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 opportunities at
 world events
                              The Global Environment Facility (GEF) is a unique
                              partnership among 181 countries, international institutions,
                              non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and the private sector.
                              As the financial mechanism of the United Nations Framework
                              Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), we address global
                              environmental issues while supporting national sustainable
                              development initiatives.

Monique Barbut                We began in 1991 and have evolved into the largest funder of projects to
CEO and Chairperson           improve the global environment. Over our history, the GEF has provided
Global Environment Facility   $9 billion in grants and leveraged $40 billion in co-financing for more than
                              2,600 projects in more than 165 countries. As part of our mission to act locally
                              for worldwide impact, we also have become one of the largest public sector
                              technology transfer mechanisms in the world.

                              Much of our work has been devoted to supporting the deployment and
                              diffusion of environmentally sound technologies that address climate change
                              mitigation and adaptation. Since the early 1990s, GEF activities on climate
                              change have centered on removing barriers to the widespread adoption of
                              energy efficiency, renewable energy, and sustainable transport technologies
                              and practices. The GEF has allocated $2.7 billion and leveraged an estimated
                              $17 billion in co-financing to support more than 45 climate-friendly technologies
                              in over 150 developing countries. The GEF has played a catalytic role in
                              supporting the transfer of technologies that are both climate-friendly and
                              country-driven in order to meet a wide variety of development priorities.

                              World events hosted by developing countries and transition economies—like
                              the World Expo 2010, the 2010 FIFA World Cup, the 2008 Summer and 2014
                              Winter Olympics, and the 2010 Commonwealth Games—present a unique
                              opportunity to showcase environmentally sound technologies and practices.
                              Building infrastructure to support an influx of millions of people in an
                              environmentally sound way encourages host cities to continue using new
                              technologies and practices to reduce emissions and use energy more
                              efficiently after the event is over. And demonstrating the use of these
                              technologies and practices in front of a global audience promotes adoption
                              by other cities and countries across the world.

                              The GEF has invested more than US$26 million and leveraged more than
                              US$376 million to develop, demonstrate, and implement environmentally
                              sound technologies and initiatives at world events. All of my colleagues at
                              the GEF and our partner institutions agree that this work is vitally important
                              to the sustainable development of developing countries and transition
                              economies. It is our hope that the following pages will help readers
                              gain a better understanding of our efforts in this area, and will inspire
                              new enthusiasm, new invention, and many more successes.

                                                  greening opportunities at world events . geF investMent eXperienCes   1
                                        World Events:
                                      A Unique Opportunity

2   the global environMent FaCility
Large-scale international exhibitions and sporting events convene diverse
groups of people from across the globe in one place to witness technological
innovation, experience other cultures, and cheer on the world’s best athletes.
Host cities spend years planning and preparing for such events, building
venues and accommodations, ensuring adequate transportation, and
expanding water and power systems. By encouraging tourism and investment
in infrastructure, these events can significantly stimulate the host nation’s
economy and provide opportunities to create environmentally positive
infrastructure that remains long after the events have concluded.

Developing countries and transition economies are taking steps to address
the challenges of hosting world events in a sustainable way. Between now
and 2030, these nations are expected to produce 80 percent of the world’s
economic growth, 76 percent of global energy-demand growth, and
64 percent of the world’s energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions
growth (IEA 2008). The preparation and execution of world events can
produce significant emissions in addition to these projected levels.

Including low-emission transportation, renewable energy technology, and
greening initiatives in the planning and execution of world events can substan-
tially reduce emissions and other potentially negative environmental impacts.
Demonstrations at world events also help host countries familiarize themselves
with the real-world benefits and logistics of using environmentally sound
technologies and practices, promoting feasibility to a large, captive audience.
These events can effectively serve as a launching point for facilitating transfer
and adoption in other parts of the country.

The GEF provides financial support to projects that help developing nations
and transition economies address the infrastructure needs of world events, as
well as the developing countries and transition economies hosting them, in a
sustainable way.

                                        greening opportunities at world events . geF investMent eXperienCes   3
                                      The GEF’s Role

4   the global environMent FaCility
With the goal of addressing climate change head on, the GEF has been at
the forefront of financing the transfer of environmentally sound technologies
to developing countries and transition economies for almost 20 years. World
events provide the unique opportunity to demonstrate projects focusing on
this goal to a national and even global audience, increasing the project’s
chance for success.

Developing countries and transition economies have the potential to substan-
tially increase the world’s carbon footprint, but also to significantly reduce this
potential as they grow. As an operating entity of the UNFCCC’s financial
mechanism, the GEF leverages funding from donor nations to support projects
in these nations related to biodiversity, climate change, international waters,
land degradation, the ozone layer, and persistent organic pollutants. These
projects benefit the global environment, linking local, national, and global
environmental challenges and promoting sustainable livelihoods.

The GEF receives funding from donor nations every four years through a
process called GEF Replenishment. The GEF leverages this funding by
investing in projects that include mature, internationally available,
and profitable technologies that have not been adopted previously
due to human, institutional, technological, policy, or financial barriers.

The GEF provides support via agencies such as the World Bank, the
International Finance Corporation (IFC), the United Nations Development
Program (UNDP), and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
in the form of investment grants, partial loan guarantees, and special-purpose
funds such as loan loss reserve funds, revolving funds, and equity funds.
The GEF’s support has been praised for combining investment funding
with technical assistance and for developing and introducing new financial
mechanisms and pilot projects, which often have overcome high transaction
costs and initial risks (Taylor et al. 2008).

To date, the GEF has invested more than US$26 million and leveraged more
than US$376 million in co-financing from partner agencies, national and local
governments, NGOs, and the private sector—an investment ratio of US$1 to
US$14—to develop, demonstrate, and implement environmentally sound
technologies and initiatives involving world events in developing countries and
transition economies. Ultimately, these efforts will have a lasting impact on the
host countries’ abilities to implement low-emission technologies and practices
into their infrastructures and the everyday lives of their citizens.

                                       greening opportunities at world events . geF investMent eXperienCes   5
                                      Figure 1: Profile of Gef-SuPPorted
                                      ProjectS at World eventS

    World Events
    The following pages provide a
    closer look at GEF-supported
    projects that demonstrate and
    promote environmentally sound
    technologies and practices at
    world events.

6   the global environMent FaCility
greening opportunities at world events . geF investMent eXperienCes   7
    2008 Summer olymPicS – BeijinG, china

    electric & fuel cell BuSeS

    China’s economic growth has sparked an increase in automotive
                                                                                             Implementing Agency
    fleets. Vehicle sales in China grew from 2.4 million in 2001 to 5.6                      UNDP
    million in 2005 and 7.2 million in 2006 (IPCC 2007). Globally,
                                                                                             GEF Funding
    the transport sector’s emissions are growing rapidly, and                                US$6,815,000
    reached 6.4 Gt CO2 emissions in 2006—23 percent of the
                                                                                             Leveraged Funding
    world’s energy-related CO2 emissions (IEA 2008).                                         US$22,415,000

                                                                                             Emissions Avoided (expected)
                                                                                             765 t CO2

                                                                                              Potential Benefits
    To help encourage the use of lower-emission public          vehicles on the streets
                                                                                              Accelerates development and
    transportation, the GEF leveraged funding for a project     within the next three         deployment of clean vehicle
    that demonstrated electric buses powered solely by lithi-   to four years                 technologies in China
    um-ion (Li-ion) batteries at the Beijing Olympics. These    (Rutkowski 2009). In          Improves air quality overall
    buses use a rechargeable lithium-ion battery to power an    doing so, these cities
    electric motor and motor controller, rather than a gaso-    will contribute toward
    line or diesel engine, resulting in minimal emissions.      the national goal of having 10 percent of China’s domestic
                                                                vehicles using alternative fuel by 2012 (Rutkowski 2009). In
    The Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau       this regard, the demonstration of FCB began in Beijing
    demonstrated the feasibility of using 50 of these buses     by the procurement and operation of 6 FCB, 3 financed
    at the Olympics (4 directly financed by the GEF) and con-   by the GEF and 3 cofinanced by partners. This pilot was
    ducted an outreach program to encourage the accelera-       then extended for the Shanghai World EXPO 2010.
    tion of the development and deployment
    of clean vehicle technologies throughout China. The out-
    reach program also aimed to raise the awareness of ath-
    letes, the media, and the general public about global
    environmental issues and how individuals can help
    reduce their negative impact on the environment.

    Today, Beijing continues to use lithium-ion
    buses to transport passengers. China
    has also launched a “10 city, 1,000
    buses” initiative to encourage the
    adoption and development of
    alternative fuel buses across the country.
    This initiative calls for more than 10 of
    China’s large cities, including Shanghai,
    Beijing, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Wuhan
    and Zhuzhou, to put 1,000 alternative fuel

8   the global environMent FaCility
                                                                                           World exPo 2010 – ShanGhai, china

                                                          fuel cell BuSeS & exhiBit

                                           Since 1851, the World Exposition, or World’s Fair, has brought
  Implementing Agency
  UNDP                                     together countries from around the globe to showcase cultural
                                           experience and demonstrate technological innovation. Shanghai is
  GEF Funding US$5,767,000
                                           serving as the first developing country to host a registered World
  Leveraged Funding                        Exposition by hosting Expo 2010 with the theme “Better City, Better
                                           Life.” During the 184 days of the Expo, 70 million visitors from 192
  Emissions Avoided (estimated)            countries are expected to visit the many exhibition pavilions and
  245 t CO2 based on 6 fuel cell
                                           events that explore the full potential of urban life in the 21st century.

  Potential Co-Benefits
  Stimulates technology transfer
  of fuel cell buses across China             In China, rapid
   Avoids 9.3 Mt CO2 per year if 30           growth has been
   percent of Chinese buses in 2030           accompanied by
   are converted to fuel cell buses           accelerated
                                              The average
annual rate of population growth in urban areas during the
1990s (2.9 percent per year) was over seven times the rate
in rural areas; today, slightly more than 30 percent of
Chinese residents live in cities. This rapid urbanization has
increased demand for public transport services—the
demand for buses in China is expected to grow at an aver-
age rate of 5 percent per year between 2000 and 2030, to
108,000 buses in 2030. This growth has the potential to
increase emissions, as lower-emission alternatives are cost-
prohibitive to cities in China’s transitioning economy.
                                                                 zero-emission buses shuttling visitors along the main
The GEF leveraged funding for a project to catalyze              bus route at the Expo. These green, hi-tech, and
the cost reduction and encourage the adoption of                 energy-efficient vehicles serve as vivid examples
energy-efficient fuel cell buses for public transit in           of how cities can become greener, better cities that
Chinese cities. This pilot project, which began with             provide better lives for their citizens. This demonstration
a demonstration at the Olympics in Beijing, is entering          and other sustainable transport solutions are also being
its second demonstration phase at the World Expo                 showcased in a GEF exhibit at the Expo called “The
in Shanghai.                                                     Green Line,” which displays information on the GEF’s
                                                                 work in climate change. The fuel cell bus demonstration
As a part of this phase of the project, six hydrogen-            project will be multiplied in additional Chinese cities in
powered fuel cell buses are serving the fleet of                 an effort to mainstream sustainable transport.

                                                                greening opportunities at world events . geF investMent eXperienCes   9
     2010 fifa World cuP – South africa

     SuStainaBle PuBlic tranSPortation

     Occurring every four years since 1930, the World Cup brings 32
                                                                                                Implementing Agency
     teams from the Fédération Internationale de Football Association                           UNDP
     (FIFA) and fans from around the world to one host nation for a
                                                                                                GEF Funding
     month-long tournament. South Africa is hosting the 2010 World                              US$10,973,000
     Cup and is anticipating 3 million fans to attend matches at
                                                                                                Leveraged Funding
     venues in nine different cities.                                                           US$328,494,000

                                                                                                Emissions Avoided (estimated)
     The 2010 FIFA World Cup has the largest estimated carbon foot-                             423 kt CO2 over a 10-year period
     print of any major event that has a goal to be climate neutral—an
                                                                                                Potential Benefits
     estimated 0.9 Mt CO2, with an additional 1.9 Mt CO2 and 0.34
                                                                                                If replicated in other South
     Mt CO2 emitted by international travel and accommodation,                                  African metroplitan areas,
     respectively (Norad 2009). The estimated 0.9 Mt CO2 is more                                reduces 2 Mt CO2e emissions
                                                                                                indirectly over a 10-year period
     than eight times the estimated footprint of the 2006 World Cup
     in Germany, due in large part to the greater distances between                             Improves energy-efficient
                                                                                                public transport for South
     matches and the lack of high-speed light rails to transport spec-                          African citizens of all
     tators from venue to venue (Norad 2009). These issues result in                            economic backgrounds
     greater reliance on planes, passenger cars, or small buses, which
     produce higher levels of emissions.

     In South Africa, the deteriorating condition of public          improvements in urban transport service and systems,
     transportation systems has created a powerful momentum          improvements in coordinated and integrated transport
     for private car use by the middle- and higher-income classes.   planning, and strengthen technical capacity within the
     This results in low-income classes being subjected to           South African transport sector.
     unreliable, unsafe public transportation while middle-
     and higher-income classes increase their use of private         The project aims to use the 2010 FIFA World Cup
     vehicles and high-carbon fuels, resulting in rapidly            planning window as a catalyst for change to achieve
     increasing greenhouse gas emissions from the transport          fundamental, appropriate improvements to the South
     sector in South Africa.                                         African public transport and land-use planning system.
                                                                     Expected results include implemented transport system
     Recognizing these issues and the fundamental role of a          improvements in seven venue cities—Johannesburg,
     smoothly functioning transportation system for the 2010         Nelson Mandela Bay, Mbombela, Polokwane,
     World Cup, the GEF leveraged funding to help improve            Mangaung, Rustenburg, and Cape Town—and
     and promote environmentally sound public transport in           strengthened capacity and increased
     South Africa. This project, implemented by the South            knowledge to plan, manage, and implement
     African Department of Transport, includes support for           sustainable transportation options.

10   the global environMent FaCility
                                                                                            2010 fifa World cuP – South africa

                                                   national GreeninG ProGram

                                                                                           Implementing Agency

                                                                                           GEF Funding

                                                                                           Leveraged Funding

                                                                                           Potential Benefits
                                                                                           Reduces energy consumption
                                                                                           near stadiums by 15 percent

                                                                                           Encourages 30 percent of spec-
                                                                                           tators in six host cities to adopt
                                                                                           Green Passport objectives

                                                                                           Increases use of energy-efficient
                                                                                           and other environmentally sound
                                                                                           technologies across South Africa

In collaboration with the Government of South Africa,             both solar-powered lights near stadia and other
the United Nations Environment Programme the 2010                 energy-efficient technologies. Visitors will also be
             FIFA Local Organizing Committee (LOC), the           encouraged to adopt Green Passport objectives, which
                GEF leveraged funding to assist in the            encourage travelers to make environmentally responsible
                  promotion of the significance of using          decisions in order to reduce their ecological footprints.
                  energy-efficient and low carbon emission        In addition, this project supports an assessment of best
                 technologies and practices to the World          practices and carbon crediting options to help green
                 Cup audience, in order to address global         large sporting events in the future.
             actions at the local level. This effort is also a
             part of the host cities’ commitment to               These efforts will inform decision-makers, the general
             achieving greening objectives—with the               public, and international tourists about the ways in which
             intention to support initiatives at the World        they can reduce their environmental footprint. As a
             Cup with a focus more specifically on, waste         direct impact, the GEF project aims to use technology
             minimization, carbon emissions reduction,            demonstrations to reduce energy consumption near
            energy efficiency, and water conservation.            World Cup stadia and to encourage spectators in
                                                                  six host cities to adopt Green Passport objectives.
                 The GEF-supported project involves a             Surveys will be conducted by environmental volunteers
                     number of awareness-raising activi-          in order to determine extent of awareness raising and
                        ties which will be show-cased             behavior changes. Overall, the project intends to support
                          during June-July 2010. These            an increase in the awareness of environmentally sound
                           include demonstrations of              technologies and practices across South Africa.

                                                                 greening opportunities at world events . geF investMent eXperienCes   11
     2010 commonWealth GameS – delhi, india

     loW-carBon camPaiGn

     Starting in October and running for two weeks, the 2010
                                                                                               Implementing Agency
     Commonwealth Games will be held in Delhi. Several million                                 UNDP
     people are expected to attend the largest multi-sport event
                                                                                               GEF Funding
     conducted to date in India, with even more observing through                              US$950,000
     other media sources. Organizers of the games are committed
                                                                                               Leveraged Funding
     to hosting a sustainable event, which included taking the                                 US$2,110,000
     environment into consideration when constructing and renovating
                                                                                               Emissions Avoided (estimated)
     venues. Building the environmentally sound Thyagaraj Stadium                              15,000 kt CO2 (planting project)
     is one of the many reasons that the Delhi games has been
                                                                                               Potential Benefits
     recognized as the first-ever “Green Commonwealth Games.”
                                                                                               Increases the use of low-carbon
                                                                                               practices through citizen educa-
                                                                                               tion and empowerment

                                                                  citizens, athletes, and visitors to adopt environmentally
                                                                  sound technologies and practices. This low-carbon
                                                                  campaign, developed by the Commonwealth Games
                                                                  Organizing Committee, the Government of NCT Delhi, the
                                                                  Ministry of Environment and Forests, and the Government of
                                                                  India, will be launched at the 2010 Commonwealth Games.

                                                                  One of the projects supported by the campaign is a
                                                                  planting program, in which residents will receive support to
                                                                  plant in their communities. Overall, the campaign aims to
                                                                  promote low-carbon practices to the residents, athletes,
                                                                  visitors, and media who will attend the 2010 Commonwealth
                                                                  Games. Using the venue as a way to reach a large
                                                                  audience, organizers expect that 10 planting programs
                                                                  will be replicated across India and that five cities will
     India currently emits around 1.5 billion tonnes of CO2 per   implement low-carbon activities             and programs.
     year—a figure expected to increase by an average 2.1         It is also anticipated that
     percent per year through 2030 (Boden, Marland, and           Commonwealth Game par-
     Andres 2009; EIA 2009). With a population growing to         ticipants, Delhi residents, and
     new heights—over 1.4 billion people to date—encouraging      visitors will begin to take
     public adoption of affordable, lower-emission technologies   steps to reduce their
     and practices has proven difficult.                          personal carbon
                                                                  footprints as a direct
     To help reduce India’s potential emissions, the GEF          result of this
     leveraged funding for the campaign to help encourage         outreach.

12   the global environMent FaCility
                                                                                                Winter olymPicS – Sochi, ruSSia

                                       GreeninG StrateGy & action Plan

                                             An estimated 1.2 million people will attend the Sochi XXII
  Implementing Agency
  UNDP                                       Winter Olympics in February 2014 to watch the world’s best
                                             winter athletes compete for gold. To prepare for the Olympics,
  GEF Funding
  US$955,000                                 Sochi is constructing 11 athletic venues divided into two
                                             clusters along the coastline and in the mountains. The city is
  Leveraged Funding
  US$2,000,000                               also building a new railway to travel the 48 km between the
                                             venue clusters and is planning to add other methods of
  Potential Benefits
  Creates a carbon-neutral
                                             transportation, new power infrastructure, and accommodations.
  Olympic Games

Since 1992, total CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use in
Russia have dropped 24.6 percent to 1.4 billion tonnes
of CO2 in 2000 and up to 1.78 in 2007, but it is still the
third-largest emitting country in the world (Boden,
Marland, and Andres 2009). Emissions from gas consump-
tion represent the largest fraction of Russia’s emissions
(42 percent) followed by oil (39 percent) and then coal
consumption emissions make up 11 percent (Boden,
Marland, and Andres 2009) .

The new construction and infrastructure improvements
taking place in Sochi in preparation for the Olympics
present a substantial opportunity for Russia to reduce its
emissions output. With support from the GEF, the Ministry          carbon-neutral event and unleash the potential for green-
of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian                house gas emissions reduction during the games.
Federation will produce a Greening Strategy and Action
                Plan for the 2014 Olympics. The plan will          The project will include the development of greening
                  factor in climate change initiatives early in    recommendations and action plans for six sectors:
                   the planning process to help set up a           green building standards, energy efficiency and power
                                                                   planning, renewable energy technologies, low-carbon
                                                                   transport, carbon offsets, and public awareness and
                                                                        advocacy. The action plans will be implemented during
                                                                         the planning phase and during the event to help ensure
                                                                         a carbon-neutral 2014 Winter Olympics and encourage
                                                                      the future transfer of this technology to other cities
                                                                   throughout Russia.

                                                                  greening opportunities at world events . geF investMent eXperienCes   13
                                       Looking Ahead

14   the global environMent FaCility
As the GEF enters its fifth funding replenishment phase, the
opportunities to encourage the adoption of environmentally
sound technologies and practices in developing countries and
transition economies have never been greater. World events serve
as opportunities to showcase and raise awareness about these
advances. But the true greenhouse gas emission mitigation potential
lies in a country’s ability to incorporate these technologies into its
infrastructures in the long term.

An important component to ensuring successful adoption is careful
upstream planning. The transportation project that is taking place at
the 2010 World Cup was approved several years ahead of the event,
leaving ample time to effectively green the event in a sustainable
way that will positively impact cities and citizens in South Africa.
The project in place for the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi will also
provide the country with time to cure the investment plan and green
the city’s infrastructure in a lasting way.

The GEF has learned that by establishing projects like these well
in advance and taking the time to plan, world events can act as
a successful jumping-off point for technology adoption and transfer,
putting in place the technologies and practices that can have a
substantial, positive impact on climate change and the economies
of developing nations.

To date, the GEF has allocated more than US$26 million and
leveraged more than US$376 million to develop, demonstrate,
and implement environmentally sound technologies and initiatives
for world events in developing countries. This massive leverage of
funding provides the resources needed to incorporate advanced
technologies during infrastructure building, effectively achieving
more than any one organization could achieve alone.

Through its experience in funding world events, the GEF has
learned how to and will continue to use these international
gatherings to make lasting positive changes in developing
countries and transition economies—not only in physical
infrastructure, but in the millions of minds who have the power
to reduce the human contribution to climate change.

                                  greening opportunities at world events . geF investMent eXperienCes   15
     aBBreviationS and acronymS                              referenceS

     CO2             carbon dioxide                          Boden, T.A., G. Marland, and R.J. Andres. 2009. “Global,
                                                               Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions.” Oak
     CO2e            carbon dioxide equivalent                 Ridge: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak
                                                               Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy.
     GEF             global environment Facility
                                                     ; http://
     IEA             international energy agency     

     IFC             international Finance Corporation       EIA (Energy Information Administration). 2009. “Chapter 8:
                                                                Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions.”
     FIFA            Fédération internationale de Football
                                                                International Energy Outlook 2009. Washington, D.C.:
                                                                Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of
     LOC             local organizing Committee                 Energy.

     Mt              megatonne or mega metric ton            IEA (International Energy Agency). 2008. World Energy
                                                                Outlook 2008. Paris: IEA.
     MoU             Memorandum of understanding

     NGO             non-governmental organization           IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007.
                                                                IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. Working
     t               tonne or metric ton                        Group II Report “Mitigation of Climate Change.”

     UNFCCC          united nations Framework Convention
                     on Climate Change                       Norad (Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism
                                                               and the Norwegian Government). 2009. Feasibility
     UNDP            united nations development                Study for a Carbon Neutral 2010 FIFA World Cup in
                     programme                                 South Africa. Stockholm: Norad. http://www.norway.
     UNEP            united nations environment                E7D958/114457/FeasibilityStudyforaCarbonNeutral

                                                             Rutkowski, Ryan. 2009. “China Electrifies Urban
                                                                Transport.” Asia Times Online. November 4, 2009.

                                                             Taylor, R.P., C. Govindarajalu, J. Levin, A.S. Meyer, and W.
                                                                A. Ward. 2008. Financing Energy Efficiency: Lessons
                                                                from Brazil, China, India, and Beyond. Washington,
                                                                DC: The World Bank.

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                                                     ABOUT THE GEF

                                                     The Global Environment Facility unites 181 member governments—in
                                                     partnership with international institutions, nongovernmental organizations,
                                                     and the private sector—to address global environmental issues. As an
                                                     independent financial organization, the GEF provides grants to developing
                                                     countries and countries with economies in transition for projects related to
                                                     biodiversity, climate change, international waters, land degradation, the
                                                     ozone layer, and persistent organic pollutants. These projects benefit the
                                                     global environment, linking local, national, and global environmental
                                                     challenges and promoting sustainable livelihoods.

                                                     Established in 1991, the GEF is currently the largest funder of projects to
                                                     improve the global environment. The GEF has allocated $8.8 billion,
                                                     supplemented by more than $38.7 billion in cofinancing, for more than
                                                     2,400 projects in more than 165 developing countries and countries with
                                                     economies in transition. Through its Small Grants Programme, the GEF has
                                                     also made more than 10,000 small grants directly to nongovernmental and
                                                     community organizations.

                                                     The GEF partnership includes 10 Agencies: the UN Development
                                                     Programme, the UN Environment Programme, the World Bank, the UN
                                                     Food and Agriculture Organization, the UN Industrial Development
                                                     Organization, the African Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank,
                                                     the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development, the Inter-American
                                                     Development Bank, and the International Fund for Agricultural
                                                     Development. The Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel provides
                                                     technical and scientific advice on the GEF’s policies and project
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