Avoidance

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					Avoidance

  Ch 15
      Avoidance Contingency

Before:         Behavior:     After:
Sid will hear   Sid           Sid won’t
a loud tone     straightens   hear a loud
in 3 sec        up            tone in 3 sec
      Avoidance Contingency

Before:         Behavior:      After:
Sid will hear   Sid            Sid won’t
a click         maintains an   hear a click
immediately     erect          immediately
                posture.
      Avoidance Contingency

Before:     Behavior:   After:
You will    You drive   You won’t
have an     carefully   have an
accident                accident
soon                    soon
      Avoidance Contingency
• The immediate, response-contingent
  prevention of an aversive condition
  resulting in an increased frequency of that
  response
      Avoidance Contingency

Before:       Behavior:   After:
You will      You walk    You won’t
soon          perfectly   soon
stumble and               stumble and
fall                      fall
Avoidance of an Aversive Event
• Example: overcorrection following training
  on eye contact…

• Try using reinforcers first

• Meet ethical standards
Avoidance of an Aversive Event

Before:       Behavior:     After:
Jimmy will    Jimmy looks   Jimmy
have to       at the        won’t have
overcorrect   instructor    to
in 2 sec                    overcorrect
                            in 2 sec
 Avoidance of Loss Contingency
• The immediate, response-contingent
  prevention of loss of a reinforcer resulting
  in an increased frequency of that response.
      Avoidance of Time-Out

Before:     Behavior:    After:
The child   The child    The child
will soon   works hard   won’t soon
have to                  have to
leave the                leave the
classroom                classroom
for 3                    for 3
minutes                  minutes
    Avoidance of Reprimands
• Reprimands are specific
• BE careful about the dead man…
• Interpretation of contingencies
   Punishment???>>WRONG

Before:       Behavior:     After:
Joyce         Joyce goofs   Joyce
receives no   off           receives a
reprimands                  reprimand
                Goofs off
• Large response class
• Does not pass dead man’s test
      Avoidance Contingency

Before:        Behavior:   After:
Joyce will     Joyce       Joyce won’t
soon receive   studies     receive a
a reprimand                reprimand
                           soon
       Escape vs. Avoidance
• Prevention vs. removal
• Avoidance: the response prevents an
  aversive condition from being received
• Escape: the response causes an aversive
  condition to be removed
 Where does avoidance come from?

• What happens first?
Why is avoidance behavior
  resistant to change?
  Avoidance following escape
                  Escape
Before:                       After:
               Behavior:
Taste of hot                  Reduce taste
sauce          Drink water,   of hot sauce
               cough

                              After:
Before:        Behavior:
                              You will not
You will
               “Please, no    have hot
soon have      hot sauce”     sauce soon
hot sauce
                Avoidance
 Cued Avoidance Contingency

Before:          Escape      After:
Buzzer is on                 Buzzer is off

               Behavior:

Before:        Rat presses
                             After:
               lever
Shock will                   Shock won’t
come on in                   come on in
3 sec                        3 sec
                Avoidance
    Establish a buzzer as a
  learned aversive condition
 buzzer         shock


No buzzer      No shock
                  Buzzer
• The neutral buzzer becomes a warning
  stimulus through use of the pairing
  procedure
• The pairing procedure brings into play the
  value altering principle
Continuous Response Avoidance

Before:         Behavior:   After:
Sid will hear   Sid         Sid won’t
a click         maintains   hear a click
immediately     correct     immediately
                posture
          Noncued Avoidance

Before:       Behavior:     After:
Shock will    Rat presses   Shock will
come on in    the lever     not come on
twenty                      in twenty
seconds                     seconds
  Avoidance of Loss of a Reinforcer vs.
 Punishment by Removal of a Reinforcer
                          Avoidance of Loss
                            Contingency        Penalty
Involves the removal
of a reinforcer                 Yes             Yes
Removal is contingent
on a specific response.          No             Yes
Keeping the reinforcer
is contingent on a              Yes              No
specific response.
The frequency of the
response of interest          Increases       Decreases
  Avoidance of Loss of a Reinforcer vs.
 Punishment by Removal of a Reinforcer
                          Avoidance of Loss
                            Contingency       Penalty
Involves the removal
of a reinforcer

Removal is contingent
on a specific response.

Keeping the reinforcer
is contingent on a
specific response.
The frequency of the
response of interest
       Warning Stimulus vs.
      Discriminative Stimulus
• Warning stimulus
  – A stimulus that precedes an aversive condition
    and thus becomes a learned aversive stimulus
• Discriminative stimulus
  – A stimulus in the presence of which a response
    will be reinforced
                   Before                           After
                  (Warning
                                  Escape           Buzzer is
                  stimulus)                          off
                   buzzer          Behavior
 Sdee                             Rat presses
                                     lever
Light is on
                    Before                             After
                  Shock will                         Shock
                  come on in      Avoidance        won’t come
                    3 sec                          on in 3 sec



                      Before       Extinction           After
                     (Warning                         Buzzer is
                     stimulus)                          on
                      buzzer          Behavior
   Sdelta                            Rat presses
                                        lever
   Light is off
                       Before                               After
                     Shock will                        Shock will
                     come on in
                                   Extinction          come on in
                       3 sec                             3 sec

				
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posted:12/1/2011
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