Vitamin Mineral Handout

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Vitamin Mineral Handout Powered By Docstoc
					Vitamin       Primary function                   Rec. Intake             Toxicity Symptoms        Def. Symptoms                  Food Sources
Thiamin       Assists in energy metabolism (esp. 1.2 mg/day men          None reported            Beriberi, apathy, anorexia,    Pork, seeds,
              CHO metabolism). Involved in       1.1 mg/day women                                 weight loss, muscle            fortified
              nerve processes.                                                                    weakness, enlarged heart,      cereals, soy
                                                                                                  confusion. In alcoholics,
                                                                                                  Wernicke-Korsakoff            Destroyed by
                                                                                                  Syndrome                      heat and in
                                                                                                                                processing.
Riboflavin    Assists in energy metabolism (esp. 1.3 mg/day men          None reported            Ariboflavinosis, sore throat, Milk, liver,
              CHO and Fats), helps with normal 1.1 mg/day women                                   cheilosis, inflammation of    shrimp, greens,
              vision and skin health.                                                             mucus membranes of the        fortified
                                                                                                  mouth, glossitis, light       cereals.
                                                                                                  sensitivity, skin problems.
                                                                                                                                Destroyed by
                                                                                                                                ultraviolet light.
Niacin        Assists in energy metabolism (esp. 16 mg/day men           Excess supplement        Pellagra (4 – D disease -     Protein foods,
              CHO, alcohol & fats), involved in 14 mg/day women          cause niacin flushing,   diarrhea, dermatitis,         tomatoes,
              DNA replication and repair.        60 mg. tryptophan =     liver damage, glucose    dementia, death), rash,       whole grains,
                                                 1 mg. Niacin.           intolerance, blurred     vomiting, apathy, fatigue,    nuts.
                                                 Niacin                  vision.                  memory loss, headache.
                                                 recommendation
                                                 often stated in NE
                                                 (niacin equivalents.)
Biotin        Co-enzyme component used in        AI for 19 and up 30     None reported            Skin rash, depression,         In many foods,
              energy metabolism, fat synthesis, mcg/day                                           hallucination, burning,        organ meats,
              amino acid metabolism, glycogen                                                     tingling.                      whole grains.
              synthesis

Pantothenic   Component of coenzyme A, helps      AI for 19 & up - 5     None reported            Rare. Could affect digestive   Beef liver,
Acid          with fatty acid metabolism,         mg/day                                          & nervous system, GI           yogurt,
              involved in synthesis of                                                            distress, neurological         sunflower,
              neurotranmitters, steroids,                                                         disturbances, “burning feet”   seeds, legumes,
              hemoglobin.                                                                         syndrome in WW II.             broccoli
B6        Part of co-enzyme involved in        19-50 years - 1.3      Neurological damage       Scaly dermatitis, microcytic Liver, halibut,
          amino acid metabolism, involved      mg/day                 with large doses          anemia, depression,          legumes, leafy
          in synthesis of blood cells. CHO      After 50, men - 1.7   (2g/day), skin lesions.   confusion, infant seizures   vegetables.
          metabolism, helps convert            mg/day, women                                    and convulsions
          tryptophan to niacin or serotonin,   need 1.5mg/day
          helps make the “heme” part of
          hemoglobin, affects thinking,
          immune function & steroid
          hormone activity.

Folate    Part of coenzyme involved in       Ages 19 & up -           Can mask symptoms         Macrocytic anemia, neural       Legumes,
          DNA synthesis, also in amino acid 400mcg/day                of B-12 deficiency,       tube defects, weakness,         whole grains,
          metabolism, involved in                                     neurological damage       fatigue, irritability, high     leafy green
          metabolism of homocysteine,                                                           homocysteine levels,            vegetables
          helps convert B-12 to active form.                                                    headache

B-12      Part of coenzymes helping with     Ages 19 & up - 2.4       None reported             Pernicious anemia, pale         Animal foods,
          blood formation, nervous system    mcg/day                                            fatigue, shortness of breath,   clams, fortified
          function, and homocysteine                                                            tingling and numbness in        cereals, and
          metabolism. Maintains sheath                                                          hands and feet, memory          fortified soy
          that surrounds and protects nerve                                                     loss, dementia,                 milk.
          fibers and helps with normal nerve                                                    disorientation, abnormal
          growth, involved in bone cell                                                         gait.
          metabolism and activity.
                                                                                                Intrinsic factor needed for
                                                                                                absorption.
Choline   Helps with metabolism of             Men – 550 mg/day       Excess supplements –      Fatty liver, liver damage       In many foods
          homocysteine, helps with             Women – 425            Fishy body odor,
          synthesis of phospholipids and       mg/day                 sweating, vomiting,
          other cell membrane components                              diarrhea, low blood
                                                                      pressure
C            Antioxidant, helps with synthesis     Men – 90 mg/day         With megadoses –          Scurvy, bleeding gums,        Citrus,
             of collagen, enhances immune          Women – 75 mg/day       nausea, abdominal         broken capillaries, more      tomatoes, bell
             response, enhances absorption of      Smokers – an extra      cramps, diarrhea, too     atherosclerosis, rough, dry   peppers,
             iron, involved in stress reactions,   35 mg/day               much iron absorption,     scaly skin, poor wound        strawberries,
             helps make hormones                                           possibly kidney           healing, decreased bone       mangoes.
                                                                           stones, false positive    rebuilding – more stress
                                                                           for DM, rebound           fractures, pain, increased    Easily
                                                                           scurvy.                   infections.                   destroyed by
                                                                                                                                   heat and
                                                                                                                                   processing.

Fat Soluble Vitamins
Vitamins A, D, E, K

Vitamin Primary Function                Rec. Intake      Toxicity Symptoms            Def. Symptoms                 Food Sources
Vitamin Vision; maintenance of          Men: 900         Increased activity of        Hypovitaminosis A             Retinol: fortified milk, and
A       cornea, epithelial cells,       mcg RAE/day;     osteoclasts causing          Night blindness, corneal      milk products.
        mucous membranes, skin;         Women – 700      reduced bone density;        drying (xerosis, infectious   Beta carotene: spinach and
        bone and tooth growth;          mcg RAE/day      liver abnormalities; birth   diseases, blindness           other dark leafy greens,
        reproduction; immunity          Upper Level –    defects                      (xerophthalmia),              broccoli, deep orange fruits
                                        3000 mcg/day                                  keratinization                (apricots, cantaloupe) and
                                                                                                                    vegetables (squash, carrots,
                                                                                                                    sweet potatoes, pumpkin)
Vitamin   Mineralization of bones.      Ages 19 -50 –    Hypervitaminois D.           Rickets – children            Synthesized in the body with
D                                       5 mcg/day;       Elevated blood calcium;      Osteomalacia – adult          the help of sunlight; fortified
                                        Ages 51-70 –     calcification of soft        Inadequate calcification of   milk, margarine, butter, cereals
                                        10 mcg/day;      tissue, formation of         bones, enlargement of         and chocolate mixes; egg yolks,
                                        Ages >70 - 15    stones.                      ends of long bones,           liver, fatty fish and their oils
                                        mcg/day                                       deforminities of ribs,
                                        Upper levels –                                muscle spasms.
                                        50 mcg/day
Vitamin   Antioxidant                   Adults - 15      Augments the effects of    Red blood cell breakage,        Polyunsaturated plant oils
E                                       mg/day           anti-clotting medications. nerve damage.                   (PUFA), leafy green
                                        Upper Level –                                                               vegetables, wheat germ, whole
                                        1000 mg/day                                                                 grains, liver, egg yolks, nuts,
                                                                                                                    seeds
Vitamin   Needed for clotting of       Men – 120      None known            Hemorrhaging                 Bacterial synthesis in the
K         blood.                       mcg/day                                                           digestive tract, liver, leafy
                                       Women – 90                                                        green vegetables, cabbage-type
                                       mcg/day                                                           vegetables, milk

Water
          Primary Function             Rec. Intake      Toxicity Symptoms   Def. Symptoms                Food sources
Water     Carries nutrient and waste   2-3 liters daily None under normal   Dehydration;                 Water, beverages, fruits,
          products throughout the                       circumstances       Thirst, fatigue, weakness,   vegetables, juices, cheese,
          body; maintains structure                                         impaired physical            margarine, oils, meats
          of molecules; solvent for                                         performance, dry mouth,
          reactions; needed for                                             reduction in urine.
          metabolic reactions;
          lubricants, regulates body
          temperature; maintains
          blood volume.
          Approximately 60% of the
          adult body is water.

Minerals
Major minerals: Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, Sodium, Chloride, Magnesium
Trace minerals: Iron, Zinc, Copper, Manganese, Iodine, Selenium
Minerals      Primary Function      Rec. Intake      Toxicity Symptoms     Def. Symptoms                 Food Sources
Sodium        Maintains normal      19-50 – 1500     Edema, acute          Muscle cramps, mental         Table salt, soy sauce; moderate
              fluid and electrolyte mg/day           hypertension          apathy, loss of appetite      amounts in meats, milks,
              balance; assists in   51-70 – 1300                                                         breads, vegetables; large
              nerve impulse         mg/day                                                               amounts in processed foods.
              transmission and
              muscle contractions   Upper intake –
                                    2300 mg/day
Chloride      Maintains normal      19-50 – 2300     Vomiting              Do not occur under normal     Table salt, soy sauce;
              fluid and electrolyte mg/day; 51-70-                         circumstances                 moderate amounts in meats,
              balance; part of      2000 mg/day;                                                         milk, eggs; large amounts in
              hydrochloric acid,    >70 - 1800                                                           processed foods.
              necessary for proper  mg/day
              digestion
Potassium    Maintains normal         AI – 4700        Muscular weakness;        Muscular weakness,            All whole foods, meats, milks,
             fluid and electrolyte    mg/day           vomiting; if given into   paralysis, confusion          fruits, vegetables, grains,
             balance; facilitates                      a vein, can stop the                                    legumes.
             many reactions;                           heart.
             supports cell
             integrity; assists in
             nerve impulse
             transmission and
             muscle contractions
Calcium      Mineralization of        Ages 19-50 –     Constipation; increased   Stunted growth in children;   Milk and milk products, small
             bones and teeth; also    1000 mg/day      risk of urinary stone     osteoporosis in adults.       fish with bones, tofu, greens,
             involved in muscle       Ages >51- 1200   formation and kidney                                    legumes.
             contraction and          mg/day.          dysfunction;
             relaxation, nerve                         interference and
             functioning, blood                        absorption of other       Calcium tetany – muscle
             clotting, blood                           minerals.                 spasms caused by low
             pressure and immune                                                 calcium levels.
             defenses.
             Most abundant
             mineral in the body.
Phosphorus   Mineralization of        700 mg/day       Calcification of          Muscular weakness, bone       All animal tissues – meat, fish,
             bones and teeth; part                     nonskeletal tissues,      pain.                         poultry, eggs, milk.
             of every cell;           Upper level –    particularly the
             important in genetic     4000 mg/day      kidneys.
             material, part of
             phospholipids, used
             in energy transfer and
             in maintaining acid
             base balance.

Magnesium    Bone mineralization,     Men - 400        From nonfood sources      Weakness; confusion; if       Nuts, legumes, whole grains,
             building of protein,     mg/day           only; diarrhea,           extreme, convulsions,         dark green vegetables, seafood,
             enzyme action,           Women - 310      alkalosis, dehydration.   bizarre muscle movements.     chocolate, cocoa.
             normal muscle            mg/day
             contraction, nerve
             impulse transmission,
           maintenance of teeth,
           and functioning of
           immune system.
Sulfur     As part of protein,                        Would only occur if         None known; protein            All protein containing foods
           stabilizes their shape;                    sulfur-containing           deficiency would occur         (meats, fish, poultry, eggs,
           part of the vitamins                       amino acids were eaten      first.                         milk, legumes, nuts)
           biotin and thiamin                         in excess;
           and hormone insulin
Iron       Part of the protein       Men – 8 mg/day   GI distress, iron           Anemia; weakness, fatigue,     Red meats, fish, poultry, shell
           hemoglobin; part of       Women 19 -50     overload; infections,       headaches; impaired            fish, eggs, legumes, dried
           protein myoglobin in      – 18 mg/day;     fatigue, joint pain, skin   immunity; pale skin, nail      fruits.
           muscles; necessary        >51 - 8 mg/day   pigmentation, organ         beds, mucous membranes
           for energy                                 damage                      and palm creases; concave
           metabolism.                                                            nails; inability to regulate
                                                                                  body temperature.
Zinc       Part of insulin and       Men – 11         Loss of appetite;           Growth retardation,            Protein containing foods: red
           many enzymes;             mg/day           impaired immunity,          delayed sexual maturation,     meats, fish, shellfish, poultry,
           involved in making        Women – 8        low HDL, copper and         impaired immune function,      whole grains.
           genetic material and      mg/day           iron deficiencies.          hair loss, eye and skin
           protein, immune                                                        lesions, loss of appetite.
           reactions, transport of
           vitamin A, taste
           perception, wound
           healing, making of
           sperm, normal fetal
           development
Iodine     A component of the        150 mcg/day      Underactive thyroid         Underactive thyroid gland,     Iodized salt; seafood; plants
           thyroid hormones that     Upper level –    gland, elevated TSH,        goiter, mental and physical    grown in iodine-rich soil and
           help to regulate          1100 mcg/day     goiter.                     retardation (cretinism)        animals fed those plants.
           growth, development,
           and metabolic rate.
Selenium   Part of an enzyme         55 mcg/day       Nail and hair brittleness Associated with Keshan           Seafoods, organ meats; other
           that defends against      Upper level –    and loss; fatigue,        disease                          meats, whole grains, and
           oxidation; regulates      400 mcg/day      irritability and nervous                                   vegetables (depending on soil
           thyroid hormone.                           system disorders, skin                                     content)
                                                      rash, garlic breath odor
Copper       Helps form           900 mcg/day       Liver damage              Anemia, bone              Seafood, nuts, legumes, whole
             hemoglobin; part of  Upper level –                               abnormalities             grains, seeds.
             several enzymes      10,000 mcg/day
Manganese    Cofactor for several Men – 2.3         Nervous symptom           Rare                      Nuts, whole grains, leafy
             enzymes              mg/day            disorders                                           vegetables, tea.
                                  Women – 1.8
                                  mg/day
                                  Upper level –
                                  11 mg/day
Fluoride     Helps form bones and Men – 3.8         Fluorosis (pitting and    Susceptibility to tooth   Drinking water if fluoride
             teeth; confers decay mg/day            discoloration) of teeth   decay.                    containing or fluoridated, tea,
             resistance on teeth. Women – 3.1                                                           seafood.
                                  mg/day
                                  Upper level –
                                  10 mg/day
Chromium     Enhances insulin     Men – 35          None reported             Diabetes-like condition   Meats (liver), whole grains,
             action               mcg/day                                                               brewer’s yeast
                                  Women – 25
                                  mcg/day
Molybdenum   Cofactor for several 45 mcg/day        None reported             Unknown                   Legumes, cereals, organ meats.
             enzymes              Upper level – 2
                                  mg/day

				
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