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									Attitudes
Attitudes are evaluative statements or judgements, positive or negative, concerning objects, people, or events. The Affective Component of an attitude is the emotional or feeling segment. The Cognitive Component of an attitude is the opinion or belief segment. The Behavioral Component is an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.

Attitudes (con.)
Sources of attitudes include family, friends, parents, teachers, peer group members, etc. Organizational Behavior focuses on jobrelated attitudes. Attitudes and Consistency
People seek consistency

Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes

Work-Related Attitudes
Job Satisfaction: How much you like or dislike your job Job Involvement: How much you identify with your work Organizational Commitment

Personality
A combination of psychological traits that describes a person, OR The sum of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. Personality Determinants
Heredity Environment Situation Experience

Personality Traits
Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Social interaction (Extrovert or Introvert) Preference for gathering data (Sensing or Intuitive) Preference for decision making (Feeling or Thinking) Style of making decisions ( Perceptive or Judgmental)

Sixteen Primary Personality Traits
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Reserved VS. Low intelligence Affected by feelings Submissive Serious Expedient Timid Tough-Minded Trusting Outgoing High intelligence Emotionally stable Dominant Happy-Go-Lucky Conscientious Venturesome Sensitive Suspicious

Sixteen Primary Responsibility Traits
10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Practical VS. Forthright Self-Assured Conservative Group-Dependent Uncontrolled Relaxed Imaginative Shrewd Apprehensive Experimenting Self-Sufficient Controlled Tense

The Big Five Model
Extraversion
A personality dimension describing someone who is sociable, talkative, and assertive.

Agreeableness
A personality dimension that describes someone who is good-natured, cooperative and trusting.

Conscientiousness
A personality dimension that characterizes someone who is responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement oriented.

The Big Five Model (con.)
Emotional Stability
A personality that characterizes someone as calm, enthusiastic, secure (positive) versus tense, nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative).

Openness to Experience
A personality dimension that characterizes someone in terms of imaginativeness, artistic sensitivity, and intellectualism.

Behavior and Personality Traits
Locus of control
The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate.

Self-Efficacy
Belief in one’s personal ability to do a task

Self-Esteem
An individual’s degree of like or dislike for himself or herself.

Behavior and Personality Traits (con.)
Self-Monitoring
A personality trait that measures and individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external situational factors.

Risk Propensity
Differences in the willingness to propensity to assume or avoid risk.

Machiavellianism
A measure of the degree to which people are pragmatic, maintain emotional distance, and believe that ends justify the means.

Perception
The process of organizing and interpreting sensory impressions in order to give meaning to the environment...acts as a screen or filter Selective Perception: Tendency to filter out information that is discomforting, that seems irrelevant, or that contradicts one’s beliefs.
Blocks what we do not want to see Allows us to see what we desire Create self-fulfilling or circular perceptual processes

The Halo Effect; Forming an impression of a person based on a single trait.

Perception
Stereotyping: Tendency to attribute to an individual the characteristics one believes are typical of the group to what that individual belongs.

Perceptual Patterns
Learned and culturally determined
Perception is culturally determined Perceptual patterns are learned Perception is consistent Perception is inaccurate Nancy J. Adler

Barriers to Social Perception: or Shortcuts to Judging Others
Self-fulfilling prophecy (Pygmalion effect)
The situation in which our expectations about people affect our interaction with them in such a way that our expectations are fulfilled.

First-impression error
The tendency to form lasting opinions about an individual base on initial perceptions.

Central tendency - avoiding extreme judgments

The Pygmalion Effect
We cannot behave or act in a manner that is inconsistent with our expectations and beliefs (of others or ourselves). Our behaviors and actions toward others influence their expectations, behaviors, and performance either positively or negatively. Thus, our expectations will become a selffulfilling prophecy, partly because we will act in a manner that is consistent with that “prophecy” and causes it to “be fulfilled.”

Barriers to Social Perception (con.)
Implicit personality theory
Opinions formed about other people that are based on our own mini-theories about how people behave.

Projection - the tendency to attribute one’s personal attitudes or feelings to another person
Relieves one of their own sense of guilt or failure Protects one from confronting their own feelings Common when one has little personal insight

Other Shortcuts
Assumed Similarity:The belief that others are like oneself. Contrast effects: Evaluation based on recently encountered individuals who are “better or worse” than the person Bottom Line: Be aware of these issues in making evaluations and decisions like hiring, performance evaluations, etc.

Perception
Factors that influence perception The Perceiver (Internal Factors)
Motives; Values; Interests; Attitudes; Past experiences; Expectations

The Target (External Factors)
Motion; Intensity; Size; Novelty; Salience:what stands out

The Situation This input is then organized into patterns Social cognition theory - we organize stimuli into schemas Evaluation or inference
Stimuli are interpreted in a subjective way and the conclusions are biased by individual

Attribution Theory
An explanation of how we judge people differently depending on the meaning we attribute to a given behavior.
Our perception and judgement of a person’s actions will be significantly influenced by the assumptions we make about the person’s internal state. When we observe an individual’s behavior, we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused. Internally caused are believed to be under the personal control of the individual, while externally caused results from outside factors.

Attribution Theory (con.)
Distinctiveness is the extent to which the same person behaves in the same way in different situations. If unique, attribute it to external causes, if not, attribute it to internal causes. Consensus is the extent to which other people in the same situation behave in the same way. If consensus is high it is likely to be given an external attribution. Consistency is the degree to which the same person behaves in the same way at different times. If high, it is likely to be given an internal attribution.

Attribution Theory (con.)
Fundamental Attribution bias: People attribute another person’s behavior to his or her personal characteristics rather than to situational factors. Self-Serving bias: People tend to take more personal responsibility ffor success than failure.

Holland’s Typology of Personality and Occupations
Realistic Investigative

Conventional

Artistic

Enterprising

Social

Six Universal Emotions
Happiness Surprise Fear Sadness Anger Disgust

Emotional Intelligence
Self-awareness: The ability to know what you are feeling. Self-management: The ability to manage one’s own emotions and impulses. Self-motivation: The ability to persist in the face of setbacks and failures. Empathy: The ability to sense how others are feeling. Social skills: The ability to handle the emotions of others.

Emotional Intelligence & Leadership Competencies
Personal Competence: These capabilities determine how we manage ourselves
Self-awareness
Emotional Self Awareness: Reading one’s own emotions and recognizing their impact; using “gut sense” to guide decisions Accurate self-assessment: Knowing one’s strengths and limits Self-confidence: A sound sense of one’s self-worth and capabilities

Emotional Intelligence & Leadership Competencies
Personal Competence
Self-management
Emotional self-control: Keeping disruptive emotions and impulses under control Transparency: Displaying honesty and integrity; trustworthiness Adaptability: Flexibility in adapting to changing situations or overcoming obstacles Achievement: The drive to improve performance to meet inner standards of excellence Initiative: Readiness to act and seize opportunities Optimism: Seeing the upside in events

Emotional Intelligence & Leadership Competencies
Social Competence:These capabilities determine how we manage relationships
Social Awareness
Empathy: Sensing others’ emotions, understanding their perspective, and taking active interest in their concerns Organizational awareness: Reading the currents, decision networks, and politics at the organization level Service: Recognizing and meeting follower, client, or customer needs

Emotional Intelligence & Leadership Competencies
Social Competence
Relationship Management
Inspirational leadership: Guiding and motivating with a compelling vision Influence: Wielding a range of tactics for persuasion] Developing others: Bolstering others’ abilities through feedback and guidance Change catalyst: Initiating, managing, and leading in a new direction Conflict management: Resolving disagreements Teamwork and collaboration: Cooperation and team building

Learning
A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Operant Conditioning: Behavior is a function of its consequences, hence desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment. Social Learning: People can learn through observation and direct experience. The influence of models is central to this theory, and the amount of a model’s influence is determined by four processes.

Social Learning Processes
Attentional processes. People only learn when they recognize and pay attention to its critical factors. We are most influenced by models who are attractive, repeatedly available, we think are important, or we see as similar to us. Retention Processes: A model’s influence is dependent on remembering the model’s action. Motor reproduction processes. A new observed behavior must be converted to doing so the person knows he or she can perform it. Reinforcement processes:Motivation to exhibit the modeled behavior is reinforced with incentives.

Sources of Stress
Personality Individual task demands: Stress created by job itself Individual role demands: Stress created by other’s expectations of you
Role Overload Role conflict Role ambiguity

Sources of Stress
Group demands: Stress created my coworkers and managers Organizational demands: Stress created the environment and culture Non-work demands: Stress created by forces outside the organization. Personal or Non-work Factors
Family Demands Personal Demands


								
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