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					Motivation
The psychological process giving behavior purpose and direction.
Unsatisfied Need (A “need” is an internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive.) leads to Tension which drives a Search Behavior which Satisfies the need and leads to a Reduction of Tension

In the workplace, motivation is the willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need.

Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation: The psychological rewards you get from your work.
You genuinely care about the work, you look for better ways to do it, and you are energized and fulfilled by doing it well.

Extrinsic Motivation: The economic rewards you get from others like pay raises, bonuses and benefits. Extrinsics are important, but are not enough to keep you at your best., for you tend to focus on the rewards and not the work itself. You only work well enough to get the rewards.
Intrinsic Motivation and How it Works, Kenneth Thomas, Training, Oct 2000

Intrinsic Motivation

(Con.)

Today’s work is about self-management directing your activities toward a meaningful purpose. Motivation is about pursuing something worthwhile and enjoying the trip. Self-management involves logical decisions but is powered by emotion.
Sense Sense Sense Sense of of of of Meaningfulness Choice Competence Progress

You build intrinsic motivation by shaping interpretations as well as redesigning jobs.

Motivation Theories
Theory X and Theory Y: McGregor”s assumptions about people Maslow’s needs hierarchy Herzberg’s theory of satisfiers and dissatisfiers McClelland’s Three-Needs Theory

Herzberg’s Two – Factor Theory
Hygiene factors: Job dissatisfaction with the context within which people work
 Supervisor, adequate physical facilities and working conditions, salary, interpersonal relations…  Dissatisfaction if absent, but not motivators in and of themselves

Motivator factors: Job satisfaction which affect job content or rewards.
 Type of work, achievement, challenge, responsibility, recognition...

McClelland’s Three Needs Theory
Need for Power (n-Power)
Need to influence and lead others, and control one’s environment Positive: socialized power Negative: personalized power

Need for Achievement (n-Ach)

Need for Affiliation (n-Aff)

Need to accomplish goals, excel, and strive continually to do things better Positive: high degree of personal responsibility Negative: tendency to work alone and not to delegate
Desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships Positive: affiliative interest Negative: affiliative assurance

More Motivation Theories
Expectancy theory
Motivational strength is determined by 1) how much people want something and 2) how likely they think they are to get it. Expectancy Instrumentality Valence

Equity Theory
Employee perceptions as to how fairly they think they are being treated compared to others. (Input and output analysis.)

T=MxExR
T = tendency to act M = strength of motive E = expectation that motive will be rewarded R = reward value

More Theories
Goal-setting Theory
Performance will improve with the use of objectives, deadlines, or quality standards

Reinforcement Theory
Behavior is a function of its consequences. Hot Stove Theory; Punishment and Rewards
Clearly articulate what is expected Make explicit what the tangible outcome will be The punishment/reward must be nondiscriminatory…all must be affected the same way The reward/punishment must be given immediately following the action

Setting Employee Objectives
Identify the employee’s key job tasks Establish specific and challenging goals for each key task Allow the employee to actively participate Prioritize goals Build in feedback mechanisms to assess goal progress Link rewards to goal attainment

Hot Stove Rules on Reprimands
A reprimand should be immediate A reprimand should be directed towards someone’s actions, not their personality A reprimand should be consistently applied A reprimand should be informative
It let’s people know how to avoid such activities in the future

A reprimand should occur in a supportive setting A reprimand should support realistic rules
It is not a power play, a whim, or an emotion of the moment; it is a necessary rule of reason

Motivating at Work
Motivating through job design
Job enlargement job scope Job enrichment job depth Fit people to jobs and jobs to people

Motivating through rewards
Rewards must satisfy individual needs One must believe the effort will lead to a reward Rewards must be equitable and achievable Rewards must be linked to performance

Motivating at Work (con.)
Motivation through employee participation
Setting goals Making decisions Solving problems Designing and implementing organizational change

Motivation through other techniques
Flexible work schedules (compressed workweeks, flextime, job sharing, telecommuting, etc.) Family support Compensation plans which link rewards to performance Skill based pay: how many skills a person has

How to Empower Others
 Get others involved in selecting their work assignments and the methods fir accomplishing tasks.  Create and environment of cooperation, information sharing, discussion, and shared ownership of goals.  Encourage others to take initiative, make decision, and use their knowledge.  When problems arise, find out what others think and let them help design the solutions  Stay out of the way; give others the freedom to put their ideas and solutions into practice.  Maintain high morale and confidence by recognizing successes and encouraging high performance.

Job Design: Four Approaches
Scientific management/Work simplification: Standardization and the narrow, explicit specification of task activities for workers. Job enlargement: Increases the number of horizontal activities in a job to overcome the boredom of overspecialized work.
Job rotation: A variation of job enlargement in which workers are exposed to a variety of specialized jobs over time. Cross-training:Another variation where workers are trained in different specialized tasks or activities

Job Design Approaches (con.)
Job enrichment: Increases the amount of job responsibility through vertical loading and increasing the motivational factors into the jobs Job characteristics theory: A person-job fit model, and not a universal job design model. It is a framework for understanding person-job fit through the interaction of core job dimensions with critical psychological states within a person.

Job Characteristics Model
5 Core Job Dimensions Critical Psychological States Personal and Work Outcomes

Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance

Experienced Work Meaningfulness

High Internal Work Motivation High-Quality Work Performance High Work Satisfaction Low Absenteeism and Turnover

Autonomy

Experienced Responsibility for Work Outcomes Knowledge of Actual Results of Work

Feedback

Job Characteristics Model: Five Core Job Dimensions
Skill Variety: The degree to which a job includes different activities and involves the use of multiple skills and talents of the employee. Task Identity: The degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of workthat is, doing a job from beginning to end with a tangible outcome. Task significance: The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people, whether in the immediate organization or in the external environment.

Core Job Dimensions (con.)
Autonomy: The degree to which the job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion of the employee in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out. Job Feedback: The degree to which carrying out the work activities results in the employee’s obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.

Job Characteristics Model: Critical Psychological States
Experienced meaningfulness of the work: the degree to which the employee experiences the job as one that is generally meaningful, valuable and worthwhile. Experienced responsibility for work outcomes: the degree to which the employee feels personally accountable and responsible for the results of the work. Knowledge of results: the degree to which the employee knows and understands, on a continuous basis, how effectively he or she is performing the job.

Implications
Individuals are different and you need to match the individual to the job Specific goals that are challenging yet achievable and appropriate feedback are useful There should be consequences to behavior Rewards must be perceived as equitable Rewards need to be attractive Individuals must perceive a direct link between effort, performance, and rewards/sanctions

10 Ways to Motivate Employees
Appreciation Feeling “in” on things Understanding attitude Job security Good wages Interesting work Promotion opportunities Loyalty from management Good working conditions Tactful discipline


				
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