
            Object
            Situation
    –   Communication medium
    –   Encoding
    –   Decoding
    –   Feedback
 Communication Process
                                         Sent Message        Received
         Encoded
         Message                                             Message



                                     Communication




                                                                        Receiver
Sender




                                          Medium
                                   (e.g., verbal, face-to-
                                      face, or e-mail)



                                                             Decoded
         Received
                                                             Message
         Feedback                            Feedback

              Adapted from Exhibit 9-1: Sent Message
Communication
Within Organizations

   Organizational communication
    –   Patterns of communication at the organizational
        level
    –   Purpose is to facilitate achievement of
        organizational goals
    –   Involves the use of
            Communication networks
            Policies
            Structures
 Communication Networks
                                 Y Network                          All Connected
                                                                        Network


      Decentralized
       Networks

   Wheel Network                                   Circle Network      Centralized
                                                                        Networks




Adapted from Exhibit 9-2: Communication Networks
Direction of
Organizational Communication

   Downward
    –   From supervisor to subordinate
            Job instructions
            Information on organization policies
            Performance feedback
            Inform associates about the organization’s goals and
             changes
Direction of
Organizational Communication

   Upward
    –   From subordinate to supervisor
            Grievance procedures
            Departmental meetings
            Participation in decisions
            And others
    –   Upward communication may be necessary to
            Monitor the effectiveness of decisions
            Provide information
            Maintain associate morale
            Ensure that jobs are being done properly
Direction of
Organizational Communication

   Horizontal
    –   Between associates at the
        same level
    –   Facilitates coordination
        among organizational units
    –   May arise from integrating
        positions (boundary-
        spanning positions)
    –   360-degree performance
        feedback
Interpersonal Communication

   Direct verbal or nonverbal interaction between
    two or more active participants
    –   Formal vs. informal issues
            Informal includes spontaneous interactions
            Informal may reach more associates
            Informal can help build cohesion and friendship among
             associates
            Informal may include untrue rumors and gossip
Communication Media

   Effective managers use richer
    media as                              Richest
    –   Message becomes more                 Face-to-face
        equivocal                         Telephone
    –   Message is more                Electronic messaging
        important                   Personal written text
                                 Formal written text
    –   They need to
                               Formal numerical text
        present a
        positive self-image              Least rich
Nonverbal Communication
   Communication that takes place without using
    language, such as facial expressions or body language
    –   Body language (kinesics)
            Facial expressions
            Use of hands, arms, legs and posture
    –   Paralanguage (How something is said)
            Tone and pitch of voice
            Use of silence
    –   Gestures
            Hand signals
            Shrugging one’s shoulders
Nonverbal Communication

   Nonverbal communication provides information
    about the
    –   Person’s attitudes
    –   Emotional state
    –   Mental state
   Nonverbal behavior may support or conflict
    with a person’s verbal communication
                       Communication Barriers

Communication               Communication               True
  message                      barriers             understanding




 Organizational Barriers                    Individual Barriers

• Information overload                  • Differing perceptions
• Noise                                 • Semantic differences
• Time pressures                        • Status differences
• Network breakdowns                    • Consideration of self-
• Information distortion                  interest
• Cross-cultural barriers               • Personal space
                                        • Poor listening skills
      Communication Barriers
  Exhibit 9-3              Cultural Communication Differences

Communication               In the United States                   Elsewhere
Eye contact                 Direct                                 In many Asian Countries, extended
                                                                   eye contact is unacceptable.
Time orientation            Punctual—‖Time is Money‖               Asian and Latin American cultures
                                                                   have longer time horizons; resolving
                                                                   issues is more important than being on
                                                                   time.
Answering questions Direct and factual                             Many Asian cultures view being direct
                                                                   as rude and aggressive.
Self-presentation           self-promotion rewarded                Many other cultures (e.g., Asian,
                                                                   Russian) find this rude.
Posture                     Open body posture                      In Japan, a closed body posture is
                            (e.g., arms relaxed)                   preferred (e.g., crossed arms and legs)
Indicating ―no‖             Shaking one’s head from                In Bulgaria, the ―no‖ signal means ―I’m
                            side to side                           listening,‖ rather than ―I disagree.‖

    Adapted from Exhibit 9-3: Cultural Communication Differences
Overcoming
Communication Barriers

   Communication audit
    –   Analysis of an organization’s internal and external
        communication to assess communication practices and
        capabilities and determine needs
    –   Methodology
            Hold a planning meeting with all major parties to determine a
             specific approach and gain commitment to it
            Conduct interviews with top management
            Collect, inventory, and analyze communication material
            Conduct associate interviews
            Prepare and administer a questionnaire to measure attitudes
             toward communication
Overcoming
Communication Barriers

   Individual actions
    –   Know your audience
    –   Select an appropriate communication medium
    –   Encourage feedback
    –   Regulate information flow and timing
    –   Listen actively
     Overcoming Communication Barriers
 Exhibit 9-4              How to Be an Active Listener

1. Stop talking.
Often, we talk more than we should without giving the other person a chance to
respond. If we are thinking about what we will say when we talk, we cannot
focus attention on the person we wish to listen to. Do not interrupt.
2. Pay attention.
Do not allow yourself to be distracted by thinking about something else. Often,
we need to make an active effort to pay attention when others are speaking.
3. Listen empathetically.
Try to take the speaker’s perspective. Mirror the speaker’s body language and
give him or her nonjudgmental encouragement to speak.
4. Hear before evaluating.
Do not draw premature conclusions or look for points of disagreement. Listen to
what the person has to say before jumping to conclusions or judgment.


   Adapted from Exhibit 9-4: How to Be an Active Listener
     Overcoming Communication Barriers
 Exhibit 9-4              How to Be an Active Listener

5. Listen to the whole message.
Look for consistency between the verbal and the nonverbal messages. Try to
assess the person’s feelings or intentions, as well as just facts.
6. Send feedback.
In order to make sure that you have heard correctly, paraphrase what was
heard and repeat it to the person you were listening to.




   Adapted from Exhibit 9-4: How to Be an Active Listener

								
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