arabic by TlDmH0mc

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									ARABIC GRAMMAR & WRITING FOR NONARABIC SPEAKERS
           By: WALEED A. ALAMOUDI




                                                  1
      ARABIC GRAMMAR & WRITING FOR NONARABIC SPEAKERS

                          Table of Contents


Introduction                                                   1
Objectives                                                     2
Lesson One: Transliteration and Arabic Alphabet Recognition    3
Lesson Two: Word structure                                    10
Lesson Three: The definite article                            12
Lesson Four: Gender                                           13
Lesson Five: Qaaf and Kaaf                                    16
Lesson Six: Alif MaqSura                                      16
Activities                                                    17
Lesson Seven: Pronouns                                        19
Activities                                                    23
Lesson Eight: Core Consonant or Root                          24
Activities                                                    26
Lesson Nine: Basic Arabic sentences                           27
             "To be" and "to have" — verbs you don't use!
Lesson Ten: Prepositional Phrases and                         27
Lesson Eleven: Nominal and Verbal Sentences                   28
Lesson Twelve: Adjective                                      29
Lesson Thirteen: Adverb                                       29
Lesson Fourteen: Inna; Certainly                              30
Lesson Fifteen: Kaaana; He/It was                             30
Lesson Sixteen: Definite Relative Pronouns or Clauses         30
                Al-lathee; who; which; that
Lesson Seventeen: Plural                                      31
                  I. Sound Plurals                            31
                  II. Broken Plurals                          33
Lesson Eighteen: Demonstrative Pronoun;Ismul-ishaarah         34
Lesson Nineteen: Common Expressions                           35
Activities                                                    38
Lesson Twenty: Use of numbers                                 38




                                                                   2
Lesson Twenty-One: Colors                                40
Lesson Twenty-Two: Questions                             41
Lesson Twenty-Three: Conversation                        42
                     I.      Hello & Goodbye             42
                     II.     Meeting People              43
                     III. In the Hotel                   43
                     IV. In the Restaurant               45
Lesson Twenty-Four: Shape of Arabic Letters              47
Activity                                                 57
Lesson Twenty-Five: Tashkeel system                      58
Lesson Twenty-Six: Diacritics                            59
Lesson Twenty-Seven: Understand Arabic Writing           61
                        -Part I                          61
                        -Part II                         64
                        -Part III                        66
                        -Part IV                         68
Lesson Twenty-Eight: Vocabulary                          68
Lesson Twenty-Nine: Phrases                              72
Appendix I: Selection from the Quran- Surat Al-Fâtihah   80
Appendix II: Muslim lunar months                         83
Appendix III: Dhikr (Remembrance of Allah swt)           84
Appendix IV: Islamic Dictionary                          86




                                                              3
                              Introduction

This book was formulated and compiled from the overlooking of many of
the available Arabic for non-Arabic speakers books. It’s designed to be
taught by Arabs to non-Arabs of varying backgrounds without any
intermediary language.

This book doesn’t follow either western linguistic methodology or Arabic
traditional methods of teaching the Arabic language. It doesn’t require
the learner to memorize all 28 letters of the alphabet. The basic
understanding of the language was developed through the practicing of
the alphabet pronunciations and Arabic vocabularies build up through
conversation and roots recognition. It is ideal for adults and older youths,
because it develops reading and writing skills gradually and logically.
The letters of the alphabet and reading principles are distributed over
eight lessons and are designed to be easily taught over a period of three
months, at two hours per week.

Before closing, I would like to thank the Islamic Community of
Bryan/College Station for their encouragement and giving me the
opportunity to compile this work. Most of all, I thank Allah for giving me
this opportunity to help others learn the language of the last revelation;
the Quran and I pray that He record this effort in my favor.



                                                        Waleed Alamoudi
                                                            January, 2001
                                                     College Station, USA




                                                                           4
                                Objectives



By the time you finish these materials, you should be:

Familiar with the general, very basic facts of the four areas listed below.

   - Satisfy partially the requirements of very basic communicative
     exchange.
   - Partial ability to make short statements using simple formulaic
     phrases.
   - Ask and answer a few simple questions.
   - Understand some memorized words within predictable areas of
     need. Understanding is limited to basic needs, and courtesy
     formulae, as well as materials relating to everyday objects and
     situations.

In this level you need to do as you must : Learn by heart, and leave
difficult grammar for later.




                                                                              5
                               Lesson One

            Transliteration and Arabic Alphabet Recognition


Arabic is the most beautiful language because it helps us express our
feelings and thoughts. Our holly book 'Al-Quran' was revealed in Arabic.
Thus making it the spiritual language of Islam - one of the world's major
religions. Many ancient inventions were expressed using the Arabic
language. Sciences like Physics and Algebra were first expressed using
the native Arabic language.

The Arabic language consists of 28 characters; it's called 'The Arabic
Alphabet'. Unlike the English language, Arabic Alphabet is written from
Right to Left. There are clear rules for pronunciation for each of the
letters. Even better, for Arabic you can find the correct pronunciation
from the spelling alone. This is one of the areas where learning Arabic is
easier than it is for other languages.

Each character has different forms of writing, depending on its location
in the word. Some letters (22 letters) can be written, and be joined by
another letters, at the beginning, in the middle, at the end of the word, or
independent. Some letters (6 letters) can only be written independent or
joining a previous letter, but cannot be joined by a following letter.

As supporting elements to the Arabic alphabet, there are Short Vowels
and Long Vowels. These vowels do change the verb of the word.

Each letter has a separate area inside the mouth where its sound gets
originated. Some letters can be associated with an English letters; others
are unique to the Arabic language. You need to repeat hearing these
kinds of letters to pronounce them correctly. The sound system of Arabic
is very different from that of English. It includes a number of distinctive
guttural sounds and a series of consonants (pronounced with
accompanying constriction of the pharynx and raising of the back of the
tongue). Arabic words always start with a single consonant followed by a
vowel.




                                                                           6
An Arabic word is composed of two parts: (1) the root, which generally
consists of three consonants and provides the basic lexical meaning of the
word, and (2) the pattern, which consists of vowels and gives
grammatical meaning to the word. The language also makes use of
prefixes and suffixes, which act as subject markers, pronouns,
prepositions, and the definite article.

In this lesson you will learn the Alphabetic of the Arabic Language.
Down here is a table that contains all the Arabic Letters.




                                                                         7
Alphabetic of the Arabic Language




                                    8
Long Vowels   Short Vowels




                             9
Each Arabic letter has a Name, Illustration, and a Pronunciation. The
Name is used to call the letter, the Illustration is how the letter is written,
and the Pronunciation is the area in the mouth where the letter is
originated. To know exactly where the sound of a letter is originated, add
an 'a' in front of it and say it, you will easily know its area. For example,
by adding 'a' to the letter 'Ba', you will know immediately that this letter
'Ba' is originated from between the two lips when you close them tightly.

                         Types of Pronunciation




The main types of pronunciation are the Labial pronunciation and the
Guttural pronunciation. The Labial pronunciation is the sound originator


                                                                             10
for 4 letters. The below pictures illustrate these 4 letters and how the
shape of the lips should be. These 4 letters are: Fa, Ba, Meem, and Waw.




                                                                      11
The Guttural pronunciation is the sound originator for 6 letters. The
below pictures illustrate these 6 letters and how the shape of the mouth,
along with the tongue, should be. These 6 letters are: Hamza, Haa, Ayn,
Hha, Ghain, and Kha.




                                                                       12
                             Lesson Two

                            Word structure

One essential part of the process of learning to read and write Arabic is
developing a familiarity with a word structure, how individual words are
composed, and how words are put together in phrases.

The Arabic Alphabet consists of 28 letters. Most of the letters consist of
basic shapes with one or more dots written above or below these basic
forms.

In addition to this, many of the letters change shape according to where
they are within a word that is at the beginning of a word in the middle, or
at the end.

Some Arabic letters connect to the letters that follow them, while others
do not.

Arabic words are written from right to left, unlike English, which goes
from left to right.




Words are made definite in Arabic by attaching the article al,
(which means "the")

If a word begins with any of these letters :




                                                                         13
or with a hamza           (which will be seated on la          ) we place a
sukuun on the la of the definite and pronounce the la.



If a word begins with any of the rest of the letters of the alphabet:




The la will be assimilated into the following letter and will not be
pronounced.




The definite article al          is normally part of the Arabic surnames




                                                                           14
                                  Lesson Three



                             The Definite Article

One of the things many should have noticed before embarking on
learning the Arabic language is the frequent use of prefixes like "Al”.
"Al" is the same two letters "a" and "l" put together, which indicate the
definite article for a noun. But what is considered definite and what is
not, is often different from many Western languages. Briefly one could
make this as a rule: If it is not particularly important to stress the
indefinite form, the definite article should be used. But this is only a valid
rule at your present stage in learning Arabic. When a noun is indefinite,
no prefixes or suffixes are added, you simply use the core form of the
noun. Just to complicate things a bit here: In Arabic there are a group of
"sun letters", letters which standing first in a noun, eat the "l" of the
definite article. These are the following letters:

                 t, th, d, dh, r, z, s, sh, S, D, T, Z, n.
The result is that you never write, nor pronounce: "al-t.....", "al-th....", "al-
d....", "al-dh....", "al-r....", "al-z....", "al-s....", "al-sh...." and so on.
You do write and pronounce: "at-t....", "ath-th....", "ad-d....", "adh-dh....",
"ar-r....",   "az-z....",     "as-s....",    "ash-sha....."    and     so     on.
For the remainder of the letters, you leave the "l" of the definite article
intact.




                                                                               15
                                  Lesson Four

                                    Gender

There are only two genders to Arabic, masculine and feminine. The
implementation of these two are in most of the cases very simple. You
take the masculine form, and add the ending "-a" to it. Then it is a
feminine noun. F.ex.:

mudarris (masc.) — mudarrisa (fem.) [teacher]

kitâb (masc.) [book] — kitâba (fem.) [the act of writing]

sâ'ih (masc.) — sâ'iha (fem.) [tourist]

Of the three examples above, you see that the first and the third are used
for a person. The second, however, is simply changing the meaning of
the word, through adding the feminine "-a" at the end. This you will see
over and over again in Arabic. By adding "-a", new words with new
Specific meanings are made. But you should note, when new words are
made by adding "-a" at the end, there is a kin between the masculine and
the feminine nouns, in respect their meaning. Most nouns not referring to
people are arbitrarily assigned a gender. For an example the word (door)



albaab                  is masculine,




the word (sun) al-shams                             is feminine.

A feminine word is usually easy to spot, because it has a feminine suffix

attached to it. The suffix is a      (called a "taa marbuuTa").




                                                                        16
It's the Arabic letter T    who was put in loop to become , in order
to particularize the mark of feminine. But not every word that look
feminine will necessarily be feminine this word "Caliph"



                is an example.

The taa'marbuuTa occurs only at the end of a word and looks like final

and independent "haa",     except that it has two dots above it.

Here, some examples:


 Masculine             Feminine




   Small




    Large




                                                                    17
   Length




   Faithful



Notice that the letter "haa" at the end of the word is not part of the word
itself.




                                                                         18
                              Lesson Five

                             Qaaf and Kaaf



English speaking learners of Arabic often do not distinguish between the


sound of the Arabic letters kaaf    and qaaf        . Kaaf is the same
as k in English, but qaaf has no English equivalent. It is pronounced
farther back in the throat. It is the qaaf of the word raqiib,


                    "observant".




                                Lesson Six

                               Alif MaqSura



The alif maqSura           is a symbol that represents alif        in some
cases . It always comes at the end of a word and looks like the letter yaa',

         except that it has no dots. It is pronounced as a long vowel alif



     .




                                                                          19
                            Activities


Activity 1

The following are some examples of the article "al" in its various
positions in different words, Practice writing them.




Activity 2

try reading the following words aloud. Each of these words contains the
article "al".




                                                                     20
Activity 3

Read the following words, and circle the words with the alif maqSura.




                                                                        21
                                Lesson Seven

                            Pronouns; dama’er

Arabic uses pronoun suffixes as another way to indicate possession. In
English we say "my/your house", "his/her house", "our/their house" etc.,
to indicate that something belongs to someone. In Arabic the same thing
is done but the possessive pronouns are suffixed to the noun instead of
written as independent words before the noun. Below is the chart of the
independent pronoun with example.

Independent or separate Pronoun




I . . ana . .



I am Nader . .ana Nader . .




You - female . . anti . .




you are Nora . .anti Nora . .




                                                                      22
You - male . . anta . .




You are Nader . . anta Nader . .




We - our group . . nahno . .



We are students . . nahno tolab/talibat . .




                  /




You are - you are male group . .antom . .




You are students . . antom tolab . .




                                              23
You are - you are female group . . antona .




You are students . . antona talibat . .




He - male . . Howa . .




He is Nader . . howa Nader . .



She - female . . heyaa .




She is Nora . . heyaa Nora . .




They - male group . . hom . .




                                              24
They are students . . hom tolab . .




They - female group . . honaa . .




They are students . . honaa talibat . .



Dependent or attached Pronoun.ex. inahu gadem .. he is coming,

                                          Inaha’a gadema’h.. she is coming.




                                                                              25
                           Activities


Activity 1

You are walking along the street with your family. An Arab friend
approaches you and asks you, "Who are these beautiful children?" How
do you say, "This is my son, and this is my daughter"?



Activity 2

You are showing the family album to a friend, and he asks you about
people in a certain picture. How do you say,” This is my mother on the
left, and my father on the right"?



Activity 3

While shopping at the market, you meet a colleague with a little boy.
How do you ask him, "Is this boy your son?"




                                                                    26
                             Lesson Eight

                       Core Consonant or Root



In Arabic, words that are related in meaning tend to be related in form as
well, they contain the same core group of consonants. For example, think
of the words having to do with books and writing:




To write - wrote . .                -




Written. .                               , A book. .




An office. .                            , A library. .




A writer. .




                                                                        27
All these words have the same core group of consonants:




This core group of consonants that gives the basic meaning to a family of
words called the roots, is not a word, but a group of consonants, usually
three in number. The order of these consonants is critical to the integrity
of the root:




              is not equivalent to



To identify the root of any word, which have more than three consonants:




First, eliminate any prefixes and sufixes and




Second, look for long vowels - especially alif



and the consonants taa , caa , maa                            , and


naa.       These letters are often not part of the root.




                                                                         28
                              Activities


Activity 1

The letters in the following words are scrambled. Rearrange and connect

the letters to form the correct spelling. And Put the word in a sentence:




              ,                 ,               ,                   ,




                  .




Activity 2

Without changing the meaning of the words mentioned in activity # 1,
create different forms of any four of those words.




                                                                            29
                                Lesson Nine

                           Basic Arabic sentences

               "To be" and "to have" — verbs you don't use!

Two verbs are normally omitted from Arabic (this thing makes learning
the language a little bit easier). These two are to be and to have. Instead
of saying, "My name is Waleed", you say "Name mine Waleed" —" ismî
Waleed"

The same applies for qualities: Instead of saying "She is a teacher", you
say "She teacher" — hiyya mudarrisa, "he tourist" — huwa sâ'ih
As for the verb "to have", which can also equal "to own": Instead of
saying "He has a car", you say "To him a car" — lahu sayyâra, "to her a
book" — lahâ kitâb, "to me a house" (="I own a house") — lî bayt



                                Lesson Ten

                          Prepositional Phrases and


Prepositional phrases are called when a preposition precedes a noun. This
preposition causes the noun to be in the genitive case (majroor) that is
indicated by changing the final vowel to a kasrah. The most frequently
used prepositions in Arabic are:

fee: in
min: from
a’laa: on
ilaa: to
aa’n:far from, used in case of describing how far a place or a thing from




                                                                            30
                                 Lesson Eleven
                         Nominal and Verbal Sentences

There are two types of sentences in Arabic:

Nominal sentence: al-jumlatul ismeeyah, sentence which do not begin
with verb. It consists of two parts; the subject (al-mubtada,the beginning)
and the predicate (al-khaber, the information). Al-mubtada may be a
noun or pronoun and , while al-khaber may be either of these, as well as
prepositional phrases, adjectives or adverbs. Whenever the subject or
predicate of is a noun, it is always indicated by a dammah, -u, on its last
consonant Arabic nouns have three cases nominative (dammah on its last
consonant), genitive (kassrah, -i, on its last consonant), and accusative
(fat-h’ah,a, -a, on its last consonant). Pronouns occur both as suffixes and
as independent words. As an example for al-jumlatul ismeeyah: al-
masjed nadheef.. the mosque is clean.

Verbal sentence: al-jumlatul alfaaliah, sentence which begin with verb.
Verbs in Arabic are regular in conjugation. There are two tenses: the
perfect (al-ma’de; past, has a fat-h’ah on its last consonant), ex. da’ra’sa..
studied, which is often used to express past time, and the imperfect (al-
muda’re’aa; now, has dammah on its last consonant), example Yadru’su..
study, formed by the addition of prefixes and sometimes containing
suffixes indicating number and gender, which is often used for
expressing present, while future time is simply made by adding the prefix
"sa-" to the imperfect form. In addition to the two tenses there is an
imperative form (al-amr), example, Idrus..do your studying. Verbs are
inflected for three persons, three numbers (singular, dual, plural), and two
genders.

       The English word ‘imperative’      comes from the latin word ‘to
command’       and       corresponds       to   the     arabic    ‘Amr’.
Arabic,however,distinguishes between      a command (amr) , a request
(talab) and a supplication (du’a’). The   form of the verb for making all
three is, however, the same.



                                                                            31
      The jussive form (majzoom or ended by sukun) of the present
tense verb (mudaare’ or muda’re’aa). The sukun in the jussive form
because a jussive particle preceded the present verb. The imperative is
formed from the jussive form (majzoom or ended by sukun) of the
present verb by the following:

      i.      Cutting off the prefixed Ta’ or Ya from jussive form of the
              presnt verb (mudaare’) and it’s vowel;
      ii.     What remains begins with a letter having a sukun, an initial
              alif is then added to form the imperative (command) form of
              the verb.
      iii.    The vowel on the alif is a dammah, if the next vowel after
              the letter having a sukun is a dammah.

              The vowel on the alif is a kasrah, if the next vowel after the
              letter having a sukun is a fat-hah or a kasrah.

Examples:

Jussive form of the mudaare’:

Taghfer, Yajlis, Taj’al, Tadkhul, Ya’dh’hub

Imperative form derived from Jussive form of the mudaare’:

I’ghfer, (Forgive), Ijlis (set), I’j’al, (make), U’dkhul, (enter), Idh’hab


Jussive:          Taqum                      Taqul                    Takun

Imperative:       qum, (stand)                qul, (say)             kun, (be)


If after cutting off the prefixed Ta’ or Ya’ what remains a letter with a
vowel, then no prefixed alif is needed.




                                                                              32
If the imperative is connected in pronounciation to a previous letter and
vowel, the initial alif (hamzatul-wasl) of the imperative is ignored in
pronounciation.



Imperative:         I’ghfer              I’j’alu                 U’khruj

Letter+Imperative wa’ghfer               wa ’j’alu               fa’khruj


The verb in al-jumlatul alfaaliah needs a subject. This subject has to be a
noun in nominative case (dammah on its last consonant) or pronoun to
replace this nominative noun. The pronoun of the subject has two cases
either suffixed or attached to the verb as a replacement for the subject or
as a disappear Independent or separate Pronoun (passive voice).

Some verb needs an object to complete the sentence. This object has to
be a noun in accusative case (fat-h’ah on its last consonant) or a pronoun
suffixed or attached to the verb. As an example of al-jumlatul alfaaliah:
Yazu’ru’ kalidu al-ma’reeda’.

The perfect (al-muda’re’aa) verb can has fat-h’ah on its last consonant if
it proceeded by in or lun,or it could has sukoon on its last consonant if it
proceeded by lum or la (al-nahiah). Al-muda’re’aa also can be attached to
the alif al- ithnân (two), ex yala’b’an, wow al-jama’ah (more than two),
ex. Yala’boon, and yaa' al-mukhatabah, tala’been, all of these three
conditions are ending with noon on its last consonant.



                              Lesson Twelve

                           Adjective; al-sefa’h

The adjectives in Arabic is always written after the noun which it
modifies.ex. muslim jadeed… a new muslim. The Adjective must agree
with the:
   - Noun it qualifies in definiteness.ex. al- muslim al-jadeed.


                                                                            33
   - Noun it modify in gender.ex. al- muslimah al-jadeedah
   - Noun it modify in case.ex. min al- muslim al-jadeed (kassrah
     on the last consonant of both), al- muslim al-jadeed (dammah
     on the last consonant of both).


                             Lesson Thirteen
                            Adverb; al-ida’faah


Al-ida’faah is either a nouns or pronoun, it comes to define or modify an
in definitive noun. Al-ida’faah has two conditions:
    - If the first noun is in definitive (no al or tanween) and al-ida’faah is
      in the gentive case (kassrah on its last consonant).ex. kitabu al-
      talebe..a student book.
    - If al-ida’faah is indefinite the first noun also will be indefinite. ex.
      kitabu taleben..a student’s book. The subject of Inna can be either
      noun as the previous example or pronoun.ex. Innahu Kabeeru


                              Lesson Fourteen

                               Inna; Certainly

Inna is a particle used in Arabic to emphasizes a statement. When Inna is
placed before a nominal sentence, it causes the subject to enter the
accusative case whish is indicated by changing the dammah on the last
consonant to a fat-h’ah, ex. Inna almasjeda kabeeru..Certainly the
mosque is large. The subject could be either a noun or pronoun, ex.
Innahu Kabeeru.. Certainly it is large.



                               Lesson Fifteen

                             Kaaana; He/It was

kannna(was) is the most commonly used verb in Arabic in nominal
sentences expressing past time and referring to present time. The subject
of kannna is in the nominative form (mubtada, dammah on its last


                                                                            34
consonant) and the predicate is in the accusative case.ex. (khaber, fat-
h’ah on its last consonant).



                             Lesson Sixteen

                 Definite Relative Pronouns or Clauses
                      Al-lathee; who; which; that

Al–lathee is a relative pronoun, which introduces a relative clause. It
reflects the gender and number (singular or plural) of noun or pronoun,
which precedes it. The female form of al–lathee is al-latee.The relative
pronoun Al –lathee is definite ,since it begins with the definite article

     , and represents a definite noun, ex. al-rajul al–lathee fee al-
masjed..the man in the mosque, but not, the man is in the mosque.




                            Lesson Seventeen

                                  Plural

Plural in Arabic have tow main groups:

I. Sound Plurals: Are nouns and adjectives, which follow the following
                 grammar rules:
    - Only nouns and adjectives referring to human have masculine and
       feminine plurals, ex. muslimoon, and muslimatun.

   - Masculine and feminine plurals have only one form for both the
     accusative and genitive cases, ex. muslimeen, and muslimaten.

   - If masculine plural added to noun or attached to pronoun the final
     inn in the plural will be dropped, ex. muslimu amreeca,
     muslimoo’ha.

   - Feminine plurals can be used for human and non-human nouns,ex.
     muslimat, and jameaa’at.

                                                                           35
  - Non-human plurals,whether male or female, modified by singular
    Feminine adjectives. Jameaa’atun sagherah..small universities.

   - Singular feminine pronoun replaces male and female non-numan
     plurals,ex. he’ia kutubun.. they are books.

  - Singular feminine relative pronoun proceeds male and female non-
    numan plurals, ex. al-kutub al–lathee fee al-masjed mufeeda’h.

  - In general, feminine singular nouns or adjectives ending with the

     letter     or            make their plurals with           . While


     adding          with the adjectives preceding, we have for example:



Feminine singular       Feminine plural




Small




Large




                                                                      36
Length




Faithful




II. Broken Plurals: of nouns and adjectives are derived from their singular
                    forms by internal vowel changes, and follow certain
                    patterns. The most common patterns:

   - Af’aal: ex. aglaam derived from the singular form galum (ben).

   - Fi’aal: ex. rejaal derived from the singular form rajul (man).

   - Fu’alaa’u: ex. mudaraau’ derived from the singular form mudeer
     (manager).

   - Mafaa’ilu: ex. masajedu’ derived from the singular form masjed
     (mosque).

   - Fu’ul: ex. kutub derived from the singular form kitab (book).




                                                                         37
   - Fu’ool: ex. shu’hoor derived from the singular form shaher
     (month).

   -
   - Fa’aalin: ex. krassi derived from the singular form kursi (chear).

   - There are a number of other plural patterns which follow a hearing
     pattern, tulab for a singular noun taleb.



                              Lesson Eighteen

                  Demonstrative Pronoun; Ismul-ishaarah

The demonstrative pronouns haathaa for male and haathihi for female
and non-human plural (this) Known in Arabic as Ismul-ishaarah is for
pointing out things which are near, while for distant objects, thaalika and
tilka (that) are used. Ismul-ishaarah is associated with the following
conditions:

   - Plural forms are haa’ula’ee and ‘ula’ikaa.

   - As a subject of a nominal sentence and the predicate is generally in
     definite.
   - If the predicate is definite, a pronoun is added ex. Haathaa huwa
     al-taleb.. this is a man.

   - The demonstrative pronoun is always in the same gender as the
     noun that it forms a phrase with.ex. haathihi al-mara’t..this women.




                                                                          38
                             Lesson Nineteen
                          Common Expressions

Arabic occasionally uses what is called the "honorific plural". It is a
plural form that is used even when only one person is involved. Perhaps
the best-known example of this is the phrase as-sallaamu-alaykum,



                                   which really means "Peace be upon you
(all)," but it is used when greeting either one person or a group of people.

One of the most widely used expressions in Arabic (second, perhaps,



only to al-Hamdu-lil-lah)                               is in shaa'a Allah,



                    meaning "God willing."

Here Ahmed and Nader, meet at the Islamic center for the first time, and
introduce themselves to each other.



Ahmad: Hello. . Ahmad MarHaban




My name is Ahmad. . esmee Ahmad



Nader: welcome.. Ahlan WaSahlun




                                                                          39
I'm Nader . . ana nader



At the same time Nader met Hammed, from Kuwait, who had been met
before.

Nader: Aslamo Alukum Hamed




   How are you doing? . . Kaufa Halooka?

   Hamed: I'm fine, praise be to God, . . ana Bekhaur, Walhamdo Lillah .
   .




   and you? . . wa anta




                                                                      40
     Nader:   I'm   fine,   thank   you   .   .   ana   bekhaur,   shokrun


                                                        .




What is your name?
ma ismok?                             Hello!

My name is                            marhaba

ismy                                  Good Morning

how old are you?                      sabah al-hayri
kam omroka?                           How are you?
Nice to meet you                      kayfa haluk?
tasharrafna
                                      fine!
Goodbye
                                      biheyr
ma'assalama
                                      Please
yes
                                      minfadlik
na'am
                                      Thank you
no
                                      shukran!
la




                                                                        41
                              Activities


   Activity 1

   Pick one member of your group. Look at the English translation of the
   previous two conversations and practice reciting them in Arabic.
   Using your own names.



   Activity 2

   You want to introduce yourself to an Arab. What do you say?



   Activity 3

   If you want to ask an Arab man what his name is, what do you say?



   Activity 4

   How do you respond if somebody asks you how you are?



                            Lesson Twenty

                            Use of numbers

Numbers in Arabic are quite complicated, there are different rules for the
numbers, and numbers are declined according to gender. Getting the grip
on numbers in order to make practical use of them (few Arabs used
numbers correctly), is however reasonably easy.




                                                                        42
From 21 to 99 you count like this: (example) 44: Four wa-forty.

From 12 to 19 you count like this (example) 15: Five Ten.

11 is slightly diverging.

When putting numbers together with nouns you do like this:

    1: (example) 1 book is said as simply as "book", "kitâb", you leave
     1 out, unless it is very important to emphasise that it is one book.

    2: (example) 2 books is a special case, as Arabic not only has
     singular and plural, but also dual. The rules here are straight, but
     often ommitted by student, who wind up saying "2 books",

      ithnân kutub.

      That is not correct, and the correct dual for 2 books is

      kitâbâni.

    3 and up: You place the full form of the number first, immediately
     followed by the noun: 42 books:

      ithnân wa-'arbacûn kitâbân.




                                                                       43
Lesson Twenty-One

     Colors




                    44
                  Lesson Twenty-Two

                          Questions




Where is/ are --- feyn?

What? --- 'matha?

What's that? --- 'eyh da?

When? --- imta?

Why? --- leyh?

Why not? --- leyh la?

How? --- keyf?

Who? --- meen?

How many --- kam?




                                      45
          Lesson Twenty-Three

      Conversation; Muhadathah


           I. Hello & Goodbye


           'As-salâmu calaykum
           Hello; Peace upon you
           cW
             alaykumu als-salâm
         Hello; Peace upon you, too

                  marhaban
                Hello; welcome

                 kayf hâluk?
                How are you?

     shukran. al-hamdu li-lâh. wa ant?
 Thank you. Fine, by God's mercy. And you?

                 'anâ bi-khayr
                    I'm fine

                maca salâma
Go with God’s base on you or Go without fear

                  ilâ l-liqâ'
         So long; Until the next time




                                               46
       II. Meeting People


           mâ-esmuk?
         What's your name?

           'esmî salîm
         My name is Salim

          'ismuhu rashîd
        His name is Rashid

          'ismuhâ warda
        Her name is Fatimah

             'acmal hunâ
          I'm working here

              'anâ tâlib
 I'm a student (as uttered by a man)

              'anâ tâliba
I'm a student (as uttered by a woman)



         III. In the Hotel


     ayna al-funduq Yasalâm?
     Where is the Hotel Salim?

       hal ladayka ghurfa?
    Have you got vacant room?

 min aiyyati darja hâthâ al-funduq?
    Of which class is the hotel?




                                        47
         hal 'al-ghurfa mac al-hammâm?
  Is there a bathroom coming with the room?

           hal 'al-ghurfa mac al-hâtif?
       Is there a telephone in the room?

      hal youjud tilîfizyûn fî al- ghurfa?
        Is there a TV-set in the hotel?

             kam ojrat al-laylah
        What's the price for one night?

               uktub min fadlik
                 Please write

                  lâ 'afham
              I don't understand

                    'afham
                 I understand

                    ghâlî
                  Expensive!

  sa'askun hunâ li muddati thalâthati laylen
    I'm going to stay here for three nights

'awwalân, urîd mushahdat al-ghurfa, min fadlik
     First, I want to see the room, please

        shukran. al-ghurfa mumtâzah
      Thank you. The room is very nice




                                                 48
                IV. In the Restaurant


                   masâ'a l-khayr
                   Good evening

            hal tatakallumu l-inkliziyya?
               Do you speak English?

              hal tatakallumu l-arabia?
               Do you speak Arabic?

                      yâ Jârson
                       Waiter!

           qâ'imatu t-tacâm, min fadlik
          Could I/we see the menu, please

                hal Indcakum haleeb?
                 Have you got milk?

           lâ ta'kulu l-lahm wa-lâ l-bayda
           She doesn't eat meat, nor eggs

       lahmu l-khurûf lî, min fadlik. wa salata
         Lamb for me, thank you. And salad

         'al-ruz lî, min fadlik. wa kûkâ kûlâ
      Rice for me, thank you. And a Coca Cola

       lahmu l-dajaj, min fadlik. wa ka’s l-mâ'
    chicken meat, thank you. And a glass of water

lahmu d-dijâj mashwiyy wa-rûz wa salata mashwiyya lî
   Grilled chicken with rice, and fried salad for me




                                                       49
âis krîm, qahwa, wa l-fawâkih lî kull, min fadlik
 Ice cream, coffee, and fruits for all, thank you

              'al-fâtûra, min fadlik
                 The bill, please

     hal mumkin dafcu maca bitâqati l-icâra
     Is it possible to pay with credit card?

                 maca salâma
                Go without fear

                   ilâ l-liqâ'
          So long; Until the next time




                                                    50
                          Lesson Twenty-Four

                         Shape of Arabic Letters

The shape of each Arabic letter may have different forms, depending on
whether it's used by itself or comes at the beginning, in the middle or at
the end of a word.




                                                                             51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
In order to learn any alphabetical letter in Arabic, you have to
practice writing many different patterns of the same letter.




                           Activity
Read the following examples, which show the initial, medial,
and final handwritten form of letters "baa, taa and thaa", and
then copy them.




                                                                   61
                           Lesson Twenty-Five

                             Tashkeel system



Al Khalil ibn Ahmad al Farahidi devised a tashkeel system to replace Abu al
Aswad's. His system was universally used since the early eleventh century,
and included six diacritical marks to indicate the small vowels attached to
Arabic letters.




                                                                              62
                            Lesson Twenty-Six

                                 Diacritics

Diacritics are diacritical marks for Arabic alphabetic characters which
primarily represent vowel sounds:




      - Single diacritics:




      - Nunation: tanween; double diacritics:




      - Double Consonants: Shadda:




      - Combined diacritics:




                                                                          63
Examples; amtheelah



-            ; he   studied




-            ; a lesson




-           ; he taught




-            ; it was studied




                                64
           Lesson Twenty-Seven

         Understand Arabic Writing



Part I




                                     65
                    Explanation

'a/'u/i/â ('alif)       The little secret to
                    understand           writing
                    Arabic, is thinking of it
                    as handwriting. Just like
b (bâ')
                    you      connect      letters
                    together when you write,
                    so you will connect
                    letters when you write
                    Arabic. Their shapes will
t (tâ')
                    change in order to adjust
                    to the writing of other
                    letters, so that it becomes
                    possible to write without
th (thâ')           lifting the pen up from
                    the paper (of course,
                    when marking the dots,
                    you will have to).
m (mîm)                  22 of the 28 Arabic
                    letters have 4 variants:

                    1. Standing alone.
w/û (wâw)           2. As the first letter in a
                    word.
                    3. Inside the word,
                    between two other letters.
                    4. As the last letter in a
h (hâ')
                    word, joining to the letter
                    in front.

                    As for the remaining 6,
y/î (yâ')           they never join to the
                    following letter, even
                    when they are inside a
                    word. This means that the


                                                66
                                             writer has to lift his pencil,
                                             and even if he is inside the
                                             same word, the following
                                             letter will have to be
                                             written as if it was the first
                                             in a word. Examples of
                                             these odd 6, see 'alif and
                                             wâw.




Examples




yawm- (one) day. This word is made out of three letters, yâ', wâw and
mîm.




'ummî- my mother. With this word, you should note the following: The
double letters of mîm, are not written each by themselves, they are
written as one letter.There is a curl (shadda) to indicate just this a.
Note that the suffix of a yâ', is the straightforward way of indicating,
"mine", "my", or "of "me". When putting yâ' at the very end of a word,
pronouncing and writing it as one word, you can't go wrong.




wathaba- to jump, to leap This is a verb. Note that it really means, "he
jumped, he leaped", as masculine singular past, is presented as the core
or root form for a verb.




                                                                        67
Part II



                      Explanation

                          As it would become more and
j (jîm)               more apparent, most Arabic
                      letters have the same shape as
                      one, two or three others, but that
                      dots are used to separate them.
h (hâ') stressed h    Dots in our days, can never be
                      omitted.
                      This lesson introduces altogether
                      4 sounds that are unfamiliar to
kh (khâ')             most Western languages. These
                      have one common factor, they
                      are heavily stressed. Special
                      attention should be paid to the
c c                   c
 ( ayn)                ayn, as well as to the ghayn. The
                      former is a new sound to most,
                      and calls for special practice,-
                      few Arabic students do this,
gh (ghayn)            unfortunately they leave it as a
                      pausal                         stop.
                      Ghayn is not difficult to
                      pronounce when standing alone,
                      but can easily disappear when
[-at] (tâ' marbûta)
                      inside           a            word.
                      The tâ' marbûTa t (it is a mixture
                      of the letters hâ' and tâ') belongs
                      to a category of itself: It is more
l (lâm)               a femine mark, than a letter.




                                                             68
Examples




khalaca- to undress.




ghalla- crops, produce, yield. Here again, note that double
consonants (shadda) always are written with one letter only.
This noun has the feminine mark, which is only pronounced (as
at).




Hajj- greater pilgrimage. This is the word for the most central
religious act in Islam, the pilgrimage to Mecca.




jacala- become; bring [someone into a state]. Arabic is a very
rich language in its vocabulary.




                                                                  69
Part III



                      Explanation

d (dâl)         Here comes the largest chunk
            of Arabic letters that only can be
            written in two variants: Standing
            alone, following another letter.
dh (dhâl)   None of these allows any
            subsequent letter to join. This
            involves that the writer will have
            to lift his pencil up from the
r (râ')     paper, and write that subsequent
            letter as if it was the first in a
            word.
            The last letter, the hamza, is not
z (zây)     really a letter, there is no sound
            to it, and in transcriptions, no
            Latin letter is used, only an
            apostrophe. What the hamza
f (fâ')     indicates is a pausal stop in the
            pronounciation.       No    sound,
            simply a little stop. However, the
            hamza is no big obstacle for the
q (qâf)     Arabic student. Few Arabs
            emphasize the hamza when they
            speak themselves.

k (kâf)



' (hamza)




                                                 70
Examples




qadhafa- to shoot; throw; ejaculate. Here you see in practice
what letters that only can be written in one out of two forms,
behave.




fakka- untie; loosen. Double letter written as it was one
(shadda).




firaq- teams or farq- difference. Both these are written in the
same way, even if one is plural and the other singular. But you
will have to read the real meaning out of the context, and from
there      remember        the     correct      pronounciation.




ghurfa- room.




                                                                  71
Part IV

"hamza carriers"; hamza, and how it appears

The hamza can be written in several different ways. In most instances you
will see it with a "hamza carrier", that is either 'alif, wâw or yâ' with a


hamza floating above this                                                .



                               Lesson Twenty-Eight

                            Vocabulary; al-Mufradaat

(English = Arabic)




      Hospital --- mostashfa
      Market --- sook
      Cinema --- sinama
      Restaurant --- matt'am
      Street --- shari''
      People --- nas
      Laundry --- masbagha
      Library --- maktaba
      Pharmacy --- saydaliyya
      Boat --- karib
      River --- nahr
      Airport --- mattar
      Bicycle --- darraja




                                                                              72
Chair --- korsiyy


Home --- manzil


Table --- ttawila

Door --- bab

Key --- miftah

Bed --- sareer

Balcony – shorfa

Curtains -- sata'ir

Candel -- sham'a

Sofa --- sofa

Broom --- miknasa

Window --- shobbak




                      73
Poet --- sha'ir
Judge --- kady
Chemist --- saydaliyy
Musician --- mossikiyy
Teacher --- ostath
Singer --- moghannin
Pilot --- mallah
Fisher --- sammak
Guard --- haris
Actor --- momattil
Carpenter --- najjar
Dancer --- rakisa
Engineer --- mohandis




                         74
Apricots --- roman
Onion --- basal
Mint --- na'na'
Bananas --- mauz
Dates --- balah
Tomato --- banadoora
Cucumber --- khiyar
Honey --- asal
Rice --- rizz
Pepper --- bhar
Beans --- loobya'
Potatoses --- battatta
Bread --- khobz

Cacao --- kakaw




                         75
                        Lesson Twenty-Nine

                                  Phrases

   Yes = na'am
   No = laa
   Thank you =        shokran
   Thank you very much =                 shokran Gazillan
   You're welcome =               Ala ElRahib Wa ElSaa
   Please =        Min Fadilak
   Excuse me =        Ann Eazinak
   Hello =        Ahalan
   Goodbye =               Ma'a ElSalama
   So long =        Wada'an (7349 bytes)
   Good morning =                Saba'a AlKair
   Good afternoon =               Masa'a AlKair
   Good evening =                Masa'a AlKair
   Good night =            Laila Tiaba

   I do not understand =            Ana laa Afham
   How do you say this in [English]? =                      Kaif
    Takool Thalik Bil[arabia]?
   Do you speak ... =           Hal Tatakalm...
   English =          Alingli'zia
   French =          Alfrinsia
   German =          Alalmania
   Spanish =          Alaspania
   Chinese =         Alssinia

   I = Ana
   We =    Nahono


                                                                    76
   You (singular, familiar) =       Anta (m), Anti (f)
   You (singular, formal) =       Anta (m), Anti (f)
   You (plural) =         Antom, Antona
   They =        Hom (m), Hoonna (f)
   What is your name? =        Ma Ismok?
   Nice to meet you. =             Sorirart Biro'aitak
   How are you? =            Kaifa Halok?
   Good =            Taib/ Bikair
   Bad =              Saia/ Mosh Bikair
   So so =     Eaini

   Wife =    Za'oga
   Husband =   Za'og
   Daughter =   Ibna
   Son =    Ibn
   Mother =    Om
   Father =   Ab
   Friend =        Sadik

   Where is the bathroom? Where is the toilet? =         Ain
    Alhamaam?

   zero =    Sifer
   one =    Wahid
   two =    Ithinin
   three =    Thalatha
   four =    Arba'a
   five =     Kamisa
   six =   Sita
   seven =     Saba'a
   eight =     Thamania
   nine =     Tisa'a
   ten =      Ashara



                                                                77
   eleven =               Hidashar
   twelve =             Itnashar
   thirteen =             Talatashar
   fourteen =              Arbatashar
   fifteen =              Kamastashar
   sixteen =             Sitashar
   seventeen =               Sabatashar
   eighteen =                  Tamantashar
   nineteen =               Tisatashar
   twenty =            Ishrin
   twenty one =                   Wahid wa Ishrin

   thirty =          Talatin
   forty =           Arba'ain
   fifty =           Kamisin
   sixty =          Sitin
   seventy =            Saba'ain
   eighty =      Tamanin
   ninety =      Tisain
   one hundred =     Mia'a
   one thousand =    Alf
   one million =     Millio'an

   How much does this cost? =       Bikam?
   What is this? =        Ma Hatha?
   I'll buy it. =               Sa'ashtariha
   I would like to buy ... =               O'reed ann ashtary
   Do you have ... =               Hal aindak...
   Do you accept credit cards? =                      Hal takibal
    bitakit el aitiman?
   Open =          Maftouh
   Closed =         Mogilag
   Postcard =              Kart Barid


                                                                     78
   Stamps =       Ta'wabia
   A little =  Kalil
   A lot =    Kathir
   All = Kol

   Breakfast =         iftar
   Lunch =           Gadaa
   Dinner =          Ashaa
   Vegetarian =        Nabati
   Please bring the bill. =                 El Fatora Min Fadilak

   Bread =    Kobiz
   Beverage =     Sharab
   Coffee =    Kahioa
   Tea =         Shai
   Juice =         Asir
   Water =        Ma'a
   Beer =        Bira
   Wine =         Khamr
   Salt =   Malih
   Pepper =  Filfil
   Meat =   La'him
   Beef =         La'him
   Pork =          La'him kanzir
   Fish =      Samak
   Poultry =      Dagag
   Vegetable =          Kodrawat
   Fruit =     Fawakih
   Potato =       Patatis
   Salad =      Salata
   Dessert =        Halawia'at
   Ice cream =            Ice Cream
   Where is ...? =             Ain ...?
   How much is the fare? =                Bikam al ogra'a?


                                                                     79
   Ticket =         Tathkara
   One ticket to ..., please. =                          tathkara wahida
    min fadlik .
   Where are you going? =                        ila ain anta thahib
   Where do you live? =                 ain ta'issh

   Train =        Kitar

   Bus =          Autobees

   Airport =       Matar
   Train station =            Mahatit Al kitar
   Bus station =               Mahatit Al Autobees
   Departure =         Al Mogadara
   Arrival =        Al oso'ol
   Car rental agency =                 Shirkat Ta'igir Sahiarat
   Parking =       Mokaf

   Hotel =     Fondok
   Room =       Korfa
   Reservation =     Hagiz
   Are there any vacancies for tonight? =                              Hal
    togad Koraf Fadia Al Laila?
   No vacancies =                    La togad Koraf Fariga

   Passport =             Gawaz Safar

   Left =       shimal
   Right =      Yam'ain
   Straight = Lilamam
   Up =       Fook
   Down =         Tahit
   Far =       Ba'aid
   Near =       Karib
   Long =        Ta'oil
   Short =       Kaseer


                                                                          80
   Map =         Karita
   Tourist Information =                 Mailomat al Sa'ih

   Post office =        Markaz Barid
   Museum =         Matihaf
   Bank =      bank
   Police station =            Kissam Shorta
   Hospital =       Mostashifa
   Pharmacy, Chemists =      Sidali'ia
   Store, Shop =    Maha'al
   Restaurant =    Matiam
   School =           Madrassa
   Church =       Kanisa
   Restrooms =      hamam, toilets
   Street =     Shari
   Square =      Meedan
   Mountain =     Gabal
   Hill =   Tal
   Valley =     Wadi
   Ocean =      Mohit
   Lake =      Bohaira
   River =   Naher
   Swimming Pool =                 hamam sipaha
   Tower =   Borg
   Bridge =    Kobry, Jeser

   What time is it? =             kam Al sa'aa?
   7:13, Seven thirteen =                 7:13 Saba'a wa
    thalat'a'ashar
   3:15, Three fifteen =                3:15 Thalatha wa
    Famista'ashar
   3:15, A quarter past three =          3:15 Thalatha wa robih
   11:30, Eleven thirty =                 11:30 Hidashar wa thalathin
   11:30, Half past eleven =                  11:30 Hidashar wa nosif

                                                                    81
   1:45, One forty-five =                1:45 Wahida wa kamisa
    wa Arbai'in
   1:45, A quarter till two =        1:45 Ithnin ela robih

   Day =     youm
   Week =         Isbo'o
   Month =       Sahir
   Year =       Sana'a / Amm

   Monday =         Al Ithinin
   Tuesday =         Al Tholatha'a
   Wednesday =        Al Arbia'a
   Thursday =      Al Kamis
   Friday =    Al Gomia'a
   Saturday =    Al Sabit
   Sunday =    Al Ahad

   January =      Yanair
   February =       Febrair
   March =        Maris
   April =      Apreel
   May =        Mayo
   June =        Yonia
   July =       Yolia
   August =          Aagostos
   September =         Septamber
   October =        Octobar
   November =        Novamber
   December =         Disamiber

   Spring =      Al Karif
   Summer =        Al Sai'if
   Fall, Autumn =       Al Rabi'a
   Winter =       Al Shita'a



                                                                  82
   Today =       Al youm
   Yesterday =     Amis
   Tomorrow =       Bokira




                              83
                    Appendix I

              Selection from the Quran




(in the name of Allah most gracious most merciful)




                 Surat Al-Fâtihah




                                                     84
.In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.




All the praises and thanks be to Allâh, the Lord of the 'Alamîn (mankind,
jinns and all that exists)




The Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.




                                                                       85
The Only Owner (and the Only Ruling Judge) of the Day of Recompense
(i.e. the Day of Resurrection).




You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and
everything).




Guide us to the Straight Way.




The Way of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace[], not (the
way) of those who earned Your Anger (such as the Jews), nor of those
who went astray (such as the Christians).




                                                                   86
                        Appendix II

                     Muslim lunar months


1. Muharram
2. Safar
3. Rabi al-awwal
4. Rabi al-thani
5. Jumada l-ula
6. Jumada l-akhira
7. Rajab
8. Sha'ban
9. Ramadan
10. Shawwal
11. Dhu al-Qa'da
12. Dhu al-Hijja




                                           87
                               Appendix III

 Dhikr (Remembrance of Allah swt) That Every Muslim Should Know

La ilaha ilAllah - There is no deity (worthy of worship) but (the One)
Allah

Alhamdulilah - All praise is due to Allah. To be said when happy and at
other times. Is recommended to praise Allah (swt) before expressing
gratitude to the people.

As sala'amu alaikum - Peace be upon you. The required greeting a
muslim man should give to another muslim man and that a muslimah
[female muslim] should give another muslimah [when not too shy to be
heard in the presence of men who are not mahram to her]. It is a
recommended sunnah to say this to a muslim, and fard (obligatory) to
reply (i.e. to say "wa laikum as-sala'am").

Bismillah - In the name of Allah. [biss-mih-LAH] What Muslims say
before engaging in most anything, especially before reading Qur'an,
before eating, when entering a room [before entering toilet area, ask for
protection from the male and female jinn], when leaving and entering the
house, etc.

Insha'Allah - If Allah will, If Allah wills it, if it is Allah's will, Allah
willing, in Allah's timing and choosing

      And never say of anything, "I shall do such and such thing
       tomorrow." Except (with the saying), "If Allâh will!" And
       remember your Lord when you forget and say: "It may be that my
       Lord guides me unto a nearer way of truth than this." [The Noble
       Qur'an Al-Kahf 18:23-24]
      The Prophet      said, "Solomon (the son of) David said, 'Tonight I
       will sleep with seventy ladies each of whom will conceive a child
       who will be a knight fighting for Allah's cause.' His companion
       said, 'If Allah will.' But Solomon did not say so; therefore none of
       those women got pregnant except one who gave birth to a half
       child.[i.e. a gay man]" The Prophet further said, "If the Prophet
       Solomon had said it (i.e. 'If Allah will') he would have begotten


                                                                          88
       children who would have fought in Allah's cause." Shuaib and Ibn
       Abi Az-Zinad said, "Ninety (women) is more correct (than
       seventy)." [Bukhari 4:635, Narrated Abu Huraira]

      The Prophet      said: Do not say: What Allah wills and so and so
       wills, but say: "What Allah wills", and then separately "What so
       and so wills". [Tirmidhi, Narrated Hudhayfah, Transmitted by
       AbuDawud.]
      The best among them said: "Did I not tell you: why do you not say:
       Insha Allah (If Allah will)." [The Noble Qur'an Al-Qalam 68:28]

Subhana wa ta'ala - This means "Allah is exalted above weakness and
indignity." Sometimes abbreviated as "swt". After saying "Allah" or
"Allah's", etc, the Muslim should give praises to Allah swt with this
phrase or one of many other phrases giving praise to Allah, swt.
Innaa Lillaahi wa innaa ilayhi raaji’oon - Means, "To Allaah we belong
and unto Him is our return." Is said immediately upon hearing of the
death of a Muslim.
    or               - Salla 'Llahu 'alayhi wa sallam - This means "May
Allah's peace and blessings be upon him" and it should be said after
referring to Muhammad or other prophets. Sometimes abbreviated at
"s.a.a.w.s." or "saaws"
         or      'Alayh is'Salam - This means "Peace be upon him" and
it should be said after referring to prophets and angels. Sometimes
abbreviated as "PBUH".
        - Radiya 'Llahu 'anhu - This means "May Allah be pleased with
him" and should be said after referring to a male companion.
            - Radiya 'Llahu 'anha - This means "May Allah be pleased
with her" and should be said after referring to a female companion.
Radiya 'Llahu 'anhuma - This means "May Allah be pleased with them"
and should be said after referring to two companions.
Radiya 'Llahu 'anhum - This means "May Allah be pleased with them"
and should be said after referring to more than two companions.
Rahimahu 'Llah - (say rah-hee muh hoo-lah). This means "May Allah
have mercy on him" and should be said after referring to a past scholar or
righteous muslim.



                                                                        89
                         Appendix IV

                      Islamic Dictionary
               English Translation of Arabic words




Abrâr                Pious and righteous
Adab                 Manners
'Adn                 Paradise
Ahkâm                "Orders". According to Islâmic law, thre are
                     five kinds of orders:

                        1.   Compulsory (Wâjib)
                        2.   Order without obligation (Mustahab)
                        3.   Forbidden (Muharram)
                        4.   Disliked but not forbidden (Makruh)
                        5.   Legal and allowed (Halâl)

'Alamîn              Mankind, jinns and all that exists
Ameen / Amîn         A supplication meaning, "O Allah, respond
                     (to or answer what we have said)."
'Aqeedah             The belief system that is based upon a firm
                     conviction in all the fundamentals of faith
                     and of the Oneness of Allah, i.e. creed
                     It is derived from the verb aqada meaning to
                     firmly bind and knot. Whatsoever settles in
                     the heart in a firm and definitive manner is
                     said to be that person's aqeedah.
                     In the technical sense it refers to the
                     definitive faith and certain ruling that is not
                     open to any doubt. It is called aqeedah


                                                                       90
            because the person binds his heart upon it.
Auliyâ      Friends, protectors, helpers, etc.
Ayât        Proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs,
            revelations, etc.




Bâtil       Falsehood
Bid'a       Innovation in ibaddah [worship], to be
            avoided

                  The Prophet, saaws, said: "If anyone
                   introduces an innovation in the
                   religion, he will be responsible for it.
                   (Good or bad). If anyone introduces an
                   innovation or gives shelter to a man
                   who introduces an innovation (in the
                   religion) he is cursed by Allaah, by
                   His angels and by all the people."
                    [Dawud]
                  The Prophet, saaws, said: "Whoever
                   does an action which we (Allah and
                   His Messenger) have not commanded
                   it will be rejected." [Muslim - Sahih]
                  Is of two types:
                       1. Bid’a mukaffarah - That which
                           amounts to kufr and takes a
                           person out of Islaam.
                       2. Bid’a mufassaqah - That which
                           makes a person a faasiq but not
                           a kaafir.

            "In The Name of Allah", to be said by the
Bismillah   Muslim before proceeding to do that which
            is halal (permissible).




                                                              91
Da'wah                 Literally means "call", and in this sense it
                       refers to calling to the Truth through
                       preaching and propagation.
Dawat-us-              Literally means call of the past, those who
salafiyyah             preceded us. This is the spreading of Islam
(also "Dawah           in accordance with Qur'an and Sunnah,
Salafi", or "salafi    recognizing the understanding of the pious
dawah" although        Salaf in this matter as being superior (more
this is an english     accurate) than modern ideas and inventions,
transposition of the   with an intention to avoid innovation in
two words- [say        ibaddah (an all encompassing word for
DOW-uh(t) uh sal-      worship, i.e. halal [permissible] acts of
uh-FEE-uh])            submission to Allah swt).
Deen                   The Way of Life for a Muslim, i.e. religion
Dhu-Mahram             A male whom a woman can never marry
                       because of close relationship (i.e. brother,
                       father, uncle, etc.) or her own husband
Du'a                   Supplication and Invocation to Allah,
                       subhana watala
Dunya                  This world or life, as opposed to the
                       Hereafter




Fajarah                Wicked evil doers
Fajr                   The obligatory (faard) salah (prayer) before
                       sunrise
Fara'id (Faard)        Obligatory duties
Fâsiqûn                Rebellious, the disobedient to Allah swt
Fiqh                   The meaning of the word fiqh is
                       understanding, comprehension, knowledge,
                       and jurisprudence in Islam. A jurist is called
                       a Faqih who is an expert in matters of
                       Islamic legal matters.
                       A Faqih is to pass verdicts within the rules of
                       the Islamic Law namely Shariah.
                       The most famous scholars of Fiqh in the

                                                                         92
history Muslims are the founders of the four
schools of thought in Islam: Imam Malik,
Imam Ash-Shafi'i, Imam Abu Hanifah, and
Imam Ahmad.
Anything or action in Islam falls within the
following five categories of Fiqh:

   1. Fardh (Must): This category is a must
      for the Muslim to do such as the five
      daily prayers. Doing the Fardh counts
      as a good deed, and not doing it is
      considered a bad deed or a sin.

      It is also called Wajib except for Imam
      Abu Hanifah who makes Wajib a
      separate category between the Fardh
      and the Mubah.

   2. Mandub (Recommended): This
      category is recommended for the
      Muslim to do such as extra prayers
      after Zuhr and Maghrib. Doing the
      Mandub counts as a good deed and not
      doing it does not count as a bad deed
      or a sin.
   3. Mubah (Allowed): This category is
      left undecided and left for the person,
      such as eating apples or oranges.
      Doing or not doing the Mubah does
      not count as a good or bad deed.

      Intention of the person can change
      Mubah to Fard, Mandub, Makruh, or
      Haram.

      Other things could also change the
      status of the Mubah. For example, any
      Mubah becomes Haram if it is proven
      harmful, and any necessary thing to
      fulfill a Fardh is a Fardh too.



                                                93
                      4. Makruh (Hated): This category is a
                         detested and hated such as growing
                         very long fingernails or sleeping on
                         the stomach. Not doing the Makruh
                         counts as a good deed and doing it
                         does not count as a bad deed.
                      5. Haram (Prohibited): This category is
                         prohibited for the Muslim to do such
                         as stealing and lying. Doing the haram
                         counts as a bad deed and not doing it
                         counts as a good deed.

                   "Fiqh literally means, the true understanding
                   of what is intended. An example of this
                   usage can be found in the Prophet
                   Muhammad's [saaws] statement?: "To
                   whosever Allah wished good, he gives the
                   Fiqh (true understanding) of the deen".
                   Technically, however, fiqh referes to the
                   science of deducing Islamic Laws from
                   evidence found in the sources of Islamic law
Fitnah             Polytheism and to disbelieve after one has
                   believed in Allah, or a trial or a calamity,
                   affliction or to set up rivals in worship with
                   Allah, etc.
Fitrah             Islamic scholar al-Sayyuti said: "The best
                   explanation of fitrah is that it is the Sunnah
                   (way) of all of the Prophets which is in
                   agreement with (all of) the revealed Laws,
                   indicating that it is a response to naturally
                   created inclinations."




Ghaib              Unseen




Hadith / Hadeeth   Literally means "something new". In Islam,


                                                                    94
         refers to that which is attributed to the
         Prophet (saaws) as regards words, actions or
         tacit approval, physical features and
         characteristics
Halal    Permissible, lawful
Haraam   Prohibited, illegal
Hasan    Good or acceptable. Used to indicate
         authenticity of some reports
Hijab    Literally means Concealing, screening,
         protecting and is used to refer to the
         mandatory dress of the muslim, male or
         female. (Plural is hujub)
         The root word of hijab is hajaba and that
         means: hajb (to veil), cover, screen, shelter,
         seclude (from), to hide, obscure (from sight),
         to make imperceptible, invisible, to conceal,
         to make or form a separation (a woman), to
         disguise, masked, to conceal, hide, to flee
         from sight, veil, to veil, conceal, to cover up,
         become hidden, to be obscured, to vanish, to
         become invisible, disappear from sight, to
         veil, to conceal, to withdraw, to elude
         perception.

               Hajb: seclusion, screening off, keeping
                away, keeping off
               Hujub: cover, wrap, drape, a curtain, a
                woman's veil, screen, partition, folding
                screen, barrier
               Ihtijab: Concealment, hiddenness,
                seclusion, veildness, veiling, purdah
               Mahjub: concealed, hidden, veiled

Hijrah   Means migration. The Hijrah refers to the
         Prophet's migration from Mecca to Madinah.
         This journey took place in the twelfth year of
         his mission (622 C.E.). This is the beginning
         of the Muslim calendar. The word hijrah
         means to leave a place to seek sancturary or


                                                            95
                  freedom from persecution or freedom of
                  religion or any other purpose. Hijrah can also
                  mean to leave a bad way of life for a good or
                  more righteous way.
Hudud             The limits ordained by Allah. This includes
                  the punishment for crimes.




Iblîs             A jinn and shaytaan (satan)
Iftar             To break the fast
Iqâmat-as-Salât   Offer prayers perfectly
Ilâh              Deity, lord, god
Imân (Eemân)      Faith
Islam             Submission to Allah's Will
Isnad             Has two meanings:

                     1. Ascribing a hadeeth back to the one
                        who said it - connecting the chain of
                        narration, and
                     2. The chain of narrators which reaches
                        back to the text - which is the same as
                        "as-sanad"

Istawa            Rose over - very important to understand in
                  context of the ayat




Jahiliyyah        Extreme ignorance (jahl) and disbelief.
                   Often used to describe the era that preceeded
                  the revelation of the Qur'an, and ignorance in
                  general.
Jihad             To fight and kill in the path of Allah, the
                  enemies of Allah, for the cause of Allah. It
                  can also be used to mean to strive in the path


                                                                   96
          of Allah.
Jilbaab   A loose-fitting garment covering the entire
          body, so that the shape of the woman is not
          defined but hidden, including covering the
          head, face, and hands. (Plural is Jalabib)
          Shaikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah
          (Rahimahullah) relates:
          "Women used to room about without Cloaks
          (Jilbaabs) and men used to see their faces
          and hands, but when the verse stating 'O
          Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters
          and the women of the believers to draw their
          cloaks over themselves.' (Surah Al-
          Ahzaab,V.59) was revealed, then this was
          prohibited and women were ordered to wear
          the Jilbaab. ...The word Jilbaab means a
          sheet which Ibn Masood (Radhiallaahu
          Ánhu) explained as a cloak covering the
          entire body including the head, face and
          hands. Therefore, it is not permissible for the
          women to reveal the face and hands in
          public. [Ibn Taymiyyah's book on fatwaas
          Page# 110 Vol # 2 also in the book Hijaab
          Page # 15]
Jinn      A creation of Allah made from smokeless
          fire. They are also invited to accept Islam
          and will have to give account of their deeds
          on the Day of Judgement




Ka'ba     A square stone building in Al-Masjid-al-
          Haram (the well-known mosque at Makka) .
          Muslims line up in prayer facing towards this
          direction.
Kafarah   Disbelievers in Allah in His Oneness and in
          His Messenger Muhammad
Kâfirûn   Disbelievers in Allah, in His Oneness, in His


                                                            97
                   Angels, in His Books, in His Messengers, in
                   the Day of Resurrection, in Al-Qadar (Divine
                   Preordainments, good or bad), etc.
Khabîth            evil
Khutbah            A speech or sermon. It is sometimes used to
                   refer to the sermon given during the Friday
                   congregational prayer.
Kuwwirat           Wound round and lost its light and is
                   overthrown




Laghw              Dirty, false, evil vain talk




Madhdhab, Muthab Way, school of thought, direction, manner,
                 mode. A muslim should not follow a
                 madhdhab when it contradicts clear proof in
                 Quran and Sunnah.
Maulâ              Lord, Helper, Protector, Supporter, Patron
Mahram             A male, whom a woman can never marry
                   because of close relationship (e.g. a brother,
                   a father, an uncle etc.); or her own husband
Masjid             A place designated for salah. Called
                   "Mosque" in English.
Minhaj             Methodology, e.g. methods, rules, system,
                   procedures.
Muhsin             Good-doer, i.e. performs good deeds totally
                   for Allah's sake only without any show off or
                   to gain praise or fame etc., and in accordance
                   with the Sunna of Allah's Messenger
                   Muhammed
Munkar             Wrong, evil-doing, sins, polytheism,
                   disbelief, etc.
Mushrikûn          Polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in

                                                                     98
             the ONeness of Allah, those who worship
             others along with Allah, and also those who
             set up rivals with (or partners to) Allah, swt,
             etc.
Mutaffifin   Those who give less in measure and weight
             (decrease the rights of others)
Mutawattir   Literally means "succession, consecutive."
             Islamically refers to hadith which is narrated
             by such a large number of people that it is
             impossible (Allahu Alim) that they have
             invented a lie. Its conditions :

                1. That it be narrated by a large number
                   of people. Scholars differ about the
                   actual number required
                2. That this number is found in every
                   level of the isnaad
                3. That it is impossible that they could
                   have gathered together upon a lie

Muttaqûn     Pious and righteous persons who fear Allah
             swt much (abstain from all kinds of sins and
             evil deeds which Allah has forbidden) and
             love Allah much (perform all kinds of good
             deeds which Allah has ordained).




Nafs         Adam or a person or a soul etc.
Najaassa     Impurity
Nawâfil      Additional,optional practice of
             worshipprayers
Niqab        A face cover that is in an affixed position,
             i.e. a face veil.




                                                               99
Qabîluhu         Satan's soldiers from the jinns or his tribe
Qadar            Decree, Preordainment of Allah's Will. One
                 of the five pillars of Islam.
Qiblah           Prayer Direction (for Muslims, it is to face
                 the Ka'ba)
Qudsi / Qudsee   That which is narrated to us from the Prophet
                 (saaws) from his Lord, the Exalted and
                 Mighty.
                 The difference between it and the Qur’aan -
                 The most obvious differences are:

                    1. As for the Qur’aan, then its meaning
                       and wording is from Allaah and the
                       hadeeth qudsee, its meaning is from
                       Allaah and its wording from the
                       Prophet (saaws).
                    2. The Qur’aan is recited in Prayer as
                       part of worship, but the hadeeth
                       qudsee is not.
                    3. The Qur’aan is all mutawaatir and the
                       hadeeth qudsee does not have to be.

                 Compilations of ahaadeeth qudseeyyah:

                       "al-Ittihaafaatus-Saniyyah bil
                        Ahaadeethil Qudseeyyah" - `Abdur-
                        Ra’oof al-Manaawee, which contains
                        272 hadeeth.




Sadaqa           Deeds of charity done in Allah's (swt) cause
Sahabah          Companions of the Prophet
Saheeh / Sahih   Literally means "Sound, healthy."
                 Islamically it refers to the following:
                 The hadithwhose isnaad is connected
                 through "just" (‘adl) and precise (daabit)



                                                                 100
narrators from beginning to end, not being
shaadhdh or having a hidden defect (‘illah).
The five conditions :

   1. ittisaalus- sanad - - That its isnaad is
      connected. That every one of its
      narrators heard it directly from the
      person he is narrating from, from the
      start of the isnaad to the end.
   2. al-`adaalah - - That all of its narrators
      are ‘adl (just); i.e. Muslim, Of age
      (baaligh), Sane (‘aaqil), Not an open
      sinner (faasiq), and not having bad
      manners and habits (makhroomul
      maroo.ah).
   3. 3) That all of its narrators are daabit
      (precise), which is of two kinds:
          o dabtus-sadr - (precision of the
              heart) - that he memorises it
              correctly and transmits it as he
              heard it and that he understands
              it if he is reporting its meaning.
          o dabtul kitaab - (precision of
              writing) - that he correctly
              writes it down, preserves it an
              makes sure that it is passed on
              correctly.
   4. `adamush shuthooth - - That it is not
      shaadhdh. And the shaadhdh is when
      the reliable narrators contradicting
      those who are more reliable than him.
   5. `adamul `illah - - That it does not
      contain (‘illah) hidden weakness. The
      ‘illah is a non-apparent factor which
      affects the authenticity of the hadeeth,
      whilst the isnaad appears to be free
      from it, e.g. a hidden gap in the isnaad.

If any of these five conditions are not
fulfilled then the isnaad will not be saheeh.
The ruling regarding the saheeh hadeeth:


                                                   101
      It is obligatory to act upon it according
       to the consensus of the scholars of
       hadeeth and all those whose word is
       counted from the scholars of usool and
       fiqh. It is a proof in the sharee’ah and
       it is not permissible for anyone to
       leave off acting upon it.

The most authentic isnaads:

      In the view of al-Bukhaari the most
       authentic isnaad is: Maalik from
       Naafi’ from Ibn ‘Umar. [This isnaad is
       known as "silsilatudh-dhahab" (the
       chain of gold)].
      In the view of Ishaaq ibn Raahawaih
       and Ahmad the most authentic is: Az-
       Zuhree from Saalim from Ibn `Umar.
      In the view of Ibn al-Madeenee and al-
       Fallaas it is: Ibn Seereen from
       ‘Abeedah from ‘Alee.
      In the view of Ibn Ma’een it is: Al
       A’amash from Ibraaheem An-
       Nakha’ee from ‘Alqamah from
       `Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood.
      In the view of Ibn Abee Shaybah it is:
       Az-Zuhree from ‘Alee Ibn al-Husayn
       from al-Husayn from ‘Alee.

The first book written to include only the
saheeh:

      "Saheehul Bukhaari" which was
       followed by "Saheeh Muslim". The
       more authentic of the two being
       "Saheehul Bukhaari".

Neither al-Bukhaari nor Muslim tried to
gather all of the authentic ahaadeeth in their
books:


                                                   102
                        Saheehul Bukhaari contains 7,275
                         ahaadeeth including repetitions and
                         about 4,000 without repetitions.
                         Saheeh Muslim contains about 12,000
                         with repetitions and about 4,000
                         without.

                  Which of the hadeeth of al-Bukhaari and
                  Muslim have the ruling of being definitely
                  saheeh?:

                        Only the hadeeth which they report
                         with a connected isnaad are so
                         counted. As for those which are
                         reported with a narrator or narrators
                         missing from the start of the isnaad,
                         then they are termed mu’allaq. al-
                         Bukhaari often does this in the chapter
                         headings, but not within the text of his
                         book. And these narrations are of two
                         types:
                            1. That which is reported with
                                certainty, e.g. he said, he
                                ordered, he mentioned - then
                                that is judged to be saheeh from
                                the person it is narrated from.
                            2. That reported without certainty,
                                e.g. it is said that, it is reported
                                that (using the passive tense),
                                then that does not carry the
                                automatic ruling of it being
                                saheeh.

Salaf             Literally means "those (from history) who
                  precede, have gone before".
Salaf as-Saalih   The people of the past, namely the first three
                  generations of pious muslims during and
                  after the revelation of the Qur'an, i.e.the
                  Sahabah (companions) of the Prophet, saaws


                                                                       103
                 , the Taabi'een (followers) and the Taabi
                 Taabi'een (followers of the followers).
                 Islam teaches that As-Salaf as-Saalih (or
                 "Salaf" as sometimes referred to in short),
                 are superior in their understanding of the
                 Revelation of Al-Qu'ran. Generally speaking,
                 the people present during any event (such as
                 the revelation of the Quran) will understand
                 it better than those who read about it later.

                       The Prophet, saaws, said: "I am
                        leaving you two things and you will
                        never go astray as long as you cling to
                        them -- they are the Book of Allah and
                        my Sunnah." [Reported by Al-
                        Haakim - Sahih].
                       "The best of people is my generation,
                        then those who come after them, then
                        those who come after them (i.e. the
                        first three generations of Muslims)."
                        [Reported by Bukhari and Muslim-
                        Mutawaatir].
                       "My Ummah will not unite upon
                        error." [Reported by at-Tirmidhee and
                        Haakim - Sahih]

Salafi           Means "of the salaf". The "i" (sounds like
                 "ee") on the end of the word means "of the",
                 "of" and/or "are". The word "salafi" can
                 only be used in association with words that
                 are of things that are truly from the far past,
                 and in this case (when refering to Islamic
                 matters) are truly from the first three
                 generation of pious muslims.
Salafi dawah     An english transposition of "dawah salafi".
(Salafy dawah)   See dawat-us-salafiyyah
Salafi muslim    There is no such thing as a "salafi muslim"
                 (muslim of the salaf) in today's time. In order
                 to be a salaf, you had to live during the first 3
                 generations during and/or after the revelation

                                                                     104
                   of the Qur'an. To make a sunnah out of
                   calling yourself a salafi muslim is to state
                   that 1) you are of the first three generations
                   of pious muslims after the revelation of the
                   Qur'an and 2) you have potential for division
                   into a sect. One may use the word "Salafi
                   Muslim" but not make a sunnah/tradition out
                   of it, as though it is a required part of the
                   religion.
                   Those who adhere to dawat-us-salafiyyah
                   best describe themself as a "Muslim" whose
                   minhaj (methodology/system) is Qur'an and
                   Sunnah and madhdhab (way) is that of the
                   salaf.
Salâmu-'Alaikum    Peace be unto you. The greeting between
                   Muslims. Not to be said to a non-Muslim.
Sheikh (Shaykh)    1. A Muslim over 40 yrs old., or
                   2. A Muslim who is a student of knowledge.
                   Even a new Muslim can be called a Sheikh if
                   he is diligent in seeking the knowledge of
                   Islam based upon Quran and authentic
                   Sunnah. He is a Sheikh to those he can teach.
                   Not to be confused with an Alim (person of
                   knowledge).
Shi'ah (Shi'ite)   Those misguided who call themselves
                   muslims, yet who hate and curse the
                   Prophet's Companions and claim them to be
                   apostates, claim that the Qur'an has been
                   altered, was incorrectly delivered to
                   Muhammad                   , reject the
                   authentic Sunnah and/or worship the
                   Prophet's family, peace be upon them.
Shirk              To associate partners with Allah in all that is
                   particular to Allah, from love, hope, fear,
                   worship, and all other matters that are solely
                   due to Allah, swt, alone.
Sufi               A Muslim who has accepted misguidance by
                   dividing into a sect of people who worship
                   graves and saints and claim Divine

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incarnation. Tasawwuf (mystism) has come
to be known as "Sufism" in the west.
SUFI, (The Persian form of the plural being
Sufiyan). A man of the people called Sufiyah
who profess the mystic principle of
Tasawwuf. There is considerable discussion
as to the origin of this word. It is said to be
derived (1) from the Arabic Suf , "wool," on
account of the woollen dress worn by
Eastern ascetics; (2) or from the Arabic Safu,
"purity," with reference to the effort to attain
the metaphysical purity (which is scarcely
probable); (3) or from the Greek, meaning
"wisdom"; (4) or, according to the Ghiyasu'l-
Lughat, it is derived from the Su fah, the
name of the tribe of Arabs who in the "time
of ignorance," separated themselves from the
world, and engaged themselves exclusively
in the service of the Makkah Temple.
From the very days of Muhammad, saaws,
there have been always those who, whilst
they called themselves Muslims, set aside the
literal meaning of the words of Muhammad,
saaws, for a supposed mystic or spiritual
interpretation, and it is generally admitted by
Sufis that one of the great founders of their
system, as found in Islam, was the adopted
son (sic) and son-in-law of the Prophet, 'Ali
ibn Abi Talib. The Sufis themselves admit
that their religious system has always existed
in the world, prior to the mission of
Muhammad, saaws, and the unprejudiced
student of their system will observe that
Tasawwuf, or Sufism, is but a Muslim
adaptation of the Vedanta school of Hindu
philosophers (sic), and which also we find in
the writings of old academics of Greece, and
Sir William Jones thought Plato learned from
the sages of the East.
The Sufis are divided into innumerable sects,


                                                   106
           which find expression in the numerous
           religious orders of Darweshes or Faqirs; but
           although they differ in name and in some of
           their customs, as dress, meditations and
           recitations, they are all agreed in their
           principal tenets, particularly those which
           inculcate the absolute necessity of blind
           submission to a murshid, or inspired guide. It
           is generally admitted that, quite irrespective
           of minor sects, the Sufis are divided into
           those who claim to be only the Ilhamiyah, or
           inspired of God, and those who assert that
           they are Ittihadiyah, or unionist with God
           (sic).
Sunni      1. A belief or action that is in accordance
           with the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad
                          .
           2. Literally "of the Sunnah".
           3. A muslim who has Blind adherence to a
           single Imam for all Islamic rulings.
           A Muslim who has accepted misguidance by
           dividing into a sect which prescribes to only
           the madhdhab of a sole Imam and ignoring
           the consensus of the salaf when in
           contradiction to their chosen Imam (i.e.
           Madhdhab Hanafi, Madhdhab Maliki,
           Madhdhab Shaffii, Madhdhab Hanabali).
           The salaf have instructed Muslims to not pay
           heed to errors in their own teaching and the
           same should be done with any clear errors in
           the teaching of any Imam, past or present.




Tâbi'een   Those who met the Companions of the
           Prophet             and learned from
           them.
Tafseer    The explanation and understanding of the
           Qur'an or just a verse of the Qur'an


                                                            107
Tâghût    Anything worshipped other than Allah, i.e.
          all the false deities. It may be shaytaan, jinn,
          idols, stones, sun, stars, angels, human
          beings e.g. Esau (Jesus), Messengers of
          Allah swt, who were falsely worshipped and
          taken as Tâghûts. Likewise saints, graves,
          rulers, leaders, etc., are falsely worshipped,
          and wrongly followed.
Taqleed   To blindly follow a person whose following
          is not based on proof and does not rely upon
          knowledge. Also used to refer to the
          acceptance of all sayings of a person without
          knowing the evidence for the fatwa (ruling).
Taqwa     Ibn Abi Shaibah reports in 'Kitab ul Eman'
          that the tabi'ee Talq ibn Habeeb was asked to
          define taqwa, so he said, 'Taqwa is acting in
          obedience to Allah, hoping for His Mercy,
          upon light from Him, and taqwa is leaving
          acts of disobedience to Allah out of fear of
          Him, upon light from Him.'
Târiq     Night-comer, i.e. the bright star
Tayyib    All that is good as regards things, deeds,
          beliefs, persons, foods, etc.




Walî      Protector, Guardian, Supporter, Helper,
          Friend etc. [plural 'Auliyâ]




Zakât     2.5% of wealth given yearly; One of the five
          pillars (i.e. duties) of a muslim
Zâlimûn   Polytheists and wrong-doers and unjust.




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