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Negative Reinforcement (PowerPoint)

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					Negative Punishment


  The removal of a stimulus contingent
  upon a response resulting in a
  decrease in the future occurrence of
  that response
Types of Negative Punishment I:
Timeout from Positive Reinforcement
 This involves the removal of access to the sources
  of reinforcement for a particular time period
 This can be accomplished in 3 ways:
 1. The behaving person is removed from a
  reinforcing environment
 2. The reinforcing environment is removed for
  some stipulated duration
 3. The opportunity to obtain reinforcement can be
  withdrawn
 This procedure is directed toward future
  reinforcement
  Using Timeout Most Effectively
 Select a very specific behavior to decrease
 Remove ALL reinforcers from the undesired
  behavior
 Make sure the timeout area has no
  reinforcers
 Keep timeout relatively short
 Make sure the environment from which the
  child is being removed is reinforcing
 Timeout must be used consistently
  Types of Negative Punishment II:
  Response Cost
 A specified reinforcer already in the person’s
  possession is taken away contingent on an
  undesirable behavior
 Using response cost most effectively:
   1. Build up a reinforcer reserve
  2. Apply only after reinforcement has been administered
  for some time
  3. Make sure the subject has much reinforcement left
  following penalties
  4. Penalize sparingly: if the client loses all
  reinforcement, it will devalue the reinforcement

				
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posted:12/1/2011
language:English
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