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Capítulo I                                                                                1

Introdução                                                                                2
       Introdução                                                                         2
       Influência das disponibilidades hídricas no funcionamento da videira               5
             1) Actividade fisiológica                                                    5
             2) Produção e qualidade                                                      8
             3) Termografia por infravermelhos – uma ferramenta para a detecção           9
             do estado hídrico?
       Objectivos                                                                        11
       Introduction                                                                      12
       Effects of water availability on grapevine performance                            15
             1) Physiology                                                               15
             2) Yield and quality                                                        17
             3) Infrared thermography as a tool for monitoring water status?             18
       Objectives                                                                        20
       Referências Bibliográficas                                                        21

Capítulo II                                                                              31

Partial rootzone drying: effects on growth and fruit quality of field-grown grapevines   32
(Vitis vinifera L.)
    Abstract                                                                             32
    Introduction
    Material and methods
         Field conditions and plant material
         Irrigation and Experimental design
         Plant water relations and growth measurements
         Yield and fruit quality
         Data analysis
    Results
         Climate and plant water relations
         Vegetative growth and Canopy density
         Yield components and fruit composition
    Discussion
    Acknowledgments
    References

Capítulo III

Effects of partial root-zone drying irrigation on cluster microclimate and fruit         33
composition of field-grown Castelão grapevines
    Summary                                                                              33
    Introduction
    Material and methods
        Field conditions and plant material
        Irrigation and Experimental design


                                                                                              i
      Plant and soil water relations
      Canopy density and cluster microclimate
      Yield, fruit quality and pruning weight
      Data analysis
   Results
      Climate and soil-plant water relations
      Vegetative growth and canopy microclimate
      Yield components and fruit composition
   Discussion
   Acknowledgements
   References                                                                          49

Capítulo IV                                                                            51

Effects of deficit irrigation strategies on cluster microclimate for improving fruit   52
composition of Moscatel field-grown grapevines
    Abstract
    Introduction
    Material and methods
        Field conditions and plant material
        Irrigation and experimental design
        Plant and soil water relations
        Root distribution
        Canopy density and cluster microclimate
        Yield, fruit quality and pruning weight
        Data analysis
    Results
        Climate and soil-plant water relations
        Vegetative growth
        Canopy microclimate
        Yield components and fruit composition
    Discussion
    Acknowledgements
    References

Chapter V                                                                              76

Deficit irrigation in grapevine improves water-use efficiency while controlling        77
vigour and production quality
   Summary
   Introduction
   Material and methods
   Experimental conditions
       Vegetative growth
       Canopy density and cluster microclimate
       Water relations and gas exchange
       Carbon isotope composition
       Yield, fruit quality and pruning weight
       Statistical analyses
   Results


                                                                                            ii
      Leaf water status, vegetative growth and canopy microclimate
      Gas exchange and water use efficiency
      Carbon isotopic composition (13C)
      Yield and fruit composition
   Discussion
   Conclusions
   Acknowledgements
   References

Capítulo VI                                                                      104

Use of infrared thermography for monitoring stomatal closure in the field:       105
application to grapevine
   Abstract
   Introduction
   Material and methods
       Field experiments
       Thermal imaging
       Reference surfaces
       Other measurements
       Energy balance modelling
   Results and discussion
       Image manipulation and sample selection
       Temperature variation within images and effects of sun/shade
       Choice of canopy illumination for optimal discrimination of stomatal
       Conductances
       Effects of atmospheric environment on canopy temperature and calculated
       Indices
       Relationshops between temperature, water status, stress indices, and
       stomatal conductance
       Calibration for boundary layer conductance (windspeed)
   General conclusions and recommendations
   Acknowledgements
   References

Chapter VII                                                                      117

Considerações finais                                                             118
Final considerations                                                             123
   Referências Bibliográficas                                                    125




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