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Sixth Grade Science.docx - Wikispaces

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  • pg 1
									                                                                  Sixth Grade Science
                                                                       Fall, 2009

 Iowa Core Curriculum – Life Science: Grades 6-8

         Understand and apply knowledge of the functions and interconnections of the major human body
         systems including the breakdown in structure or function that disease causes.
         The human organism has systems for digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, movement, control, and coordination,
         and for protection from disease. These systems interact with one another.

         Disease is a breakdown in structures or functions of an organism. Some diseases are the result of intrinsic failures of the system. Others
         are the result of damage by infection by other organisms.

         Understand and apply knowledge of the basic components and functions of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.

         Living systems at all levels of organization demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function. Important levels of organization
         for structure and function include cells, organs, tissues, organ systems, whole organisms, and ecosystems.

         Specialized cells perform specialized functions in multi-cellular organism. Groups of specialized cells cooperate to form a tissue, such as a
         muscle. Different tissues are, in turn, grouped together to form larger functional units, called organs. Each type of cell, tissue, and organ has a
         distinct structure and set of functions that serve the organism as a whole.

         Understand and apply knowledge of the interdependency of organisms, changes in environmental conditions, and survival of
         individuals and species.

         All organisms must be able to obtain and use resources, grow, reproduce, and maintain stable internal conditions while living in a constantly
         changing external environment.

         Regulation of an organism’s internal environment involves sensing the internal environment and changing physiological activities to keep
         conditions within the range required to survive.

         Behavior is one kind of response an organism can make to an internal or environmental stimulus. A behavioral response requires
         coordination and communication on many levels, including cells, organ systems, and whole organisms. Behavioral response is a set of actions
         determined in part by heredity and in part from experience.




Working Draft – 8.21.2009                                                                                                                             Page 1
                                                                Conceptual Hierarchy
                                                               Human Body Systems and
                                                                      Health

                     Students will understand that the human body’s systems work together to carry out essential functions for
                                                                    survival.


                                                                                                                           Structure &
                                            Constancy                                      Adaptation
                                                                                                                            Function




                                                                   Impact of Environment




                                                                                                                 Levels of Organization



                                                                                                                                          Organ Systems
                            Importance of
                            Homeostasis



                                                   Pathology




                                                                                             Response


                                                                                                        Choice




Working Draft – 8.21.2009                                                                                                                                 Page 2
  Unit 1: The Human Body

Students will understand that the human body’s systems work together to carry out essential functions for survival.

Essential Concepts:
Constancy
Adaptation
Structure/Function
Essential        Students will know:             Students will be able to:         Assessments/ Evidence of   Print, Technology, and Community
Questions                                                                          Student Understanding      Resources*

1.1 Organization of the Human Body
How does        Relationship between the         Describe the relationship                                    HRW Book D, Chapter 1.1
organization    levels of organization in the    between cells, tissues, organs,
increase        human body (cells, tissues,      organ systems, and the                                       http://dmpsscience.wikispaces.com/Sixth+Grade+-
                                                                                                              +Human+Body+Systems+%26+Health+Discussions
efficiency?     organs, organ systems, etc)      human body.


1.2 Structure and Support in the Human Body
How could it be Structures and Functions of      Describe how bones and                                       HRW Book D, Chapter 1.2
possible to live Skeletal and Muscular Systems   muscles work together to                                     HRW Book D, Chapter 1.3
without bones?            Bones and bone         provide structure and
Muscles?                  marrow                 movement.                                                    National Institute of Health Supplement (see
                          Muscles                                                                             website)
                          Joints                 Identify the role of muscles in                              http://www.innerbody.com/
                                                 digestive, circulatory,
                                                 respiratory and excretory                                    http://science-
                                                                                                              education.nih.gov/customers.nsf/MSBone.htm
                                                 functions.
                                                                                                              http://dmpsscience.wikispaces.com/Sixth+Grade+-
                                                 Identify the role of bone                                    +Human+Body+Systems+%26+Health+Discussions
                                                 marrow.

1.3 Transport within the Human Body
                Structures and Functions of      Identify the basic structures                                HRW Book D, Chapter 2.1
                the Circulatory System:          and functions of the                                         HRW Book D, Chapter 2.2
                         Heart (atria,           circulatory system.
                         ventricles, aorta,                                                                   http://www.innerbody.com/
                                                                                                              http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/heart/
                         valves)                 Identify the four parts of
                         Veins                   blood and their specific roles.                              http://dmpsscience.wikispaces.com/Sixth+Grade+-


Working Draft – 8.21.2009                                                                                                                                   Page 3
                         Arteries                                                  +Human+Body+Systems+%26+Health+Discussions
                         Capillaries
                         Blood
1.4 Respiration
                  Structures and Functions of     Identify the basic structures    HRW Book D, Chapter 2.4
                  the Respiratory System:         and functions of the
                          Lungs                   respiratory system.              http://www.innerbody.com/
                          Trachea
                                                                                   http://dmpsscience.wikispaces.com/Sixth+Grade+-
                          Bronchi                                                  +Human+Body+Systems+%26+Health+Discussions
                          Alveoli and gas
                          exchange
                          Pulmonary circulation

1.5 Food Digestion & Transport
                Structures and Functions of       Identify the basic structures,   HRW Book D, Chapter 3.1
Why do we eat   the Digestive System:             functions, and processes of      http://www.innerbody.com/
food?                   Mouth (teeth, tongue,     the digestive system.
                                                                                   http://dmpsscience.wikispaces.com/Sixth+Grade+-
                        saliva)                                                    +Human+Body+Systems+%26+Health+Discussions
Why do you              Esophagus
swallow                 Stomach
aspirin to get          Small Intestine
rid of a                Liver & Gall Bladder
headache?               Large Intestine
                        Rectum
                        Anus

1.6 Coordination and Response
How does        Structures and Functions of       Identify the basic structures    HRW Book D, Chapter 4.1
coordination    the Nervous System                and functions of the nervous     HRW Book D, Chapter 4.2
increase                Brain (cerebellum,        system.
efficiency?             cerebrum, brain stem)                                      National Institute of Health Supplements
or                      Spinal Cord               Describe how your five           (see websites)
How does                Nerves (role in           senses collect and interpret     http://www.innerbody.com/
                                                                                   http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih3/he
coordination of         nervous system)           stimuli.
                                                                                   aring/default.htm
actions         Senses and Sensory Responses                                       http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih4/se
increase the                                      Distinguish between              lf/default.htm
efficiency of                                     voluntary and reflexive          http://science-
                                                                                   education.nih.gov/customers.nsf/MSMental
response?                                         responses to stimuli.
                                                                                   http://dmpsscience.wikispaces.com/Sixth+Grade+-
                                                                                   +Human+Body+Systems+%26+Health+Discussions

1.7 Adolescent Development


Working Draft – 8.21.2009                                                                                                         Page 4
How does the     Effect of hormones on human       Identify the basic structures   HRW Book D, Chapter 5.2
human body       body – puberty                    and functions of the male and   HRW Book D, Chapter 5.3
change to             Structures and              female reproductive systems     http://www.innerbody.com/
prepare for                functions of the                                        Link to opt. out slip needed here or slip to participate
reproduction?              Reproductive System     Explain physical, social and    (active)
                               o Male              cognitive changes that occur
                                   Structures      during human puberty
                                                                                   http://dmpsscience.wikispaces.com/Sixth+Grade+-
                               o Female                                            +Human+Body+Systems+%26+Health+Discussions
                                   Structures

                Sex Cells – Sperm & Egg
1.8 Disease and Defense
How do the      Disease and the Human Body         Explain the difference          HRW Book D, Chapter 6.1
choices I make           Defense Mechanisms        between infectious and          HRW Book D, Chapter 6.2
impact my                (blood, skin, saliva,     noninfectious diseases
health?                  mucus, etc)                                               National Institute of Health Supplement (see
                         Role of blood             Evaluate conscious and          website)
How could                 Immunity                unconscious response
                                                                                   http://science-
getting sick on           Gas and nutrient        mechanisms to infectious
                                                                                   education.nih.gov/customers.nsf/HSDiseases.htm
occasion                     transport             disease.                        This is actually a high school NIH supplement, but can
actually be               Clotting                                                be modified for middle school use.
good for me in           Infectious vs. Non-
                                                                                   http://dmpsscience.wikispaces.com/Sixth+Grade+-
the long term?           infectious diseases                                       +Human+Body+Systems+%26+Health+Discussions
1.9 Healthy Living
How do the       Health & Nutrition                Explain the effects of good     HRW Book D, Chapter 7.1
choices I make           Nutritional choices –     and poor nutritional choices    HRW Book D, Chapter 7.2
impact my                effects of poor           on the human body’s systems     HRW Book D, Chapter 7.3
health?                  nutrition
                         Alcohol, illegal drugs,   Explain the hazards of          National Institute of Health Supplements
How will                 inhalants, prescription   tobacco, marijuana,             (see websites)
choices I make           drugs, and tobacco –      methamphetamine, cocaine,       http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih3/al
                                                                                   cohol/default.htm
regarding                effects                   hallucinogens, and inhalents.
                                                                                   http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih4/en
nutrition and                                                                      ergy/default.htm
personal                                           Explain the hazards of
wellness need                                      abusing alcohol, legal          http://dmpsscience.wikispaces.com/Sixth+Grade+-
                                                                                   +Human+Body+Systems+%26+Health+Discussions
to change as I                                     stimulants, and prescription
age?                                               narcotics.
                                                                                   Employee/Family Resource Center
What is more                                       Explain the personal and        (515) 471-2398
important:                                         societal hazards of
nutrition or                                       improperly using antibiotics.
taste?

Working Draft – 8.21.2009                                                                                                                Page 5
End of Unit                                                                        Human Body Performance
                                                                                   Assessment^
^Human Body Performance Assessment will be available as an end-of-unit assessment. This will be a pilot in 2009-10 for teachers who choose to administer it, and will
replace the 6th grade CRT.



* In column 5 (“Print, Technology, and Community Resources”), references to particular textbooks/chapters/sections/pages do NOT signify that those
resources must be used by teachers or their students. As with all the other suggested resources, the textbook references are listed to assist teachers in
finding, arranging and utilizing any manner and variety of materials for instructional purposes. It is every teacher’s mission to have all students learn all
of the learning goals listed in column 2 (“Students will know”) and also column 3, (“Students will be able to”) of this document. So long as that mission
is accomplished in ways that are rigorous and relevant to students, resulting in enduring skills and understanding, the materials to be used are a matter
of individual choice.

Recommended Texts:
     HRW Book D: Human Body Systems and Health, 2005


Investigative Questions that students can explore/answer using experimental techniques:
(an evolving list of the kinds of questions that can students explore—using methods of science—that directly support how students learn the skills and understandings
of this unit)
        o
        o
        o
        o




Working Draft – 8.21.2009                                                                                                                                           Page 6
Iowa Core Curriculum – Physical Science: Grades 6-8

       Understand and apply knowledge of:
           elements, compounds, mixtures, and solutions based on the nature of their physical and chemical properties
           physical and chemical changes and their relationship to the conservation of matter and energy

       A substance has characteristic properties, such as density, a boiling point, and solubility, all of which are independent of the amount of the
       sample. A mixture of substances often can be separated into the original substances using one or more of the characteristic properties.

       Substances react chemically in characteristic ways with other substances to form new substances (compounds) with different characteristic
       properties. In chemical reactions, the total mass is conserved. Substances often are placed in categories or groups if they react in similar ways;
       metals are an example of such a group.

       Chemical elements do not break down during normal laboratory reactions involving such treatments as heating, exposure to electric current, or
       reaction with acids. There are more than 100 known elements that combine in a multitude of ways to produce compounds, which account for the
       living and nonliving substances that we encounter.

       Understand and apply knowledge of forms of energy and energy transfer.

       Heat moves in predictable ways, flowing from warmer objects to cooler ones, until both reach the same temperature.




Working Draft – 8.21.2009                                                                                                                               Page 7
                                                                                   Conceptual Hierarchy
                                                                              Matter & Energy in Physical Changes

                      Students will understand that matter is made up of atoms that can exist in different forms with different
                                                                   properties.


                                               Constancy                                        Interaction                          Predictability




                                                                                                                                   Properties of Matter



                                                                                                                                                          Chemical & Physical
                                                                                         Properties of Matter
                                                       Properties of Matter
                            Atomic Structure




                                                                                                                Phases of Matter




                                                                                                                                                          Changes
Working Draft – 8.21.2009                                                                                                                                                       Page 8
Unit 2: Matter & Energy in Physical Changes

Students will understand that matter is made up of atoms that can exist in different forms and with different properties.

Essential Concepts:
Constancy
Interaction
Predictability
Essential        Students will know:               Students will be able to:      Assessments/ evidence of   Print, Technology, and Community
Questions                                                                         student understanding      Resources*

2.1 Properties of Materials
How are          All substances have physical      Differentiate between                                     HRW Book K, Chapter 1.1
physical         properties                        characteristic properties of                              HRW Book K, Chapter 1.2
properties                                         various substances.                                       HRW Book K, Chapter 1.3
used to group    A chemical change results in a
                                                                                                             http://dmpsscience.wikispaces.com/Sixth+Grade+-
items or         new substance with new            Distinguish between a
                                                                                                             +Introduction+to+Matter+Discussions
predict their    properties                        physical and a chemical
behavior?                                          change
2.2 Phases of Matter
How are          On earth, matter exists           Explain the three familiar                                HRW Book K, Chapter 2.1
physical         primarily in three phases         phases of matter using the                                HRW Book K, Chapter 2.3
properties       (solid, liquid, and gas)          particle model
                                                                                                             http://dmpsscience.wikispaces.com/Sixth+Grade+-
used to group
                                                                                                             +Introduction+to+Matter+Discussions
items or         Particle model (proximity and
predict their    motion of particles) can be
behavior?        used to explain states of
                 matter
                                                   Identify the various
                 Transformations between           transformations between
                 phases of matter (melting,        phases of matter including
                 freezing, evaporation,            the energy change required
                 condensation, sublimation,        (endothermic, exothermic)
                 deposition) involve thermal
                 (heat) energy transfer
                 between warmer and colder
                 substances.

                 When substances get warmer,
                 their particles move faster and
                 generally spreads out, this

Working Draft – 8.21.2009                                                                                                                                      Page 9
                 lowers the density of the
                 substance.


                Gases and liquids that are
                denser tend to sink, whereas
                gases and liquids that are less
                dense tend to rise.
2.3 Atomic Structure
How is the      Matter is made of atoms that      Summarize basic atomic                                      HRW Book K, Chapter 4.1
structure of a  are in constant motion (see       structure                                                   HRW Book K, Chapter 4.2
particular atom particle model above)                                                                         HRW Book K, Chapter 5.1
related to its
function?       Basic atomic structure                                                                        http://dmpsscience.wikispaces.com/Sixth+Grade+-
                                                                                                              +Introduction+to+Matter+Discussions
                (protons and neutrons of the
                nucleus, and electrons in the
                electron cloud)

2.4 Structure of Matter
How are          Each individual kind of atom,    Describe the characteristics                                HRW Book K, Chapter 3.1
physical         or element, is a pure            of elements and give                                        HRW Book K, Chapter 3.2
properties       substance that cannot be         examples                                                    HRW Book K, Chapter 3.3
used to group    separated into simpler
items or         substances through physical or                                                               http://dmpsscience.wikispaces.com/Sixth+Grade+-
                                                                                                              +Introduction+to+Matter+Discussions
predict their    chemical means
behavior?
                 Compounds are pure               Explain how elements make
                 substances made up of two or     up compounds
                 more elements that are
                 chemically combined              Describe the properties and
                                                  characteristics of a few
                                                  examples of common
                                                  compounds

                 Mixtures are combinations of     Describe the properties of
                 two or more substances that      mixtures and methods for
                 are not chemically combined      separating them
                 and can be separated back
                 apart

* In column 5 (“Print, Technology, and Community Resources”), references to particular textbooks/chapters/sections/pages do NOT signify that those
resources must be used by teachers or their students. As with all the other suggested resources, the textbook references are listed to assist teachers in
Working Draft – 8.21.2009                                                                                                                                   Page 10
finding, arranging and utilizing any manner and variety of materials for instructional purposes. It is every teacher’s mission to have all students learn all
of the learning goals listed in column 2 (“Students will know”) and also column 3, (“Students will be able to”) of this document. So long as that mission
is accomplished in ways that are rigorous and relevant to students, resulting in enduring skills and understanding, the materials to be used are a matter
of individual choice.



Recommended Texts:
     HRW Book K: Introduction to Matter, 2005



Investigative Questions that students can explore/answer using experimental techniques:
(an evolving list of the kinds of questions that can students explore—using methods of science—that directly support how students learn the skills and understandings
of this unit)
        o
        o
        o
        o




Working Draft – 8.21.2009                                                                                                                                     Page 11
Iowa Core Curriculum – Physical Science: Grades 6-8

       Understand and apply knowledge of forms of energy and energy transfer.

       Heat moves in predictable ways, flowing from warmer objects to cooler ones, until both reach the same temperature.

       The sun is a major source of energy for changes on the earth’s surface. The sun loses energy by emitting light. A tiny fraction of that light reaches
       the earth, transferring energy from the sun to the earth.

Iowa Core Curriculum – Earth & Space Science: Grades 6-8

       Understand and apply knowledge of the water cycle, including consideration of events that impact groundwater quality.

       Water, which covers the majority of the earth’s surface, circulates through the crust, oceans, and atmosphere in what is known as the “water
       cycle.” Water evaporates from the earth’s surface, rises and cools as it rises to higher elevations, condenses as rain or snow, and falls to the
       surface where it collects in lakes, oceans, soil and in soil and rocks underground.

       Understand and apply knowledge of the earth’s atmospheric properties and how they influence weather and climate.

       The atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gasses that include water vapor. The atmosphere has different properties at different
       elevations.

       Global patterns of atmospheric movement influence local weather. Oceans have a major effect on climate because water in the oceans holds a
       large amount of heat.

       Clouds, formed by the condensation of water vapor, affect weather and climate.




Working Draft – 8.21.2009                                                                                                                            Page 12
                                                                                Conceptual Hierarchy
                                                                                  Weather & Climate

                                            Students will understand that the earth’s atmosphere and humans impact our weather.



                                             Interaction                                                        Predictability




                                                                                                                          Climate Change
                                                 Climate Change
                            Heat Transfer




                                                                                                         Water Cycle
                                                                  Atmospheric
                                                                  Properties




Working Draft – 8.21.2009                                                                                                                  Page 13
Unit 3: Weather & Climate

Students will understand the earth’s atmosphere and how humans impact our climate.

Essential Concepts:
Interaction
Predictability
Essential       Students will know:              Students will be able to:          Assessments/ evidence of   Print, Technology, and Community
Questions                                                                           student understanding      Resources*
3.1 Weather vs. Climate
How is          The difference between           Contrast weather and climate                                  HRW Book I, Chapter 3.1
weather         weather and climate
different from                                                                                                 http://dmpsscience.wikispaces.com/Sixth+Grade+-
                                                                                                               +Weather+%26+Climate+Discussions
climate?
3.2 The Atmosphere
               The properties of the             Distinguish between the                                       HRW Book I, Chapter 1.1
               atmosphere and how these          characteristic properties of the                              HRW Book I, Chapter 1.2
               affect weather & climate:         various levels of the                                         HRW Book I, Chapter 2.2
                The atmosphere is a             atmosphere                                                    HRW Book I, Chapter 2.3
                    mixture of gases. The
                    earth’s gravity pulls the    Summarize the effects of the
                    atmosphere inward            atmosphere on weather and                                     http://dmpsscience.wikispaces.com/Sixth+Grade+-
                                                                                                               +Weather+%26+Climate+Discussions
                    resulting in air pressure.   climate
                Thermal energy (heat)
                    moves from warmer
                    objects to cooler ones via
                    conduction, radiation, or
                    convection.
                The sun is a major source
                    of energy for changes on
                    the earth’s surface. The
                    sun loses energy by
                    emitting light. A tiny
                    fraction of that light
                    reaches the earth,
                    transferring energy from
                    the sun to the earth.
                Solar radiation from the
                    sun heats the earth’s land
                    masses, oceans, and
                    (indirectly) the
Working Draft – 8.21.2009                                                                                                                                    Page 14
                      atmosphere.

                    When substances get
                     warmer, their particles
                     move faster and generally
                     spread out, which lowers
                     the density of the
                     substance.
                 Gases and liquids that are
                     denser tend to sink,
                     whereas gases and liquids
                     that are less dense tend to
                     rise.
3.3 Heat and Climate
                The effect of heat on global                                             HRW Book I, Chapter 1.2
                climate, including the influence
                of earth’s oceans:
                 Solar radiation from the                                               http://dmpsscience.wikispaces.com/Sixth+Grade+-
                                                                                         +Weather+%26+Climate+Discussions
                     sun heats the earth’s land
                     masses, ocean, and
                     (indirectly) the
                     atmosphere                      Describe the process of heat
                 Thermal energy (heat)              transfer between objects
                     moves from warmer
                     objects to cooler ones via
                     conduction, radiation, or
                     convection                      Describe the effect that the tilt
                 The earth’s axis is tilted         of the earth’s axis has on
                     relative to its orbit around    determining seasonal weather
                     the sun so the sun’s light is
                     more intense at different
                     latitudes at different times
                     of the year. This causes
                     seasonal variations in
                     temperature.
                 Regional differences in
                     air’s temperature,
                     humidity, and density
                     produce winds.
3.4 Water and Climate
                The role of the water cycle in                                           HRW Book I, Chapter 2.1
                global climate patterns:                                                 HRW Book I, Chapter 2.2

Working Draft – 8.21.2009                                                                                                              Page 15
                    Water covers a majority of   Explain the water cycle and its                               HRW Book I, Chapter 2.3
                     the earth and circulates     role in global climate patterns                               HRW Book I, Chapter 3.2
                     (water cycle).                                                                             HRW Book I, Chapter 3.3
                    Clouds form by               Explain how clouds are formed
                     condensation of water                                                                      http://dmpsscience.wikispaces.com/Sixth+Grade+-
                                                                                                                +Weather+%26+Climate+Discussions
                     vapor and have an effect     Summarize how clouds affect
                     on weather and climate.      weather and climate
                    Global patterns of
                     atmospheric movement
                     influence local weather
                    Oceans have a major effect
                     on climate because they
                     hold a lot of heat.
3.5 Climate Change
How is current Changes in climate including                                                                     HRW Book I, Chapter 1.4
climate change historical influences on                                                                         HRW Book I, Chapter 3.4
like or         climate, the greenhouse effect,
different from  and effects of air pollution:                                                                   http://dmpsscience.wikispaces.com/Sixth+Grade+-
                                                                                                                +Weather+%26+Climate+Discussions
historical       Weather and climate             Identify various factors that
records of          result from latitude,         have historically influenced
climate             altitude and from features    earth’s climate
change?             on the earth’s crust (i.e.
                    mountains, lakes, etc)        Define the greenhouse effect
                                                  and global climate changes

                    Earth’s climate is           Identify the major causes and
                     constantly changing.         effects of air pollution
                     Burning of fossil fuels in
                     the last century has         List ways to reduce air
                     increased the amount of      pollution
                     greenhouse gases in the
                     atmosphere which has
                     contributed to global
                     climate changes

* In column 5 (“Print, Technology, and Community Resources”), references to particular textbooks/chapters/sections/pages do NOT signify that those
resources must be used by teachers or their students. As with all the other suggested resources, the textbook references are listed to assist teachers in
finding, arranging and utilizing any manner and variety of materials for instructional purposes. It is every teacher’s mission to have all students learn all
of the learning goals listed in column 2 (“Students will know”) and also column 3, (“Students will be able to”) of this document. So long as that mission


Working Draft – 8.21.2009                                                                                                                                     Page 16
is accomplished in ways that are rigorous and relevant to students, resulting in enduring skills and understanding, the materials to be used are a matter
of individual choice.

Recommended Texts:
     HRW Book I: Weather and Climate, 2005




Investigative Questions that students can explore/answer using experimental techniques:
(an evolving list of the kinds of questions that can students explore—using methods of science—that directly support how students learn the skills and understandings
of this unit)
        o
        o
        o
        o




Working Draft – 8.21.2009                                                                                                                                     Page 17

								
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