Route 99 Corridor Improvement Guide

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					R ou te 99
Cor r id or
Im p r ove m e n t
Gu id e

  H i g h w a y 9 9 Ta s k F o r c e
                     M AY 2 0 0 4
Great Valley Center

The Great Valley Center is a regional nonprot organization working
to make California’s Central Valley a better place to live by supporting
organizations and activities that promote the economic, social, and
environmental well-being of the region.

Scenic California

Scenic California promotes programs that protect natural beauty in the
environment and promote the enhancement of scenic approaches and
settings to cities and towns in California.

Collaborative Economics

Collaborative Economics seeks out civic entrepreneurs who have the
passion, vision, and commitment to blaze a new pathway for their
community. They understand that a new kind of leadership is required
to create great places, with thriving economics and world-class quality
of life.
                                 Table of Contents

     “Highway 99 faces           Overview                                                5

                                 Background and Purpose                                  7
imminent and potentially
                                    The Opportunity                                       7

     irrevocable harm. It           Highway 99 Task Force: A Catalyst for Change          9
                                    A Vision for Route 99                                11
 also possesses a potential         Specic Benets From Corridor Improvement            12
                                    Purpose of the Route 99 Corridor Improvement Guide   13
  solution, a ‘last chance’
                                 Cleaning-up Our Corridor                                14
        for people to step          The Opportunity                                      14
                                    Adopt-A-Highway Program                              14
    forward and preserve
                                    Community Clean-up Days                              16

 their landscape before it          Measuring Progress                                   18

               is too late.”     Introducing the Unique Communities Along Our Corridor   19
                                    The Opportunity                                      19
                 Meg Maguire        Create a County Gateway                              19

     President, Scenic America      Create a Community Identier                         20
                                    Measuring Progress                                   22

                                 Promoting Our Corridor                                  23
                                    The Opportunity                                      23
                                    Use Route 99 Resources                               23
                                    Improve Signage                                      23
                                    Join the Great Valley Center’s Efforts               24
                                    Measuring Progress                                   24

                                 Transforming Our Corridor                               25
                                    The Opportunity                                      25
                                    Sinage                                               26
                                    Buildings                                            31
                                    Adjacent Roadways                                    37
                                    Land Use                                             38
                                    Line-Of-Sight Improvement                            38
                                    Cell Towers                                          40
                                    Relocating Utilities                                 41
                                    Measuring Progress                                   43
                                              Over view
                        Providing practical   This document provides practical guidance to communities that are
                                              attempting to improve their segment of the Route 99 corridor, and
                                              proposes achievable regional goals. It is divided into ve sections:
                               guidance to     • Background and Purpose—this section describes the background
                                               of the Highway 99 Task Force and the purpose of the Route 99
                              communities      Corridor Improvement Guide.

attempting to improve                          • Cleaning Up Our Corridor—this section describes how communities
                                               can use proven strategies for cleaning up their segment of Route 99.
                                               The proposed goal: for every mile of the Route 99 Corridor to be
                             the Route 99      cleaned-up on a regular basis within three years.

                                  corridor.    • Introducing the Unique Communities Along Our Corridor—this
                                               section describes how jurisdictions can create unique county gateways
                                               and community identiers while also incorporating a regional Route 99
                                               theme. The proposed goal is for all communities along Route 99, from
                                               San Joaquin to Kern Counties, to have a distinctive identier within
                                               three years.

                                               • Promoting Our Corridor—this section describes how communities
                                               can use regional promotional materials and participate in regional
                                               promotional efforts to increase the number of visitors and economic
                                               impacts. The proposed goal: to achieve higher visitor volume and
                                               economic impacts from Route 99 in every county within three years.

                                               • Transforming Our Corridor—this section describes how jurisdictions
                                               can adopt new development standards to improve the overall image
                                               by working with Caltrans on highway improvements and addressing
                                               signage, cell towers, buildings, adjacent roadways, land use, and
                                               line-of-sight issues. The proposed goal: for every jurisdiction along
                                               the Route 99 corridor, based on its unique situation, to raise one or
                                               more visual standards (development standard, improved screening
                                               practice, new vegetation program, etc.) within three years.
Photo by Matt Machado

                                                                                              Overview            5
                                                B ackg round and Pur pose
                              Leaders in some   THE OPPORTUNITY

                                                While Route 99 has been the key economic and transportation corridor
communities, working                            of the San Joaquin Valley, it also represents a common thread of history
                                                and culture to the people and communities of the region. However, in
     with state agencies,                       recent decades, it has gradually become more like the Valley’s “back
                                                alley” than its “main street.” Route 99 projects an image that reveals
          have begun to                         little of the historic signicance, strong community pride, and growing
                                                innovative economy of the region.
         transform their                        Only recently has this situation begun to change. Leaders in some
segments of the Route                           communities, working with state agencies, have begun to transform
                                                their segments of the Route 99 corridor through freeway improvements
                                                and beautication efforts. Business leaders from all parts of the region
    99 corridor through                         have begun to voice their interest in improving the “curb appeal”
                                                of the corridor, which in turn helps promote economic innovation
 freeway improvements                           and development, tourism, and the attraction of talented people and
                                                companies to the Valley.
      and beautification
                                                Transformation of the corridor should include beautication and freeway
                  efforts.                      improvements, but also new investments in economic development
                                                and quality of life, community-by-community. There are opportunities
                                                through focused investment, land use changes, and other actions to
                                                cluster innovative companies along the corridor, together with advanced
                                                communications infrastructure and educational institutions, historic and
                                                cultural attractions, and vital urban centers with a mix of housing
                                                and commerce. The transformation can also preserve the Valley’s
                                                rural heritage, by ensuring that open space and agricultural landscapes
                                                remain an integral part of the whole.

                                                While grassroots efforts to improve segments of the corridor will
                                                continue, there is an opportunity to develop a cohesive approach
                                                to transforming the Route 99 corridor into a truly compelling “Main
                                                Street of California’s Heartland – the San Joaquin Valley.” By working
                                                together, leaders across the region can showcase the unique history
                                                and innovative economies of each community, while creating an overall
                                                image of the Valley as an attractive place to live and work, and a region
                                                with a promising future.

                                                                                    Overall, the Caltrans plan for Route
                                                                                    99 encompasses 235 projects that
                                                                                    span the spectrum of transportation
                                                                                    construction: almost $1 billion in
                                                                                    capacity projects, $144 million in
                                                                                    rehabilitation, $80 million in safety
                                                                                    and operations and $40 million in
                                                                                    appearance and sound wall projects.
                                                                                    See page 7 for capacity projects
                                                                                    in the San Joaquin Valley. How
                                                                                    can the corridor leverage these
 Photo by Scenic California

                                                                                    improvements to develop Route 99
                                                                                    as the “Main Street of the San
                                                                                    Joaquin Valley”?

                                                                                   Background and Purpose              7
San Joaquin Valley Programmed Capacity Projects

County            Description                                         Program       Cost (millions)       Year

San Joaquin       Reconstruct Route 99/Hammer Lane                    STIP          21.3                  03/04

                  Widen Route 99 to six lanes between Route 4 and     STIP          32.5                  03/04
                  Hammer Lane

                  Widen Route 99 to six lanes between Arch Road       STIP          109.0                 05/06
                  and Route 4

                  Reconstruct 99/120 East Separation and Yosemite     STIP          8.6                   03/04

Stanislaus        Modify Palendale Overcrossing                       STIP          57.5                  05/06

                  Reconstruct Whitmore Overcrossing                   STIP          16.8                  04/05

Merced            Widen to six lanes between Arena Way and            STIP          30.7                  03/04
                  Hammatt Avenue near Livingston

                  Convert from expressway to freeway between          STIP          36.3                  03/04
                  Atwater Overhead and Arena Way

                  Convert from expressway to freeway between          STIP          54.8                  03/04
                  McHenry Road and Childs Avenue

                  Convert from expressway to freeway between          STIP/TCRP     127.6                 05/06
                  Buchanan Hollow Road and Healey Road

                  Convert from 4-lane expressway to 6-lane freeway    STIP/TCRP     82.4                  05/06
                  between Madera County Line and Buchanan Hollow

Madera            Convert from 4-lane expressway to 6-lane freeway    STIP          42.9                  04/05
                  between Avenue 21 and 99/152 separation

                  Modify interchanges between Gateway Drive and       STIP          6.1                   03/04
                  S. Madera Overcrossing

Fresno            Reconstruct Shaw Avenue interchange                 TCRP          25.1

                  Convert to 6-lane freeway between Route 99/201      STIP/TCRP     49.7                  02/03
                  Separation and Floral Avenue in Selma

Tulare            Widen to 6-lane freeway between Goshen              STIP          95.5                  04/05
                  Overhead and Conejo Avenue

                  Convert to 6-lane freeway from Prosperity Avenue    STIP          44.9                  10/11
                  to N. Goshen Overhead near Tulare

                  Modify Prosperity Avenue Interchange                STIP          2.9                   02/03

Kern              Reconstruct Cecil Avenue                            STIP          14.8                  02/03

                  Widen 7th Standard Road to 4 lanes near             STIP/TCRP     9.3

                  Construct sound wall at White Lane Interchange in   STIP          4.1

                                                                      STIP—State Transportation Improvement Program

                                                                      TCRP—Transportation Congestions Relief Projects

8             Route 99 Corridor Improvement Guide
                             HIGHWAY 99 TASK FORCE: A CATALYST FOR CHANGE

                             Beginning in late 2002, the Great Valley Center convened the Highway
                             99 Task Force to forge a regional collaboration to improve the corridor.
                             Leaders from jurisdictions from San Joaquin to Kern Counties have
                             joined the effort. The Task Force developed a vision, mission, and
                             four specic areas of action and created an inventory of corridor
                             assets and a detailed scenic inventory with Scenic California (go to
                    for more information on the Task Force).

                             The Task Force is also working on the development of a regional
                             theme for the corridor—a broad, consistent framework within which
                             communities alonig Route 99 can access their unique qualities and
                             develop interpretive elements to travelers.

                             The Task Force will continue to reach out to business leaders, cities, and
                             others who have the most to gain from the transformation of the Route
                             99 corridor. All stakeholders must be engaged and part of the coalition
                             that will identify needed changes and advocate for them in their own
                             communities, as well as regionally and with state and federal agencies.

                             The Task Force will also focus on long-term commitments to maintain
                             and upgrade new improvements to the corridor over time. Without such
                             commitments, the corridor will run the risk of falling back into decline
                             once the initial burst of funding and enthusiasm for projects subsides.
Photo by Scenic California

                                                                Background and Purpose               9
Vision, Mission and Action Areas of the Task Force

The vision of the Task Force:

     For Route 99 to become the Main Street of the San
     Joaquin Valley, celebrating and educating about the
     region’s history and cultures, creating an attractive image
     of a dynamic Valley, and generating lasting economic,
     social, and environmental benets.

The mission of the Task Force is to create an integrated, multi-region
strategy to make corridor improvements that achieve the above vision.
To fulll the mission, we will have to:

     • Integrate multiple dimensions (environmental/scenic, economic,
     social/cultural) in an overall improvement strategy

     • Forge collaboration among many organizations (public, private,
     nonprot) in planning and implementation

     • Mobilize a broad coalition of people (civic engagement) in planning
     and implementation

The four specic areas of action developed by the Task Force are:

     •   Clean-up and beautication
     •   Gateways and identiers
     •   Regional promotion
     •   Development standards.

     As opposed to working independently on their own grassroots efforts, the
     group has dened a rationale for working together

         • Produces positive economic benets for the entire region.
         A comprehensive transformation of Route 99 becomes a new catalyst for
         economic development and tourism across jurisdictions well beyond the
         positive benets of local beautication efforts.

         • Creates the capacity to do signicant, large-scale improvements.
         A unied effort, across several counties and sectors, can make the case
         for and successfully leverage large amounts of resources to begin the
         transformation well beyond what grassroots efforts could leverage acting

         • Provides a focal point for connecting grassroots
         efforts, linking interested parties regionwide, sharing
         good ideas, and promoting the overall concept.            A
         regional effort provides a visible advocate and forum for
         exchanging information, creative ideas, and local plans for
         transforming the Route 99 corridor.

     In each case, a regional effort has signicant advantages over
     the current approach, which relies entirely on the emergence of
     independent grassroots efforts along different segments of the
     Route 99 corridor.

10            Route 99 Corridor Improvement Guide
                                                                A VISION FOR ROUTE 99

                                                                The vision for Route 99 is a corridor that

                                                                • Tells a regional story—unique towns, communities, history, cultures;
                                                                calls out landmarks and unique attributes (e.g., Kingsburg water tower,
Photo by Annabelle Poynter

                                                                valley oaks); links city and county stories into a compelling whole;
                                                                Route 99 as the “river of life” in the Valley; changes image of Valley
                                                                among residents as well as outsiders.

                                                                • Reects a diversity of scenes and uses—vistas to towns, mountain
                                                                scapes to river crossings, diversity of agriculture and emerging
                                                                industries, view corridors.

                                                                • Gives a sense of arrival as travelers move along the corridor (offers
                                                                “gateways” to distinctive, unique cities and vistas; good local signage;
                                                                series of interpretive centers/rests stops).

                                                                • Provides compelling reasons to exit Route 99 (e.g., signage,
                                                                audio travel guide to regional assets and attractions, coordinated
                                                                tourism efforts, fruit stands and other opportunities to buy produce,
                                                                nice places to stop, seasonal events, things to keep kids interested,
                                                                access to social and cultural web that extends well beyond the highway,
                                                                tap into strong literary tradition).
                                   The Swedish Village
                                   --------------------         • Provides smooth and efcient travel for people and goods (e.g.,
                                                                highway improvements, adoption of innovative technologies for surfaces
                                 Settled in the late 1800s      and automobiles and trafc ow; connection to transit).
                                 by Swedish immigrants,
                               Kingsburg is known as the        • Projects an image of an economically productive region.

                             Swedish Village. To reflect the    • Is clean and attractive (trash cleanup; weed removal; billboard
                             heritage and friendliness of its   control; barriers between the highway & blighted areas; oleanders,
                                                                plans, walls etc.).
                             citizens, the city’s water tower
                             is shaped as a large coffee pot.   • Provides good access to corridor businesses (today: few front
                                                                yards/business fronts on Route 99; instead, scrap yards; access to
                                                                business is off Route 99 on feeder roads).

                                                                • Has consistent, but diverse landscaping and signage (e.g., lush
                                                                greens and wildowers, oleanders as medians, individual community
                                                                approaches/gateways with signage; signage using images/pictures
                                                                along corridor; connection to Route 66 - 99; cities could regulate
                                                                landscaping for business along corridors).

                                                                • Connects, rather than divides communities.

                                                                • Attains U.S. Scenic Highway designation.

                                                                                                   Background and Purpose            11

                             The Task Force also identied specic environmental/scenic, economic
                             and social benets expected from improvements to the corridor.

                             • Environmental/Scenic Benets—Examples: better quality of life for
                             residents, better/healthier environmental quality, more pleasing views

                                  -   positive identity
                                  -   uniqueness of communities
                                  -   consistent/thematic landscaping
                                  -   air/water quality improvements
                                  -   better aesthetics including public art, scenic vistas, etc.

                             • Economic Benets—Examples: increased tourism revenues, higher-
                             quality economic development, downtown revitalization, better trafc

                                  -   increasing tourism revenues
                                  -   more efcient movement of goods and people
                                  -   growing economic diversity
                                  -   greater feeling of vitality
                                  -   more rms/employees that value high quality of life
                                  -   rising property values

                             • Social Benets—Examples: preservation of historic and cultural
                             traditions, attraction and retention of high-skill workers, job creation
                             for disadvantaged populations, greater civic engagement of general

                                  - growing number of quality jobs that enable our children to stay
                                  - greater afnity for place/community pride
                                  - healed divisions/increased connections within communities bisected
                                  by Route 99
                                  - create a driving experience that is safe, interactive, and historically
                                  and culturally rich.

                                                                                                              Highway Art
                                                                                                              A partnership between the Rotary
                                                                                                              Club of Fresno, Caltrans, and area
                                                                                                              high schools have produced four
                                                                                                              mosaic murals along Route 99 in
                                                                                                              the Clovis area. Depicting various
                                                                                                              scenes in the Valley, the mosaics
Photo by Scenic California

                                                                                                              measure 8’ by 20’ and consist of
                                                                                                              25,000 tiles. Thousands of hours
                                                                                                              of community volunteer time went
                                                                                                              into planning and creating the art
                                                                                                              in an effort to beautify the highway
                                                                                                              and show community pride.

                             12            Route 99 Corridor Improvement Guide
                                 PURPOSE OF THE ROUTE 99 CORRIDOR IMPROVEMENT

                                 The Task Force developed this document to provide practical guidance
                                 to communities along the corridor that share the vision of a transformed
                                 Route 99, one that produces economic, environmental, and social
                                 benets to the people of the San Joaquin Valley.

                                 The purpose of the document is to identify options for improvement that
                                 communities can consider, choosing the best combination for them. The
                                 intent is not to prescribe a single course of action, but rather to offer
                                 alternatives, innovative strategies, and ongoing support to communities
                                 who voluntarily choose to join in the regional effort to improve the Route
                                 99 corridor.

                                 The Guide is also intended to be an ever-changing document and will
                                 be updated as jurisdictions develop better strategies for improving the

                                 The Guide describes strategic options and specic implementation steps
                                 and resources that communities can use to help in implementation. At
                                 the end of each section, the Guide provides a progress roadmap for
                                 communities to chart their initial baseline situation and track progress
                                 over time.

                                 The Task Force will work with jurisdictions to develop a regional progress
                                 roadmap to document positive changes to Route 99, and share progress
                                 with potential funders and other partners who can help communities
                                 continue to improve the Route 99 corridor.

               The Mammoth Orange
   Located between Fairmead and
       Chowchilla, the Mammoth
       Orange is a popular stop for
   travelers along Route 99. After
         Caltrans expansions of the                                                                           Photo by Monica Lee and Sally Ly

  highway in 1954, the Mammoth
        Orange was relocated to its
  current location. Doris Stiggins
   and her husband Jim have been
     the owners of the last Orange
restaurant in the Central Valley for
                    the last 20 years.

                                                                    Background and Purpose              13
Cleaning-up Our Cor r idor

The most basic step any community can take—one that will make
an immediate difference in the quality of their segment of Route
99—is to clean up trash, grafti, and other refuse along the right-of-
way. By including the planting of owers, trees, or other landscaping,
communities can rapidly change the image of Route 99 at a modest

This section describes two options that have proven effective along the
corridor, elsewhere in California, and/or nationally:

     • Adopt-A-Highway Program
     • Community Clean-Up Days

These strategies can be pursued by individual jurisdictions, but
collaboration across jurisdictions can deliver a bigger impact. Coordinated
adoption or clean-up days could improve substantial segments of the
corridor fairly quickly.


When local businesses, organizations, and individuals adopt a section
                                                                              Challenge Local Groups!
of highway, they demonstrate pride in their community while making
the roads cleaner and more beautiful, and helping to prevent pollutants       --------------------
from entering waterways. Along Route 99, community members who                Agriculture related groups
participated in Adopt-A-Highway cared for 204 miles as of January 2004.
Managed by the local Caltrans district ofces, the program has adoption
                                                                              including Sun-Maid Growers,
opportunities to remove litter, plant trees, shrubs or wildowers, or         Sherian Ranch, and the Joe
remove grafti as needed from highway structures. The participants will       L. Pires & Rosie Pires Dairy
be given needed materials for removing litter, but will generally provide
their own materials for planting or grafti removal. Adoptions last for       have together adopted fifteen
two years, and are renewable if the organization satisfactorily meets the     miles of the Route 99
terms of their current adoption.
                                                                              corridor. Burger King, Baja
     1. Decide on the general location and type of adoption (do the           Fresh, and Subway have
     work yourself, or hire a contractor) that you want.                      adopted more than seven
     2. Call the local Adopt-A-Highway Coordinator (Fresno,                   miles along Route 99. Each
     559-488-4022; Stockton, 209-948-7462) to discuss available               community along the
     adoption opportunities and select a specic site.
                                                                              corridor has the opportunity
     3. Send a signed and completed copy of the Adopt-A-Highway               to make a challenge to
     Permit Application to the local Adopt-A-Highway Coordinator.             its local businesses and
     Groups using contractors must have their contractor submit a
     separate application. (                      industries to do their part in
                                                                              making Route 99 a positive
     4. Participants in planting or vegetation-control adoption must          reflection of the community.
     prepare and submit all required plans and schedules within 30
     calendar days after the application is received.                         Car dealerships, real estate
                                                                              developers, and service clubs
     5. Obtain approval of your recognition panel’s wording and
     design from the Adopt-A-Highway Coordinator.
                                                                              are just a few examples of
                                                                              groups who might respond
     6. Wait for an Adopt-A-Highway Encroachment Permit to arrive             positively to an invitation to
     in the mail. This could take several weeks.
                                                                              help improve the corridor.

14         Route 99 Corridor Improvement Guide
7. Call the Caltrans representative listed on the Encroachment
Permit and schedule a safety orientation.

8. Attend the safety orientation and collect the Adopt-A-Highway
supplies, safety equipment, and safety video.

9. Provide safety training and safety equipment to all group
members before working.

10. Notify the Caltrans representative shown on the permit at
least ve days prior to each work event. Begin work within 30
calendar days of the permit’s start date.

11. Abide by the provisions listed in the Encroachment Permit
package and enjoy participating in the Adopt-A-Highway Program
along with the thousands of other dedicated Californians.

                      Percent of Route 99 Miles Adopted
                                         May 2004




   60%                                                         65
   50%                                                54
             7-county average

            39                              38
   30%                31

          Fresno      Kern      Madera    Merced      San   Stanislaus Tulare

                                      Source: Caltrans Adopt-A-Highway Records

                       Miles Adopted                Miles Remaining

         Fresno              24.480                     38.720

         Kern                31.520                     71.060

         Madera              32.480                     20.430

         Merced              28.570                     46.034

         San Joaquin         42.200                     35.366

         Stanislaus          32.210                     17.290

         Tulare              19.130                     80.470

                                    Cleaning-up Our Corridor                  15
                                                                                           Dear Bakersfield,
Another option is to institute community clean-up days. There are                      Will you be my Valentine?
many models from across the country, including some within the Valley.
Such days can be elaborately-planned or modestly-organized efforts.
They can be held in conjunction with Adopt-A-Highway efforts, or on                   On Saturday, February 14,
their own. It is up to each jurisdiction to develop the strategy that                   2003, volunteers from
works best. See the next page for a detailed implementation timeline.
However, based on best practices, here are some important steps:                     Bakersfield partnered with
                                                                                     the City, County, and Keep
     1. Identify interested entities (cities, counties, COGs, Caltrans,                Bakersfield Beautiful to
     other community stakeholders).
                                                                                      clean-up one of the area’s
     2. Form a committee. Make sure the following areas are                          worst dump sites. Together,
     covered: fundraising, volunteer recruitment, publicity.
                                                                                       they cleared over 9 tons
     3. Outreach to political bodies. Request support in the form                     of trash, old couches, and
     of a resolution and, if possible, nancial support (e.g. cities,                       discarded tires.
     counties, Senate/Assembly, Governor Proclamations).

     4. Pursue other funding, including sponsorships, grants and                          Bakersfield’s Valentine
     donations of equipment and materials (e.g. gloves, rakes).
                                                                                          Project built upon an
     Seek free services from waste hauling companies and a waiver
     of County waste disposal fees.                                                   ongoing community effort
                                                                                        to clean-up Bakersfield,
     5. Prepare and distribute publicity materials (e.g., poster/yer,
     public service announcements, press releases (templates,                           which included massive
     consistency, ll-in names), group sign-up sheets).                                participation in the Great
                                                                                       American Clean-up in the
     6. Recruit volunteers (i.e. contact person leads recruitment),
     focus on groups (Service Clubs, Churches, Corporate), coordinate                spring of 2003. During that
     with Caltrans (identify areas, safety measures, insurance).                       clean-up, more than 2,200
     7. Organize signed-up groups (i.e. meet with group leaders,                     volunteers cleared litter from
     conduct Caltrans Safety Meeting, distribute maps with work                        60 sites. The clean-up was
     area and parking/staging area and lled-bag pick-up location                     the largest of its kind in the
     dened, distribute t-shirts, bags, water bottles, gloves, rakes,
     organize for walk-ons (park location).                                                      country.

     8. Hold thank you party (e.g. food, booths, dignitaries,
     speakers). There may be opportunities to partner with a
     volunteer organization to combine the thank you party with a
     community party or event such as an earth-day fair.

     For more information, contact
     Keep Bakerseld Beautiful.
                                                Photo by Keep Bakerseld Beautiful

16          Route 99 Corridor Improvement Guide
Community Clean-up Implementation Timeline

1 year     Organize the lead committee, include members with strong ties to local business,
           government entities, Caltrans, volunteer organizations to build strong support base.

           Recruit for subcommitees as needed, depending upon the tasks.               Conrm the

8 months   Develop database of potential volunteers, including key clubs, Kiwanis, Rotary,
           businesses, church groups, Scouts/Campre. Include addresses for mailing information
           and phone numbers for follow-up.

           Work with local, county, state government representatives to develop political support
           and PR opportunities for day of event.

6 months   Develop business partnerships, court in-kind donations or air-time/publicity. cleaning
           supplies (especially gloves and garbage bags), food and refreshments for volunteers.

           Identify a map for use in designating cleaning areas (possibly use re maps).

           Work with Caltrans and local government to determine which parts of the community
           would most benet from clean-up, and approximately how many people would optimally
           work on each of those sections.

           Start bidding process or identify business partnerships for provision of food for Thank
           You Party.

4 months   Send letters to potential volunteer groups.

           Start bidding process/identify business partner for in-kind donation for event t-shirts.

3 months   Follow-up on letters with a phone call to potential volunteer group leaders, tell them
           nal registration date.

2 months   Put out a media blitz one or two weeks before the nal registration deadline to remind
           people and to help generate excitement.

           Final registration date for volunteer groups. In registration packet, collect sizes for
           t-shirts (if matching shirts will be distributed for the event).

           Meet with leaders to distribute information, explain safety precautions and how the
           event will work.

           Decide where walk-ons will be utilizaed. Possible park or downtown clean-up areas.

1 month    Send out packets to volunteer group leaders. Include: a map identifying their target, a
           schedule for the clean-up day, and any other necessary information.

           Order t-shirts.

           Arrange for administrative stafng for the day of the event.

           Arrange for press coverage of the event.

2 weeks    Media campaign to generate excitement and remind people to start counting down to

           Double-check all provisions.

1 week     Prepare t-shirts, gloves and bags for distribution to volunteers.

                                                              Cleaning-up Our Corridor            17
                 MEASURING PROGRESS

                 The Task Force has proposed the following regional goal: every mile
                 of the Route 99 Corridor will be cleaned up on a regular basis within
                 three years. Each jurisdiction can set a goal to have all their segments
                 of Route 99 either “adopted” by a local group, or the subject of regular
                 community clean-up days, or some other innovative strategy.

                 Working with local communities, the Highway 99 Task Force will develop
                 and collect measures of progress and impact from clean-up efforts.
                 Ultimately, the measures will include:

                      • Very low levels, and rapid removal of, trash, grafti, and other
                      refuse along the right-of-way (and adjacent roadways).

                      Initially, measures of progress will include:

                      • New applications for adopt-a-highway and/or clean-up days

                      • Miles of freeway adopted or subject to clean-up on a regular basis
                      (and adjacent roadways).

                                                                                               Tulare Youth Make A Difference
                                                                                             Community Services &
                                                                                             Employment Training (C-SET),
                                                                                             a Community Action Agency,
                                                                                             seeks to strengthen youth,
                                                                                             families and communities
                                                                                             through education, employment
                                                                                             training, youth development,
Photo by C-SET

                                                                                             mentoring, leadership building,
                                                                                             job creation, environmental
                                                                                             stewardship and other strategies
                                                                                             that support self-reliant families
                                                     and caring communities. C-SET’s focus was to make a difference
                                                     in the underserved unincorporated rural communities having the
                                                     Youth Leadership Groups provide the leadership and organization
                                                     for the projects. In all, a total of 1,162 youth and adult community
                                                     members across 17 Tulare County communities volunteered. In
                                                     Tipton volunteers mowed senior citizen’s lawns, while in Goshen
                                                     volunteers removed litter from 8 miles of road.

                                                     Jennifer Wood, Goshen Office

                 18          Route 99 Corridor Improvement Guide
Photo by Monica Lee and Sally Ly
                                                                   Introducing the Unique
                                                                   Communities Along Our
                                                                   Cor r idor
                                                                   THE OPPORTUNITY

                                                                   Every community along the Route 99 corridor has a unique history,
                                                                   culture, and set of attractions and events that can be communicated
                                                                   to travelers. The most basic step a community can take, one that
                                                                   will make an immediate difference to travelers, is to create a county
                                                                   gateway or community identier. Some communities, like Ripon, have
                                                                   created attractive signage with landscaping, but many jurisdictions are
                                                                   either identied by a generic Caltrans marker, or nothing at all.

                                                                   This section describes options that have proven effective, either along
                                                                   the corridor, elsewhere in California, or nationally:
                                   Where the Palm Meets the Pine
                                        --------------------          • Create a County Gateway (on the Caltrans right-of-way). A
                                                                      Gateway is a free-standing object which meets the approval of
                                         A landmark along             Caltrans and serves as a county-wide symbol.
                                    Highway 99, the palm and
                                    pine trees mark the center        • Create a Community Identier (either on or off the right-of-way).
                                                                      A Community Indentier can be implemented on or near certain
                                     of California—the pine           Caltrans structures associated with the 99 Corridor or be placed on
                                    representing the beautiful        land not under the jurisdiction of Caltrans.
                                      landscape of Northern
                                     California and the palm       CREATE A COUNTY GATEWAY
                                   representing the sunshine of
                                                                   Counties have the opportunity to construct a gateway on the Caltrans
                                       Southern California.        right-of-way, to welcome travelers to the county. Key considerations

                                                                      • May be a free-standing structure on the Caltrans right-of-way, with
                                                                      a limit of one per county in each direction on the major highways.

                                                                      • Approval process through Caltrans may be lengthy and design
                                                                      constraints from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and
                                                                      Caltrans may be restrictive. However, FHWA and Caltrans may, in
                                                                      the future, reach an agreement on general gateway guidelines for
                                                                      the highway in which case the approval process for new gateways
                                                                      may be streamlined.

                                                                   Additional considerations suggested by the Task Force include:

                                                                      1.   Logo okay if adopted by the Board of Supervisors.
                                                                      2.   Colors cannot conict with or mimic Caltrans signage.
                                                                      3.   Signs at ground level.
                                                                      4.   Free standing, but not billboard type.
                                                                      5.   Not to exceed 44’ x 16’.
                                                                      6.   Possible passive illumination.
                                                                      7.   No changeable messages or images.
                                                                      8.   Landscaping is okay.

                                                                   Implementation checklist

                                                                      1. Board of supervisors governing jurisdiction must adopt a
                                                                      resolution calling for a County Gateway.
                                                                      2. Obtain Caltrans approval.

                                                                      Introducing the Unique Communities Along Our Corridor             19
                                  3. Obtain encroachment permit from Caltrans.
                                  4. The gateway design should
                                       a. Place the gateway thirty feet from the shoulder white line.
                                       b. Include maintenance access from the right-of-way
                                  5. The gateway design may incorporate the corridor theme.
                                  6. Liability and maintenance will be covered by an agreement
                                  between the jurisdiction and Caltrans.

                                - Caltrans District Landscape Architect
                                     District 6, Lori Butler – (559) 230-3134, Kern, Tulare, Fresno,
                                     and Madera Counties

                                      District 10, Elbert Cox – (559) 230-3146, Merced, Stanislaus,
                                      and San Joaquin Counties

                                  - Route 99 Master Plan
                                       Randy Treece, Senior Transportation Planner – (559) 488-4153,

                             CREATE A COMMUNITY IDENTIFIER

                             City and communities have two options for identier signs. They can be
                             built on the Caltrans right-of-way by adding onto an existing highway
                             structure or can be built off of the right-of way.

                             Identier Signs on the Caltrans Right-of-Way

                             • Placed on existing highway features (e.g. sound walls, over crossings,
                             decorated concrete)

                             • The advantage of this approach is that the land is already publicly

                             • The disadvantages are that plans and work must be approved by
                             Caltrans, which may take more time, and the identier may not be
                                                                                       Photo by City of Bakerseld
Photo by Scenic California

                             20         Route 99 Corridor Improvement Guide
                             Additional considerations suggested by the Task Force include:

                                 1. Logos or name of entity: simple, limited wording.
                                 2. Colors cannot conict with or mimic Caltrans signage.
                                 3. No denite size.
                                 4. Possible passive illumination.
                                 5. Landscaping is okay.
                                 6. Limit the number of existing highway features that could be
                                 aesthetically treated.

                             Implementation checklist

                                 1. Work with the Landscape Architecture and HQ Engineering
                                 Services of Caltrans to develop an identier as a structure aesthetic
                                 2. Obtain Caltrans encroachment permit.
                                 3. Develop liability and maintenance agreement with Caltrans.
                                 4. The Identier design should not impede Caltrans inspections or
                                 maintenance of structures.
                                 5. The Identier design may incorporate the corridor theme.

                                - Caltrans District Landscape Architect
                                     District 6, Lori Butler – (559) 230-3134, Kern, Tulare, Fresno,
                                     and Madera Counties

                                        District 10, Elbert Cox – (559) 230-3146, Merced, Stanislaus,
                                        and San Joaquin Counties

                                 - Route 99 Master Plan
                                      Randy Treece, Senior Transportation Planner – (559) 488-4153,

                             Identier Signs off of the Caltrans Right-of-Way

                             • The advantages of this approach include a high level of community
                             control over the nished product.

                             • The disadvantages include the likelihood that the community must
                             obtain/arrange for land (unless already publicly owned and available).

             Ripon Indentifier on the
              Caltrans Right-of-Way
       Located along Route 99 at
                                                                                                         Photo by the Great Valley Center

    the Jack Tone Interchange, the
Ripon community identifier puts
a bright face forward to drivers as
   they approach the community.

                  City of Ripon
                (209) 599-2108

                                Introducing the Unique Communities Along Our Corridor              21
• May use billboard space as an identier sign. In the San Joaquin
Valley there are examples of a county sign on donated property
(Fresno), city-related billboard (Kingsburg, Chowchilla), and a county-
purchased billboard (Welcome to Stanislaus County).         A gateway
billboard decreases the amount of advertising along the corridor and is
a relatively affordable way to welcome drivers to your community.

Additional considerations suggested by the Task Force include:

     1.   Logos or name of entity: wording not limited.
     2.   Colors cannot conict with or mimic Caltrans signage.
     3.   Ground level.
     4.   Size not limited except by good taste.
     5.   Possible passive illumination or lights to shine up on structure.
     6.   No changeable messages or images.
     7.   Landscaping is encouraged.
     8.   Limited number per agency.

Implementation checklist

     1. A sign may be approved by a local jurisdiction, or may be
     designed independently. Signs that are not adopted by the local
     governing jurisdiction as an ofcial sign may be subject to outdoor
     advertising requirements and local zoning constraints.

     2. The identier sign should be strategically located.

     3. The identier sign may incorporate the corridor theme.

   - Route 99 Master Plan
        Randy Treece, Senior Transportation Planner – (559) 488-4153,


The Task Force has proposed the following regional goal: all communities
along Route 99, from San Joaquin to Kern Counties, will have plans for
locations of a distincitive identier within three years. Each jurisdiction
can set a goal to having researched options for a distinctive county
gateway or community identier (on or off the right-of-way), depending
on what ts local circumstances and preferences best.

Working with local communities, the Highway 99 Task
Force will develop and collect measures of progress and
impact from gateway and identier development efforts.
Ultimately, the measures will include:

     • Full implementation of new county gateways and
     community identiers, with ongoing maintenance and
     related commitments in place.

Initially, measures of progress will include:
                                                                              Photo by Scenic California

     • Initiation of process to establish a county gateway or
     community identier, and milestones achieved during
     the planning and implementation process (approval,
     design, implementation).

22            Route 99 Corridor Improvement Guide
                             Promoting Our Cor r ido r
                             THE OPPORTUNITY

                             With the increasing improvement of the Route 99 corridor, cities and
                             counties have the opportunity to promote their unique attractions and
                             events to visitors and Valley residents alike, generating new economic
                             benets for the people of the region. In fact, by connecting with other
                             jurisdictions, they can gain added benets from being part of a regional
                             continuum of attractions and events. Even jurisdictions that do not
                             border Route 99 can benet from promotional efforts to “pull” travelers
                             into their communities.

                             There are three initial steps local leaders can take to participate in
                             regional promotion of the Route 99 corridor:

                               • Use the Route 99 resources
                               • Improve signage
                               • Join the Great Valley Center’s efforts

                             USE THE ROUTE 99 RESOURCES

                             Regional resources that can be used in promotional efforts include:

                               • Great Valley Center’s Guide to Unique Attractions in the San
                               Joaquin Valley, available from Rebekah Turnbaugh at the Great
                               Valley Center (

                               • “Highway through the Heartland,” published in Via Magazine.
                               Available at
                               articles/Highway_Heartland04.asp as of March 2004. Copies
                               may be obtained by contacting Rebekah Turnbaugh

                             Local communities can redesign and repackage their promotional
                             materials to incorporate the Route 99 Regional Theme and regional

                                                 IMPROVE SIGNAGE

                                                 Communities on and off Route 99 can improve
                                                 signage that alerts travelers to local attractions and
                                                 events. They can also signal to travelers that their
                                                 local attractions and events are part of a regional
                                                 trail of attractions and events by incorporating
                                                 the Route 99 Regional Theme into their signage.
                                                 Consult the following section on Transforming
Photo by Scenic California

                                                 Our Corridor for information on tourist-oriented
                                                 directional signs (TODS) as well as how to integrate
                                                 the regional theme of the Highway 99 Caltrans
                                                 Master Plan into your efforts.

                                                                 Promoting Our Corridor             23
                                                                                     Communities can
Communities can also contribute their ideas and join with others
in promotional partnerships by joining the Highway 99 Task Force,                    contribute their
and serving on Task Force’s Regional Promotion Team. In this way,
community leaders can benet by:                                                     ideas and join
     • Providing material on local attractions and events that can be                with others in
     incorporated into regional promotional materials.

     • Join with other jurisdictions in collaborative marketing efforts,
     linking attractions and events.
     • Develop and share new ideas for how to best promote the diverse
     attractions and events along the Route 99 corridor.

     • Learn about best practices from other regions.

     • Jointly raise funds for collaborative marketing activities.

Contact Rebekah Turnbaugh of the Great Valley Center for more
information (


The Task Force has proposed the following regional goal: to achieve
higher visitor volume and economic impacts from Route 99 in every
county from San Joaquin to Kern within three years. Each jurisdiction
can set a goal to generate more visitor volume and revenues depending
on local sites and events.

Working with local communities, the Highway 99 Task Force will develop
and collect measures of progress and impact from regional promotional
efforts. Ultimately, the measures will include:

      • Growth in tourists and tourism revenue.
      • Other economic impacts attributable to Route 99 improvements
      and promotional efforts.

Initially, measures of progress will include:

      • Usage of Route 99 regional resources (distribution, evidence
      of use by travelers to get discounts at establishments along and
      off the corridor).

                                                      Vintage postcards refer to the region’s
                                                      agricultural and industrial history.

24           Route 99 Corridor Improvement Guide
                             Transfor ming Our Cor r idor
                             THE OPPORTUNITY

                             Each segment of the Route 99 corridor possesses a different mix of land
                             uses including billboards, cell towers, buildings, and other attributes,
                             which combine to create an overall picture. In most communities along
                             the corridor, at least some of these individual attributes obscure scenic
                             vistas or project an image that is undesirable to residents. While most
                             jurisdictions have development standards that pertain to their segment
                             of the corridor, few address the corridor as a special attribute that could
                             be treated differently than other kinds of land.

                             The opportunity for individual jurisdictions is to transform their segment
                             of the corridor over time by encouraging development that reects
                             the desired community image. Towards this end, the guidance of
                             the community will be sought by the Landscape Architects for the
                             Department of Transportation, in the process of making design decisions
                             for various locations along Route 99. In these areas, local communities
                             have the opportunity to visually connect to the highway’s landscape and
                             translate their city’s image onto the state’s right-of-way.

                             On projects funded for “full highway planting” the following areas
                             on highway landscapes can be detailed according to specic needs
                             or general plans. Smaller projects may only receive portions of the
                             following list.

                                1.   Gore paving – colored and textured to match cities needs
                                2.   Detailed planting at on/off ramps and entryways
                                3.   Mulching of open areas to keep weeds down
                                4.   Wild ower seeding

                             On roadway projects that do not affect existing landscape or qualify for
                             the installation of new landscape, the following areas can be detailed
                             according to specic needs or general plans.

                                             1.   Gore paving
                                             2.   Wild ower seeding
                                             3.   Median barrier aesthetics
                                             4.   Bridge facade aesthetics
                                             5.   Slope paving
                                             6.   Choice of three standard bridge fence details
                                             7.   Sound wall design
Photo by Scenic California

                                                                  Transforming Our Corridor          25
It is the goal of this document to promote the ability and need for
local communities to build upon the above-standard highway attributes.
The following areas could be added to in great detail and create huge
impacts on highway users.

     1.    Highway artwork
     2.    Greater detailed planting
     3.    Bridge planting
     4.    Maintenance of the enhanced planting
     5.    Prolic use of the Adopt-A-Highway program
     6.    Bridge facade aesthetics
     7.    Bridge fencing
     8.    Lighting
     9.    Monumentation both on and off the state’s right-of-way
     10.   Undergrounding unsightly utilities

                                                                            Photo by Scenic California
     11.   Reduction or deletion of billboard advertising
     12.   Signage restrictions
     13.   Adjacent property guidelines

Contact: Patrick Boyd (, Landscape Associate
for Caltrans District 6.

The choice of areas and specic standards, of course, must be
determined by the individual jurisdiction. This Guide identies potential
areas for change and steps for improving standards in each area, for
communities to utilize in assembling their own customized package of

This section describes areas of focus that have proven effective, either
along the corridor, elsewhere in California, or nationally:

     •   Signage (including billboards)
     •   Buildings
     •   Adjacent Roadways
     •   Land Use
     •   Line-of-Sight Improvements
     •   Cell Towers
     •   Relocating Utilities


Jurisdictions that want to raise development standards for signage can
inuence new or existing signage, or both. Jurisdictions can determine
how far to go in raising standards based on local conditions. Improving
signage can be a boon to tourism. For example, in Vermont, tourist
spending rose 50 percent in the rst two years after the state’s last
billboards were removed. (Vermont Department of Tourism)

Inuencing New Signage

There are several options for controlling the development of new signs.
Generally, billboards can be limited to commercial and industrial areas.
In most ordinances, this limitation is done by exclusion (i.e. most
ordinances list the types of signs that can be constructed in a given
zoning district). Other options are:

• Establishing or raising permit fees for new signs—A permit fee
can make the installation of new billboards less protable, thereby
encouraging other land uses.

26            Route 99 Corridor Improvement Guide
                                                                          - An annual fee could be sufcient to cover the city’s cost of
                                                                          controlling billboards (pay for time of a sign code administrator).

                                                                          - The fee could be higher for off-premise signs along scenic corridors
                                                                          than for those outside scenic corridors.

                                                                      • Raising standards for new signs—To lay the groundwork for guiding
                                                                      and improving the types of signage that will be built in the future,
                                                                      a jurisdiction may choose to pass ordinances that limit aspects of

                                                                          - Animation/Flashing (many ordinances prohibit all animated signs
                                                                          that change more than eight times an hour or ashing signs, except
                                                                          for signs that tell the time and temperature alternately)

                                                                          - Revolving (many ordinances disallow signs that revolve or move)

                                                                          - Dimensions (height, ratio of height to frontage, size)

                                                                          - Placement (limit the placement of signs on roofs, limit or ban off
                                                                          premise signs/billboards)

                                                                          - Encourage use of architectural elements from the project’s
                                                                          buildings (stucco, brick, siding, etc.)

                                                                          - Require billboard companies to install landscaping whenever a new
                                                                          billboard is erected. Alternately, require billboard companies to pay
                                                                          into a landscape installation fund.

                                                                      • Prohibiting new construction—To reduce the number of billboards in
                                                                      your jurisdiction, banning the construction of new billboards is a clear
                                                                      and simple step in that direction. For example, the construction of
                                                                      new general advertising signs (billboards and posterboards) can be
                                                                      prohibited, and the City does not issue permits for their construction.
                                                                                   Photo by Collins & Schoettler Planning Consultants
Photo by the Great Valley Center

                                    DO                                                                                                  DON’T
                                    Monument-style sign advertises                                                                          A forest of pole signs obscures the view
                                   multiple uses, negating the need for                                                                       and increases confusion for drivers.
                                      many individual pole signs.

                                                                                                                                                    Transforming Our Corridor          27
• Encouraging alternative signage—Attractive and useful sign alternatives
are tourist-oriented directional signs (TODS) and logo signs. TODS and
logo signs display only essential traveler information and are smaller,
less obtrusive, more affordable, and easier to read than billboards.
These signs could help to direct motorists who are unfamiliar with the
area and are regulated by Caltrans. Communities along the corridor
may choose to design a sign that incorporates the Route 99 corridor
theme to tie in with other signs along the corridor.

     TOD Signs
     TODS is a California sign program that was authorized by the             Example of a TOD Sign
     California State Legislature through the passage of State Assembly
     Bill 2339 in 1994. The purpose of the program is to guide “out-of-
     town” travelers to California’s tourist attractions. The Bill requires
     that Caltrans establish and charge a fee to place and maintain these
     generic TODS.

     Businesses such as wineries, gift shops, restaurants, arts and crafts
     shops, etc. can qualify if the eligibility requirements are met.
     Signs are not allowed:
          - On freeways and expressways
          - On congested highways
          - Within any city limits
          - Within areas of population exceeding 50,000                       Example of a Logo Sign
          - If the business is adjacent to and visible from the highway
          - If business has on-premise or off-premise signing

     To nd out about getting a TOD Sign, contact the TODS Coordinator
     in the Caltrans District in which the sign will be installed. The
     coordinator can help determine which businesses will be eligible to
     participate in the TODS Program. A list of all Caltrans districts, the
     counties they include, and the phone numbers to call can be found
          District 6: Sukhy Singh (559) 488-7394
          District 10: Rochelle Puthuff (209) 948-7956

     Signs must be fabricated and delivered to Caltrans by the applicant.
     No more than three TODS shall be allowed on one sign structure
     and no more than two sign structures shall be allowed at one
     intersection, one in each direction.

     The cost for one panel, one direction is $400.00 for the initial
     permitee and Caltrans Maintenance maintains the sign panel(s).

     $70.00 - Non-refundable eligibility / application fee
     $30.00 - Annual Maintenance fee per panel per direction
     $300.00 - Installation / Processing fee per panel per direction
     $400.00 - Total TODS fee

     Logo Signs
     This program was enabled by the passage of Assembly Bill 1257 in
     1992. The program commonly referred to as “Business Logo Signing
     Program”, is designed to direct motorists not familiar with the area
     to “FUEL”, “FOOD”, “LODGING”, and “CAMPING” services at or near
     rural freeway interchanges.

     Under the program, Caltrans will furnish, install, and maintain
     Specic Service Signs within the highway right-of-way. The logo
     panels are provided by the business.

28          Route 99 Corridor Improvement Guide
                highway 99           Specic Service Signs identify the types of services available at the
                                     next rural freeway off-ramp. Signs can contain one or more types of
                                     service categories:
                                          - Fuel
                                          - Food
               i am as usual              - Lodging
                                          - Camping
            driving too fast
                                     Specic Service Signs have a blue background with a white border
     past farmtowns, crops           and legend.

           the ancient land          There are two types of Specic Service Signs:
                                         1. Specic Informational Signs
 my restless eyes recording              2. Supplemental Directional Signs

              just a blur till       The Specic Informational Sign is installed on the main line of the
                                     freeway (along the lanes of the freeway).
nudging the speed of light           The Supplemental Directional Sign is placed on the off-ramp. It is a
                                     smaller version of the larger freeway sign and may include mileage
         the ages compress           and an arrow directing motorists to the appropriate direction of
time strolls backward lazily
                                     The logo panels are mounted on these blue-colored signs. One sign
       and all the creatures         can have a maximum of six individual business logo panels.

        sedimentary layers           To nd out about getting a logo sign, contact the Logo Coordinator
                                     in the Caltrans District in which the sign will be installed. The
      and organic promise            coordinator can help determine which businesses will be eligible to
                                     participate in the Logo Sign Program. A list of all Caltrans districts,
    deposited in this earth          the counties they include, and the phone numbers to call can be
                                     found at
        around me rise up                 District 6: Sukhy Singh (559) 488-7394)
                                          District 10: Rochelle Puthuff (209) 948-7956)
                    laughing         Approximate cost paid to Caltrans to install and maintain the signs:
             at my progress               - Annual Permit Fees cover the cost of administering and
                                          processing the permit: $100.00 for each panel, in each

          Rusty Derr, presenter           - Annual Rental Fees cover the cost of maintaining the panel
                                          and the sign: $250.00 for each panel, in each direction
  2002 Small Farm Celebration
                                          - Installation Fees cover the cost of installing the sign: $100.00
                                          for main line / $50.00 for off-ramp

                                          - Service fees cover the cost of covering, removing, reinstalling,
                                          or replacing a business logo panel: $100.00 for main line /
                                          $50.00 for off-ramp

                                          - Transfer fee is required for any change in ownership, for each
                                          permit: $50.00 for each permit

                                     - Caltrans Ofce of Signs, Markings and Permits

                                     - Scenic America, Fighting Billboard Blight: An Action Guide for
                                     Citizens and Public Ofcials (

                                                                   Transforming Our Corridor             29
Impacting Existing Signage

There are also several options for improving or removing existing

• Establishing or raising permit fees for existing signage—Institute
a permit fee for all off-site signs to encourage billboard owners to
reconsider the protability of their billboards and consider alternate
uses for their property.

     - An annual fee could be sufcient to cover the city’s cost
     of controlling billboards (i.e. pay for time of a sign code

     - The fee could be higher for off-premise signs along scenic corridors
     than for those outside scenic corridors.

• Require better maintenance of existing billboards—To improve the look
of signs in your jurisdiction, pass an ordinance requiring cleaning and
repair, and removal of signs in extreme disrepair.

     - Require signs that do not currently have an advertisement to post
     public art on at least 90% of the board until the space can be rented
     for commercial use.

     - If the sign falls into disrepair (has deteriorated more than 50
     percent of its replacement value), it must be removed at owner’s

• Require downsizing/upgrading to meet new standards—For example,
all existing billboard faces along the corridor shall be reduced to 100
square feet or less in face area by a certain date.

• Promote removal through amortization—To remove all billboards in
your jurisdiction within a set period of time, amortization allows a
billboard operator to recoup his or her investment by granting them
some time (usually between ve and ten years) to make money off their
billboards before removal.
                                                    Photo by Scenic California

30          Route 99 Corridor Improvement Guide

                                                                                As new structures are planned and erected, jurisdictions can inuence
                                                                                how a building will add to the character of the community and the
                                                                                image projected to drivers on the corridor. Jurisdictions that want to
                                                                                raise development standards for buildings can inuence new or existing
                                                                                buildings, or both. Jurisdictions can determine how far to go in raising
                                                                                standards based on local conditions.

                                                                                New building construction

                                                                                • Design review—Jurisdictions may choose to establish a design review
                                                                                board in order to encourage place-sensitive design. A design review
                                                                                board made up of local citizens, business owners, and ofcials is a good
                                                                                way to involve the community in the design process and give people a
                                                                                say in how their community looks. The governing body can enact clear
                                                                                review standards that follow established design guidelines including,
                                                                                but not limited to, the height, size, architectural style, color, materials,
                                                                                siting, and landscaping of a proposed project.

                                                                                • Place-sensitive architecture—Architectural styles that relate to the
                                                                                traditions and history of the San Joaquin Valley are preferred over
                                                                                contemporary and modern architectural designs that do little to tell
                                                                                the story of the San Joaquin Valley. Styles such as “Spanish”, “barn”,
                                                                                “ranch”, and “western”, could be considered.
Photos by Collins & Schoettler Planning Consultants

                                                      Spanish/Mission style: Visalia                                    Western style: Grapevine

                                                        Ranch style: Strathmore                                           Barn style: Tipton

                                                                                                                   Transforming Our Corridor             31
                                                     • Site design—Building design and placement could consider a set
                                                     back as far as possible from the 60 decibel noise contour (existing or
                                                     projected). To inuence building development along Route 99 based on
                                                     noise contours, the following objectives can be considered:

                                                          - Orient buildings with the least surface area facing Route 99,
                                                          unless creating a courtyard or shielding other buildings. Alignment
                                                          of buildings reduces noise impacts/acoustical treatment costs.
                                                          Buildings exposing less surface area to Route 99 will create intriguing
                                                          jagged/angled buildings along the Route 99 corridor.
Photo by Collins & Schoettler Planning Consultants

                                                                      An angled building with storage out of sight.

                                                          - Existing trees, vegetation, and topography along Route 99 can be
                                                          preserved to provide some noise shielding.

                                                          - Projects should align from the highway at a minimum distance,
                                                          similar to houses in a subdivision. Projects that include equipment
                                                          parking/storage areas may be encouraged to use vegetation or
                                                          fences to screen visibility.

                                                       DO                                                       DON’T

                                                     A farm equipment dealership with an attractive            An equipment sales retailer with no landscaping or screening.
                                                     landscape frontage. The site is further accented           The site could be easily improved by replacing chain-link
                                                     with ornamental wrought iron fencing. (Fresno)                        fencing and/or adding vegetation.

                                                     Photos by Collins & Schoettler Planning Consultants

                                                     32           Route 99 Corridor Improvement Guide
                                - Buildings placed along Route 99 can be clustered to create
                                commercial courtyards that shield pedestrians from noise. Long
                                linear trips should be avoided. Building with wrought iron fencing,
                                vegetation and an “outdoor showroom for products” enhances the
                                retail image.

                                - Apartment buildings can use vegetation and detached garages
                                to buffer dwelling units from noise. Sound walls with art could
                                be utilized. Apartment buildings could be placed as far away as
                                possible from the noise contours.

                            • Building materials—Buildings along Route 99 can take advantage of
                            available noise attenuation material. Materials include acoustical glazing
                            for windows, avoiding the sole use of wood and aluminum siding and
                            encouraging thick wall mass such as brick. The combining of materials
                            such as brick and aluminum will improve aesthetics and improve noise
                            reduction. The use of massing such as encouraging stucco (or other
                            coatings) will reduce noise.

                            • Screening—Whether the highway is above-, at-, or below-grade in
                            relation to buildings along the corridor, there are ways to use vegetation
                            to screen unsightly buildings and/or storage yards.
Photo by County of Tulare

                               Building with a combination of building materials improves visual quality.

                                                                 Transforming Our Corridor                  33
Where the highway way is above-grade, it is important that unsightly
storage areas be screened with a solid line of trees.

Where the highway is at-grade, abutting uses can be screened with
trees and shrubs. Solid masonry or wood fencing may also be used,
and may be planted with climbing vines on the highway side. Chain link
fencing with slats can also provide screening, but could be planted with
climbing vines.

Properties adjacent to the highway with unsightly equipment and vehicle
storage yards must be screened with an appropriate combination of
landscaping and fencing. Fences could be solid masonry, wood, or chain
link with slats. All fencing could be accented with climbing vines.

Drawings by Collins & Schoettler Planning Consultants

34           Route 99 Corridor Improvement Guide
                                       Where a business displays vehicles or equipment for sale along the
                                       highway, it is critical that landscaping be provided to “soften” the view.
                                       A landscape planter along the right-of-way line with a combination
                                       of trees and ground cover plants is recommended. The landscaping
                                       could be in keeping with the generally rural nature of the Route 99
                                       corridor, which may include natural features such as rolling green hills
                                       and rocks.

Tree row screens the side storage area of a
business adjacent to the freeway. (Kingsburg)

The drawing to the right gives an example of a
possible layout.

Drawings and Photo by Collins & Schoettler Planning Consultants

                                                                         Transforming Our Corridor            35
Drawnig by Collins & Schoettler Planning Consultants

                                                       While not as critical from an aesthetic perspective, where the highway
                                                       is below-grade, abutting uses can be screened with trees and shrubs.

                                                       Existing buildings

                                                       To improve the appearance of existing buildings that do not t in with
                                                       the rest of the corridor, jurisdictions may put in place a planting program
                                                       or install sound walls.

                                                            • Work with property owners to improve appearance of buildings/lots
                                                            by improving the surrounding landscaping. Consider coordinating
                                                            a planting project by the local group that adopts the section of
                                                            highway in front of the offending building or development.

                                                            • Work with Caltrans to install screening walls in front of the
                                                            problem spots, or to take this idea one step further, sponsor public
                                                            art/planting of vegetation along wall.

                                                        DO                                                                DON’T
Photos by County of Tulare

                                                                             “Rural” dealership                                      “Urban” dealership

                                                       36          Route 99 Corridor Improvement Guide
                                                              ADJACENT ROADWAYS

                                                              Frontage roads and others running adjacent to the highway may be
                                                              used as an urban separator to cut down on noise that reaches buildings
                                                              near the highway. In most cases the roadway could include either
                                                              vegetation to screen between the roadway and the highway or a natural
                                                              barrier such as an embankment or other mounds of earth/stone.

                                                              If fencing is used to separate the roadway from the highway, either
                                                              obscure the fencing with vines or other vegetation, or use a style of
                                                              fencing that is in keeping with the rural aesthetic.

                              Natural separators create a pleasant aesthetic along the highway and maintain a “rural feel” for the corridor.
                                                       Grading of land near highways creates a natural screening.

                             DO                                                          DON’T
Photos by County of Tulare

                                             Rural fencing.                                               Industrial fencing.

                                                                                                    Transforming Our Corridor                  37
                             LAND USE
                                                                                                            Communities that
                             Many travelers on Route 99 only know the communities of the Route
                             99 corridor from what they can see from the highway. Communities
                             that put forth an appealing image to drivers along the corridor are more
                                                                                                            put forth an
                             likely to draw drivers off of the highway and into local businesses and
                             tourist attractions. To address the corridor as a special and distinct area    appealing image to
                             of the community, that image should be developed thoughtfully.

                             Within their zoning ordinances, communities along the Route 99 corridor
                                                                                                            drivers along the
                             may use overlay zones to protect particular natural or cultural features,
                             such as historic districts, scenic views, agricultural areas, or watersheds.   corridor are more
                             An overlay zone would build on the underlying zoning, by establishing
                             additional or stricter standards and criteria that apply in addition to
                             the standards of the underlying zoning districts. Overlay zoning can
                                                                                                            likely to draw
                             be an effective tool for communities to use in protecting specic
                             resources from development pressures or to encourage a selective mix           drivers off of the
                             of development that is in keeping with community goals for the Route
                             99 corridor.                                                                   highway and into
                             LINE-OF-SIGHT IMPROVEMENT                                                      local businesses and
                             The following strategies can help your community anticipate development        tourist attractions.
                             and ensure the protection and management of your scenic vistas and

                             • Educational and Voluntary Visual Assessment—Conducting a visual
                             assessment is one of the best ways to begin to identify what is at risk
                             in the community to protect it from loss and better manage growth.
                             Encourage private citizens, school groups, local leaders, and business
                             owners to participate in a visual assessment to identify the community’s
                             assets and liabilities. This will provide the basis for identifying and
                             discussing the future of your most treasured visual assets. Following
                             the visual assessment, use the information gathered to develop
                             activities such as community walks, photographic exhibitions, or slide
                             presentations to inform citizens of the importance of scenic vistas
                             and viewsheds to your community’s quality of life, and to encourage
                             voluntary protection of scenic areas.

                             • Incentives can provide signicant motivation for preserving scenic
                             vistas and viewsheds. Grants to community groups to conduct education
                             programs for local landowners on the benets of viewshed protection
                             or to establish a local land trust, can help preserve scenic quality.
                             Other strategies include providing tax breaks for property owners who
                             donate land or easements, and establishing an awards program to
                             honor successful scenic conservation efforts.
Photo by Scenic California

                             38         Route 99 Corridor Improvement Guide
                             • Land Purchase—Although purchasing parcels of land or easements
                             is among the most expensive options, outright purchase is sometimes
                             the only way to permanently protect scenic vistas and viewsheds from
                             development. One method of accomplishing this is to establish a land
                             trust. Land trusts are private organizations at the local, state, or
                             regional levels that hold land and partial interests in land for the benet
                             of the public. Some land trusts use “revolving” funds to purchase
                             threatened land and then resell it at cost to buyers who agree to
                             specic land use restrictions. Land trusts also use their resources to
                             educate property owners on the benets of voluntary land or easement

                             • Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) is an alternative strategy
                             to purchasing land.    TDRs preserve scenic areas by transferring,
                             or “sending,” development rights from sensitive lands to “receiving”
                             areas marked for growth. Most TDR programs offer incentives such
                             as increased density, faster permit processing, less stringent design
                             review, or tax breaks to encourage developers and landowners to
                             take advantage of the program. Monterey County in California and
                             Burlington County in New Jersey are just two of the more than 50 areas
                             nationwide that have successfully used TDR programs to protect their
                             unique character from the development pressure of nearby cities.

                             • Regulation—Establish design guidelines and design review that limit
                             the impact of development on scenic vistas and viewsheds. Clear
                             design guidelines and design review gives communities a chance
                             to decide how development will affect their neighborhoods and
                             countryside. Responsible control of elements such as height, bulk,
                             design, materials, color, landscaping, and siting helps a project blend
                             with its surroundings.

                                                                              - Implement zoning and
                                                                              land use ordinances for
                                                                              view protection. Zoning
                                                                              laws that limit the height
                                                                              of buildings based on
                                                                              their proximity to a
                                                                              designated       viewshed
Photo by Scenic California

                                                                              are an effective way
                                                                              of preserving scenic
                                                                              vistas.     Other types
                                                                              of legislative protection
                                                                              include overlay zoning
                                                                              and the creation of view
                                                                              corridors.         Overlay
                                                                              zoning places additional
                                                                              restrictions on zoned
                                                                              areas and is often used
                                 to control density, grading, ridgeline development, and vegetation.
                                 View corridors are planned openings in the built environment that
                                 allow views of scenic vistas and viewsheds.

                                 - Pass legislation to establish a greenbelt. Greenbelts are open
                                 tracts of land that create a scenic buffer between developed areas
                                 and the surrounding countryside. Most greenbelt ordinances allow
                                 only agricultural activities on designated lands, eliminating land
                                 speculation and development pressure.

                                 Example: Scenic America, Napa County Viewshed Protection Program

                                                               Transforming Our Corridor             39

Communities that want to improve the aesthetics of new cell towers,
they can pass ordinances limiting the height, appearance, and
encouraging environment-sensitive location. Some options include:


                                                                              Photo by Scenic California
     • Limit height by proximity to scenic corridor, or “Distance to
     Frontage” ratio

     • Setting a standard such that new telecommunications facilities
     shall not exceed 100 feet in height. However, in the event of dense
     vegetation or other substantial obstacles to signal propagation,
     facilities can extend to a height of no more than 20 percent above
     the average tree canopy height within 1,000 feet of the proposed
     facility. (Example from City of West Missouri, full text available at                                  Well designed utilization of                                                                                         an existing structure in
                                                                                                                 North Carolina.
     • Telecommunications facilities that simulate objects that typically
     occur in landscapes similar to the proposed location (except
     billboards, electrical transmission, or telecommunications towers)
     may exceed 100 feet in height if, based on the judgment of the city
     planning department, it would appear in context on the landscape,
     is aesthetically acceptable, and would be a preferable alternative to
     an undisguised facility.

Stealth Facilities

     • A stealth facility is a communications facility which is designed to     Photo by County of Tulare
     blend into the surrounding environment, and is visually unobtrusive.
     Examples of stealth facilities may include architecturally screened
     roof-mounted antennas, façade mounted antennas painted and
     treated as architectural elements to blend with an existing building,
     facilities designed to mimic trees (palms, pines, and the like), ag
     poles, church steeples, signs, and other similar structures.

     • Proposals for new facilities may be reviewed by the planning
     department, or a design review board. A design review board made                                       Poorly planned location for
     up of local citizens, business owners, and ofcials is a good way
                                                                                                                 a wireless facility.
     to involve the community in the design process and give people a
     say in how their community looks. The governing body can enact
     clear review standards that follow established design guidelines
     including, but not limited to, the height, size, architectural style,
     color, materials, siting, and landscaping of a proposed project.

         - The Larson Company, Camouage Division
         - Stealth Concealment Solutions, Inc. (

40          Route 99 Corridor Improvement Guide

                                                                     • Ordinances that encourage co-location often give incentives (such
                                                                     as simpler permitting processes for new facilities that will be
                                                                     located to take advantage of existing support structures such as
                                                                     other wireless facilities, light standards or other utility facilities and
                                                                     structures. Place new facilities on an existing support structure
                                                                     (e.g. wireless facilities, light standards or other utility facilities and

                                                                 RELOCATING UTILITIES

                                                                 The length of the Route 99 corridor is draped with utility lines that
                            While the costs for undergrounding   require maintenance and are at risk for outages while obscuring views.
                                                                 Together, communities and utility companies can reduce the visual
                             are high, the effect is dramatic.
                                                                 impact of utility lines and poles; saving scenic beauty, improving safety,
                                                                 reducing utility disruptions, and increasing property values. Following
                                                                 are some strategies for relocating utilities.

Photos by City of Oakland

                                                                 Screening reduces the appearance of utility poles and hides equipment
                                                                 such as substations, meters, and transformers. One of the easiest ways
                                                                 to reduce wires is to consolidate lines along one side of the roadway on
                                                                 a single pole and wrap them to create the appearance of only one cable.
                                                                 Other strategies communities can pursue include:

                                                                     - Persuading utility companies to erect poles that complement their

                                                                     - Using heavier cables and stronger poles to reduce the number of
                                                                     poles required;

                                                                     - Planting trees, shrubs, and other vegetation around substations
                                                                     and transformers to make them less intrusive; and

                                                                     - Raising wires above sight lines along buildings and signs to make
                                                                     them less noticeable.


                                                                 Undergrounding is the act of removing utility poles and burying wires
                                                                 and equipment in conduits or pipes and is the most comprehensive
                                                                 and effective method of reducing the visual impact of utility wires.
                                                                 Undergrounding utility wires is common in countries famous for their
                                                                 scenic beauty such as the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, and
                                                                 Great Britain, and is practiced in nine out of ten new subdivisions in
                                                                 the US. The biggest challenge to undergrounding wires is the cost.
                                                                 Estimates for utility burial can range from $500,000 to $3 million per
                                                                 mile, in comparison to $120,000 per mile for the erection of overhead

                                                                 The cost is so high because of the expense of burying the utility wires in
                                                                 conduits, which is the best method of burying wires to ensure reliability
                                                                 and facilitate repairs. Coordinating the burial of several utility wires,
                                                                 such as telephone and cable television wires that also use poles, is
                                                                 another expense. While it is possible to bury cables directly in the
                                                                 ground, this technique makes it more difcult and time consuming to
                                                                 locate problems and make repairs.

                                                                                                     Transforming Our Corridor              41
However, communities can manage the cost of undergrounding by:

     - Timing the project with other utility work, such as gas or sewer
     line replacement;

     - Consolidating high voltage lines and burying only low voltage
     wires; or

     - Undergrounding only feeder lines (the lines that actually run to
     buildings) and hiding main lines along one side of the road.


In areas where undergrounding is not feasible or cost-effective,
communities can work with utility companies to move wires and poles
to less visually intrusive areas. This can include running lines along
the rear of buildings or through alleyways. In more rural areas, utility
companies can run lines over ridgelines and out of viewsheds, or set
back poles from the right-of-way and screen them behind treelines.

Funding Utility Relocation

So how can communities nd funds to reduce the visual impact of utility
wires? The cost of a burial or relocation project can be staggering
and communities often forego utility relocation projects to save money.
However, several sources of funding from federal, state, and local
agencies, in addition to special assessments, can help pay for utility

     Federal Sources
         One way for communities to pay for utility relocation is through
         the federal Transportation Enhancements Program, under the
         Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21).

     Balancing Aesthetics and Affordability
     In 1966, Palo Alto became one of the first cities in California to begin undergrounding utility wires.
     Palo Alto’s city-owned electric company works with other utility providers and city planners to
     identify priority areas for undergrounding and to implement projects in multiple phases. Palo Alto
     is also one of the only cities to make low-interest loans available to property owners to offset the
     cost of hookup from the underground service to their property. In order to prioritize areas for
     undergrounding, Palo Alto applies the following criteria:

        Aesthetics - The visual quality of an area is weighed against the intrusiveness of utilities in the area.
        Commercial and residential areas are given priority over more open areas.

        Reliability - Areas subject to frequent utility disruption are given high priority.

        Affordability - The overall cost of the project is weighed against the benefits of conversion.

42           Route 99 Corridor Improvement Guide
         Through their state department of transportation, communities
         can apply for Transportation Enhancements (TE) funds for
         utility burial or relocation under the categories of landscaping,
         scenic beautication, or scenic/historic highway programs and
         welcome centers. Utility relocations are often incorporated
         as part of a larger project to improve local appearance.
         For example, Vidalia, Georgia and Augusta, Maine used
         TE funds to bury utility wires as part of their downtown
         improvement projects.         Maryland has also used federal
         Community Development Block Grants (CDBG) to fund utility
         relocation projects.

    Special Assessment Districts
        Some communities establish “special assessment areas” in
        regions that are scheduled for undergrounding in which utility
        subscribers pay an extra fee, generally two percent, on their
        monthly bill to fund the project. Special assessment areas are
        usually created through a petition by the majority of property
        owners in an area. Several states, including California and
        Oregon, have established special “undergrounding districts”
        to help communities pay for burying utility wires.            For
        example, in California the public utilities commission collects a
        percentage of revenue from all wire-based utilities to pay for
        undergrounding. In order to receive a share of this funding
        to bury wires, a community must form an undergrounding
        district by collecting signatures from at least 70 percent of
        the property owners within the proposed district or through a
        special resolution passed by the local government. In addition,
        property owners in the undergrounding district must agree to
        pay for the cost of hookup from the new underground conduit
        to their property (typically $500-$2000). Once a community
        meets these requirements, the local government can apply
        to the public utilities commission for undergrounding funds
        and coordinate an undergrounding schedule with planners and
        utility providers.


The Task Force has proposed the following regional goal: every
jurisdiction along the Route 99 corridor, based on its unique situation,
will raise one or more visual standard (development standard, improved
screening practice, new vegetation program, etc.) within three years.

Working with local communities, the Highway 99 Task Force will
develop and collect measures of progress and impact from development
standards efforts. Ultimately, the measures will include:

    • Tangible improvements in signage, cell towers, and other
    development standards areas.

    • A variety of vegetation and screening to enhance the corridor.

Initially, measures of progress will include:

    • The adoption of visual standards for Route 99.

    • The treatment of the Route 99 corridor as a unique zone that
    should be treated differently from other parts of a jurisdiction.

                                  Transforming Our Corridor            43
Adopt-a-Highway                    Clean-up                                  Total

Miles Adopted                      Planning                                  # of people involved
  Litter removal                    Identify interested parties
                                                                             Percent of corridor
  Plant trees, shrubs               Form committee
                                                                               Cleaned annually
  Plant wildflowers                 Build support
                                                                               Cleaned regularly
  Remove graffiti                   Funding
                                                                               Planted with flowers
Participants                       Implementation
                                                                               Planted with trees, shrubs
  Service clubs/religious groups    Prepare/distribute publicity materials
  Local business                    Recruit volunteers
  National corporations             Caltrans coordination
  Individuals                       Organize
 Other                                 groups
                                    Thank you party
County Gateway                    Community Identifier

On the right-of-way               On the right-of-way               Off the right-of-way

Approval                          Approval by Caltrans              Approval by design group/owner/city
 Site                              Site                               Site
 Design                            Design                             Design
    type                              type                               type
    size                              size                               size
    landscaping                       landscaping                        landscaping
 Logo                              Logo                               Logo
 Theme Incorporation               Theme Incorporation                Theme Incorporation

Maintenance/liability agreement   Maintenance/liability agreement   Maintenance plan
Signage                   Cell Towers               Buildings              Adjacent Roadways      Land Use              Line-of-Sight

New Signs                 Height                    New Construction       New Roads              New Development       Education

  Permit fee                Distance from             Design review          Naturally buffered     Change zoning/up-       Visual assessment
                            corridor                                                                zone
  Standards                                           Site design            Road to building                               Follow-on
                            Absolute height limit                            relationship           Mixed use               activities
    Animation/flashing                                   placement
    Revolving             Stealth Facility               orientation         Building materials     Scenic corridor      Incentives
    Dimensions                                           vegetation
                            Design ordinance                               Existing Roads         Existing Stock         Land purchase
                                                      Building materials
                            Design review board                              Vegetation             Owner                Transfer of
  Prohibition of new                                                                                                     development rights
                                                    Existing Buildings
  construction            Co-location                                                               Preservation
                                                      Vegetation                                                         Regulation
  Alternative signs
                                                         owner                                                              design guidelines
                                                         project                                                            implement zoning
    Logo Signs
                                                                                                                            establish greenbelt
                                                      Sound walls
                                                                                                                            control billboards
Existing Signs

  Permit Fee

  Maintenance of
  existing signs

  to meet new standards

  Removal through
The Highway 99 Task Force is a group of
business, government, and community leaders
working to develop the Highway 99 corridor
into a truly compelling “Main Street of the San
Joaquin Valley,” the vibrant core of a competitive
region. The effort is coordinated by the Great
Valley Center with funding from The James
Irvine Foundation, the William and Flora Hewlett
Foundation and the California Department of
Transportation. Scenic California has provided
technical assistance and resources through a
grant from The David and Lucile Packard

                                                     Great Valley Center
                                                     201 Needham Street
                                                     Modesto, CA 95354
                                                     Phone: (209) 522-5103
                                                     Fax: (209) 522-5116

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