O rangeburg M assacre
The First Reenactment of the Orangeburg Massacre
A Henderson-Davis Production
A Stage Play Written and Directed by Calhoun Cornwell
FEBRUARY 1-8, 2010
SC STATE UNIVERSITY
FEBRUARY 1-8, 2010
SC STATE UNIVERSITY
The Orangeburg Massacre Three
Schedule of Events Four
Introduction of the Speaker Five
Cast of Characters Six
The Alonzo D. Middleton Allstate Insurance Agency
Changing the Perception Inc.
The Sun Light Club
The Orangeburg Massacre
On the night of February 8, 1968, nine South Carolina Highway Patrolmen ﬁred shots into a crowd of black
students demonstrating on the front of the campus of South Carolina State College. Three students were killed, and
twenty-eight were injured. Virtually all of the students hit by shotgun pellets were hit in the back. The shootings
were the culmination of lengthy protests against the vestiges of segregation and racial discrimination in Orangeburg,
especially the “white only” policy of the All-Star Bowling Lanes.
This tragedy, that became known locally and across South Carolina as the Orangeburg Massacre, received little
national attention at the time. Coming two weeks after the North Korean government captured the U. S. Navy vessel,
The Pueblo and its crew, and only three days after the Tet offensive began in Vietnam, the Massacre was largely ignored
by print and electronic journalists. Subsequent investigations and a trial aroused only regional interest.
The traumatic events of 1968—President Lyndon Johnson’s abdication, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s assassination,
Robert F. Kennedy’s murder, the tumultuous Democratic National Convention in Chicago, and Richard Nixon’s
political resurrection in the November election—largely relegated the events in Orangeburg to obscurity. Only the
publication of The Orangeburg Massacre by Jack Bass and Jack Nelson helped to keep the story alive. But FBI Director
J. Edgar Hoover managed, with some success, to suppress circulation of the book because he believed it was too
critical of his agency.
In the past four decades, historians have—with few exceptions—ignored Orangeburg while rarely failing to devote
attention to the student uprisings at Berkeley and Columbia in 1968, and the killings at Kent State and Jackson State
in May 1970. The events in South Carolina do not ﬁt neatly into the anti-war protests of the late sixties, nor do they
ﬁnd a place in the bloody confrontations over civil rights that occurred in Alabama and Mississippi earlier in the
decade. But those events do ﬁt into a tradition of student activism on the campuses of South Carolina State and
Claﬂin, and in the Orangeburg black community.
A dozen years before the Massacre, students at S. C. State went on strike, refusing to attend classes, in protest against
both the actions of the White Citizens Council in Orangeburg and the authoritarian policies of the college president,
Benner C. Turner. In February 1960, just days after the sit-ins began at the Woolworth store in Greensboro, North
Carolina, South Carolina State and Claﬂin students were launching their own sit-in at the local Kress lunch counter.
On March 15, 1960, students peacefully marched to challenge segregation in Orangeburg only to be met by law
enforcement ofﬁcers and then ﬁre hoses. Nearly 400 were arrested. Non-violent protests and demonstrations
continued through the early 1960s. In 1967, students went on strike in “the Cause,” staying out of class in opposition
to the autocratic policies of long-time college President Benner C. Turner. Turner subsequently retired.
Therefore, the events on February 8 can be meaningfully comprehended only as part of the larger and longer
tradition of student activism on the Claﬂin and South Carolina State campuses.
For decades after the Massacre, the black and white communities in Orangeburg remained deeply divided over the
meaning and memory of what happened on February 8, 1968. For many people in Orangeburg, the Massacre was
a divisive issue and a source of persistent racial animosity.
Then in 1999, on the eve of the 31st anniversary of the Massacre, more than 250 black and white residents of
the Orangeburg community called for racial reconciliation in a plea published in the Times and Democrat on February
7. “Orangeburg, Let us Heal Ourselves. . .” That call has had a dramatic and positive impact. In 2001, Gov. Jim
Hodges expressed deep regret on behalf of the state at that year’s ceremony. Then Gov. Mark Sanford issued an
apology in 2003.
While racial divisions have not been eliminated , they have been signiﬁcantly reduced. The Orangeburg of 2010
is a far more harmonious community than the Orangeburg of 1968.
For that we can be grateful.
Orangeburg Massacre Commemoration Week
Schedule of Events
Monday, February 1, 2010
Presentation of Scarred Justice
7:00 pm - IP Stanback Museum and Planetarium
“Scarred Justice: The Orangeburg Massacre 1968” brings to light one of the bloodiest tragedies of the Civil Rights
era after four decades of deliberate denial. The killing of four white students at Kent State University in 1970 left an
indelible stain on our national consciousness. But most Americans know nothing of the three black students killed
at South Carolina State College in Orangeburg two years earlier. This scrupulously researched documentary ﬁnally
offers the deﬁnitive account of that tragic incident and reveals the environment that allowed it to be buried for so
long. It raises disturbing questions about how our country acknowledges its tortured racial past in order to make
sense of its challenging present. “Scarred Justice: The Orangeburg Massacre 1968” is a co-production of Northern
Light Productions, the Independent Television Service (ITVS) and the National Black Programming Consortium,
with funds provided by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Sally Jo Fifer Executive Producer for ITVS.
Tuesday, February 2, 2010
Campus Bowling Night
6:00 pm - KW Green Student Center Bowling Alley
The purpose of Campus Bowling Night is to commemorate the fact that the Orangeburg Massacre was started
based on students inability to bowl in Orangeburg, an opportunity which has now been afforded to them. This will
also be a bonding opportunity for the faculty, staff, and students.
Wednesday, February 3, 2010
Orangeburg Massacre Oratorical Contest
7:30 pm - KW Green Student Center Bulldog Lounge
The purpose is to restore the tradition of the annual student oratorical contest and to allow students the opportunity
for creative expression. The winners will be awarded book awards, and the 1st place winner will have the opportu-
nity to speak during the premiere of “Taking a Stand” and during the 42nd Commemorative Ceremony.
Saturday, February 6, 2010
The March For Progress
4:00 pm - The Martin Luther King, Jr. Entrance
The purpose of this event will be for the campus to collaborate with the citizens of the community. It can be used
as a vehicle to promote the progress Orangeburg has made. It will also provide a forum in which community lead-
ers can talk about the hurdles Orangeburg still needs to cross.
Thursday, February 4, 2010 - Saturday, February 6, 2010
“Taking a Stand” - The Stage Play
7:00 pm - Martin Luther King Jr. Auditorium
For ticket information, call (803) 536-8815
The purpose of the play is to provide the campus and the community at large with a reenactment of the events
that led up to the Orangeburg Massacre. (Based upon historical accounts of past students as seen through the eyes
of current students). The purpose for charging a fee for this production is raising money for student scholarships,
absorbing the cost of production, and contributing a supplement to the organization responsible for the produc-
tion of this play.
Keynote Speaker: Dr. James Salley
Vice President for Instituitonal Advancement, Africa University
Since 1992, Mr. James H. Salley has been the Associate Vice-Chancellor for Institutional Advancement
for Africa University, which is located in Old Mutare, Zimbabwe. Operating out of the Africa University
Development Ofﬁce in Nashville, Tennessee, which is housed with the General Board of Higher Education,
Mr. Salley is responsible for interpreting the programs of the university to local churches, organizations, and
agencies throughout the United Methodist connection and beyond. He serves as the chief advancement
ofﬁcer and fundraiser for the institution and is in charge of the university’s institutional advancement
program. He currently holds membership in The International Association of Fundraising Professionals and
The Council for Advancement and Support of Education.
Salley represented the Southeastern Jurisdiction for eight years on the General Board of Global Ministries of The United Methodist
Church, located in New York. He traveled to Africa, Europe, South America, and Latin America in his role as Director of that agency.
In 1988, he was elected to serve a four-year term on the Board of Directors of Africa University and is one of its original founders.
In 1984, he was elected a Delegate to the Southeastern Jurisdictional Conference of The United Methodist Church, and the General
Conference in 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008. From 1996 through 2004, he was a member of the Board of Directors of the
General Commission on Religion and Race of the United Methodist Church based in Washington, D.C.
Salley is a native of Orangeburg, South Carolina. He was educated in the public schools of Orangeburg and graduated from South
Carolina State University. He completed studies at Vanderbilt and Belmont Universities in Nashville, Tennessee. He spent ﬁfteen
years in the ﬁeld of broadcasting where he held positions as Staff Announcer, News and Public Affairs Director, Account Executive,
Assistant Station Manager, and Station Manager of various radio stations. He was the Executive Producer, Host, and Road Manager
of the South Carolina State University Football Television Show for fourteen years.
Salley was the ﬁrst African American to serve as the President of The South Carolina Associated Press Broadcasters Association and
The Radio and Television News Directors Association of the Carolinas.
Salley has served as Account Executive for a major advertising and public relations ﬁrm in Columbia, South Carolina. Mr. Salley was
employed as the Director of Institutional Advancement at South Carolina State University before working for Africa University. In
that capacity, he had total responsibility for activities relative to government relations and corporate and business development.
He has been invited to be the featured speaker/preacher at the Zimbabwe, Baltimore-Washington, Peninsula-Delaware, North
Alabama, South Carolina, Dakotas, East Ohio, Mississippi, Western North Carolina, Iowa, Florida, California-Nevada, Rocky
Mountain, Yellowstone, Desert Southwest, Illinois Great Rivers, and New York Annual Conferences. Under his leadership, successful
fund-raising activities have been conducted in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the United States for Africa University.
Salley has the responsibility of spearheading the efforts to renew funding for Africa University at the General Conference of the
United Methodist Church and beyond. Under his advancement leadership the university has grown from 40 students in renovated
farm buildings, to 1300 students with more than 3,000 graduates and 35 modern buildings with no debt. The university endowment
fund has grown from 300,000 to 45 million dollars with a combined total of campaigns and capital projects that number more than
100 million dollars.
Salley has also provided successful fundraising leadership to a number of United Methodist churches, historically Black Colleges and
Universities, Gammon Theological Seminary, and National Black Methodist for Church Renewal.
He is a member of Edisto Fork United Methodist Church and formerly served as the church Lay Leader and President of the United
Methodist Men. He also serves as the Delegate to the Annual Conference and is a certiﬁed lay speaker.
Mr. Salley was a member of the Orangeburg District Five School Board of Trustees where he served as the Board Secretary for seven
years. He is a member of numerous civic and community organizations including Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc., CASA Family
Systems Board of Directors, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). He is a lifetime
member of the Black Methodists for Church Renewal of The United Methodist Church and the NAACP.
In 1998, Salley was elected to the Board of Trustees of Gammon Theological Seminary in Atlanta, Georgia and continues to serve.
In May 1998, Claﬂin University in Orangeburg, South Carolina awarded Mr. Salley an Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters Degree
during its commencement exercises. In 2008, Gammon Seminary and The Interdenominational Theological Center of Atlanta, GA
bestowed Salley with a second Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters.
While a student at SC State he was a member of the Internationally known Henderson-Davis Players and traveled to nine countries
performing with the theatre touring company. He received honors for Best Actor and Supporting Actor in Purlie Victorious,
Ceremonies in Dark Old Men. Salley is also a National Speech and Prose winner.
42nd Commemoration Program
The Forty-Second Anniversary of the Orangeburg Massacre
February 8, 1968–February 8, 2010
Martin Luther King, Jr. Auditorium
Zachary Delano Middleton
South Carolina State University
Student Government Association President
Invocation...........................................................................................Rev. Lance Wright, Campus Ministries
Purpose...........................................................................Mr. Moses Bell, Orangeburg Massacre Committee
Selection..........................................................................................................................SC State Gospel Choir
Student Monologue..........................................Performed by the winner of the 2010 Oratorical Contest
Introduction of the Speaker......................................Mr. Calhoun Cornwell, Writer of “Taking a Stand”
Keynote Speaker.....................................Dr. James Salley, Vice President for Institutional Advancement
Presentation of the winners of the SGA Orangeburg Massacre Social Mobility Scholarship
Candlelight Ceremony – March to the Orangeburg Massacre Memorial
Lighting the Flame
Benediction..............................................................................................Mr. Chritian Cole, Fellowship Chair
Campus Activity Board
Cast of Characters
Director - Calhoun Cornwell*
Calhoun Cornwell though young in age, is a very accomplished play director. Cornwell is a senior,
Business Management major who was born in Orangeburg and raised in Columbia, SC. His ultimate
goal is to become the greatest play writer/movie director of his generation. Some of his earlier plays
include Flash into the Past, Midnight Madness, The 90’s Throwback Show, and The Sankofa Show just
to name a few. He has also appeared as an actor in six other Henderson-Davis Productions. Cornwell
seeks “to bring the truth to life” during the ﬁrst ever reenactment of the Orangeburg Massacre – “Tak-
ing a Stand.” Cornwell dedicates this production to his deceased grandmother Clara Cornwell, best
friend Brandon Lavar Byrd, and Erinn Phillips.
Henry Smith – Charlie Jones III
Charlie Jones III is a junior, Professional Drama major from Charlotte, NC. His future plans are to
graduate from SC State University and move to Atlanta, GA to attend graduate school and pursue an
Samuel Hammond and President Turner – Lawrence Nelson*
Lawrence Nelson is a junior, History Education major/Drama minor from Jacksonville, Fl. He at-
tended Englewood High School in Duval, Florida where he played football, track, wrestled and was a
member of the school’s drama team. He is currently a member of Alpha Psi Omega Theater Society
and the Henderson-Davis Players. He has performed in several HD Productions namely, “The Canter-
bury Tales” and “A Toby Show.” His future plans are to graduate from SC State and to begin a career
as an actor or a teacher.
Delano Middleton – Zachary Delano Middleton
Zachary Delano Middleton is a Senior, Business Management major from Orangeburg, SC. He is
currently the 2009-2010 SGA President, a member of the SC State Football Team, and the Founder of
Changing the Perception Inc. He plans to graduate and pursue a career as an insurance agent working
at the Alonzo D. Middleton Allstate Insurance Agency.
Harry Floyd – Bo McBratnie
Bo McBratnie was born in upstate New York and raised in North Carolina. He moved to South
Carolina and started acting only as a hobby with the Orangeburg Part Time Players. His ﬁrst role was
Lloyd Dallas in “Noises Off ” a comedy. Since that ﬁrst play he has become very active in the theater,
performing and directing many OPTP productions. He is currently a member of the OPTP Executive
Board and the Henderson-Davis Players. He is the color commentator for the Palmetto State Spartans
Semi- Pro Football Team. Bo has appeared in many local and national television commercials as well as
training ﬁlms. Bo is the color commentator for a semi-pro Palmetto State Spartans football team. Bo
has also been called on to do several radio voiceovers due to his commanding deep baritone voice. Bo
is very proud and honored to be in “Taking a Stand” and working with such a talented cast.
Cast of Characters
Cleveland Sellers and Fred Moore – Austin Floyd
Austin Floyd is sophomore, Mathematics major from Toms River, NJ. Austin Floyd lives by Matthew
6: 33 “Seek ye ﬁrst the Kingdom of God and all these things shall be added unto you.” He plans to
become a Middle School Math Teacher, a Business Owner, and a Politician.
John Stroman – Moses Bell
Moses O. Bell is a senior, Marketing major born in North Carolina and raised in Columbia, SC. He is
a charter member and the President of SC State chapter of Toast Masters International and a member
of Alpha Kappa Psi Professional Business Fraternity. He is also the editor for the men’s section of
“Stated Magazine” and a senior staff writer for “The Collegian” newspaper.
James Davis – Elijah T. Corley
Elijah Corley is a senior, Drama Professional major and is a native and lifelong resident of Orangeburg,
SC. He will deﬁnitely be graduating in May 2010!!! Elijah’s words of encouragements are: “Never let
someone tell you the sky is the limit when there are footprints on the moon.”
Robert “Duley” Davis – Erskine Johnson
Erskine Johnson is a freshman, Theatre Arts major from Bucksport, SC. After graduation, he plans
to seek either a career playing in the National Football League or as a high school Drama teacher and
football coach. He has appeared in numerous theatrical productions during his years at Conway High
School. He dedicates this performance to his parents.
Sted – Guillaume Gaither*
Guillaume Gaither is senior, Electrical Engineering Technology major from Irmo, SC. He is a mem-
ber of the Henderson-Davis Players, the Alpha Psi Omega National Theatre Honor Society, and The
National Society of Black Engineers. He plans to travel to Japan to teach Japanese children English and
work as a translator for a Fortune 500 company, while continuing to pursue an acting career.
Emma Mccain – Arielle Davenport
Arielle Briana Davenport (artistically known as Arie’ Dave’) is an artist in four respects. She is a sing-
er, dancer, actress and lyricist. She started singing and dancing at a very early age, around 2 years old.
She started writing songs and poems when she was 10 years old. At the age of 4, she was enrolled at
Cinique Artistic Development (CAD), a private school of performing arts. At CAD she studied vocals
and modeling. From that time on, she talked about how she wanted to be a famous singer and dancer.
As a teen, she added the dream of establishing her own school of performing arts or a dance studio.
Cast of Characters
Ethel- Briauna Perry
Briauna Perry is a Junior, Drama Education major from Rock Hill, SC. She one day aspires to win
an Academy Award as an actress. She has participated in several Henderson-Davis Productions and
dedicates this performance to her family.
Verna – Bee Stokes
Bee Stokes is a sophmore Psychology Pre-Med major from Macon, GA. After graduating from SC
State, she plans on attending Meherry Medical College in hopes of becoming an OB/GYN.
Ms. Smith – Ensley Graves
Ensley Graves is a senior, Speech Pathology and Audiology major from Mullins, SC. After complet-
ing her undergraduate degree she plans to attain her Masters degree in Speech Pathology. She lives by
the motto “living everyday as if it were her last, having no regrets, but living full of purpose.”
Ms. Middleton – Joy Noel Vaughn*
Joy Vaughn is a 22 –year old native of Orangeburg, SC and a graduate of SC State with a B.S. in
Professional Drama. Joy has done two internships, eight productions, and has been an active member
of the Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc. and Alpha Psi Omega. Her life ambition is to impact the lives of
others through performance, service, and GOD.
Ofﬁcer’s Wife – Kasie Lyons
Kasie “Hollywood” Lyons is a sophomore, Professional Drama major from Greenville, SC. She is a
member of the Henderson-Davis Players. After graduating from college, she will be moving to Califor-
nia to attend ﬁlm school and pursue her acting and modeling career. Film and television is her focus;
she wants to “touch” people through her performances. “I will make my dreams a reality.”
The Mayor – Gerald Smith
Gerald Smith is a Michigan native, who debuted his acting career as Henry in the 2009 Orangeburg
Part Time Player Production of “South Paciﬁc.” Smith is a retired school teacher, who enjoys horse-
back riding, cycling, swimming, running and bowling. Smith has been quoted saying, “This play has
opened my eyes to some of the injustices that took place in Orangeburg in 1968, and I hope this play
will close the wounds and bring healing in our community.”
Cast of Characters
Debra Mack – Khamilah Dillard
Khamilah Dillard is a freshman, Drama Education major from Fayetteville, NC. She intends to pur-
sue careers in the teaching and professional acting professions.
Ms. Salley – Karen Smith
Karen Smith is a junior, Dual Middle Level Education, Special Education major from North, SC. Her
future plans are to teach in the rural areas of South Carolina.
Doctor/ Student in Crowd –Jalisa Blocker
Jalisa Blocker is a junior, Elementary Education major from Aiken, SC. She is active on the campus
as a member of the peer mentor group, a Resident Advisor and the Chaplin of the SC State NAACP
Chapter. After graduation, she plans to become a third grade teacher and to obtain a master’s degree.
Journalist/Student - Ashley Burkes
Ashley Burkes is a junior, Elementary Education major from Greenville, SC. After graduation she
plans to become a Children’s Psychologist. Ashley is involved in many clubs and organization on cam-
pus; however, this is her acting debut. Ashley dedicates this performance to the class of 2011.
Understudy – BJ Brown*
BJ Brown is an SC State graduate who assisted in the growth and development of several young
actors during this theatrical production. He also substituted for various roles during the course of the
C. Wyleek Cummings - Acting Coach*
C. Wyleek Cummings is a recent graduate of SC State University. He is the CEO of Mt. Zion Films-
Works, an independent pre & post production video/ﬁlm company. He is also a member of the Board
of Director’s for Our Little Princesses, Inc. He will soon go into production on his feature ﬁlm entitled
“Word of Honor.”
*denotes memebrs of Alpha Psi Omega Theatrical Honor Society
Wounded on the campus of SC State University on February 8, 1968
Herman Boller Albert Dawson Nathaniel Jenkins Ernest Schuler
Johnny Bookhart Bobby Eaddy Thomas Kennerly Jordan Simmons, III
Thompson Braddy Herbert Gadson Joseph Lambright Ronald Smith
Bobby K. Burton Sam Grant Richard McPherson Frankie Thomas
Ernest Carson Sam Grate Harvey Lee Miller Robert Watson
John H. Elliott Joseph Hampton Harold Riley Robert Lee Williams
Robert Lee Davis Charles Hildebrand Cleveland Sellers Savannah Williams
Committee on Community Reconciliation
Dr. George Cooper, Chairperson, President, SC State University
Dr. Drexel Bolds, Executive Vice President, Claﬂin University
Dr. William C. Hine, Professor of History, SC State University
The Rev. Larry McCutcheon, Trinity United Methodist Church
The Rev. James McGee, Chief Executive Ofﬁcer, The Oaks
Mr. Paul Miller, Mayor, Orangeburg, South Carolina
Ms. Erica Prioleau-Taylor, Director of University Relations and Marketing, SC State University
Dr. Cleveland Sellers, President, Voorhees College
Mr. Don Tribble, Executive Director, Orangeburg Chamber of Commerce
Mr. Cecil J. Williams, Photographer, Orangeburg, SC
The Orangeburg Massacre Planning Commitee
This is a planning committee organized by SC State students committed to raising awareness for the
Moses Bell - Chairperson Katzina Giumma Jermaine Brown
Calhoun Cornwell Linnie Garrett Lighting Designer/Set Designer/
Angelique Weeks Lorpu Cooper Technical Director
Ashley Burius Nicholas Drayton
Ashley Burkes Binka Watts - Hair Elizabeth Watkins
Chavonne Evans Ashley Jackson - Hair Prop. Mistress/Set Designer
Danielle Bradshaw Patrice Carnett - Make up M.I.E.S.A
Janiya Coleman Joy Vaugn - Make up Sound
The following people worked to organize and prepare today’s program. Their efforts are very much
Dr. George E. Cooper Arah Pinson Ashley Elliott
Dr. Charles Smith Dr. Thomas Cassidy Amanda Black
Lillian Adderson Ellen Zisholtz Dr. Ann Winstead
Erica Prioleau-Taylor Tyron Clinton Dr. Marion Silllah
Tameka Kenan Bridgett George Raymond Cooper
William Hine Dr. Frank Mundy*
Dr. Angela Shaw Thornburg Antia Dawkins
The SGA Orangeburg Massacre Social Mobility Scholarship Recipients are:
Name: Class: Major:
Ejiro-Oghene Agbatatu Freshman Biology
Brianna Oates Sophomore Sports Communication
Michelle Mitchell Sophomore Psychology
Hussein Davies Junior Music Education
Maurice Hunter Junior Social Work
Anton Stinson Senior Professional English
Ensley Graves Senior Speech Pathology
Jamie Dicks Graduate English