Volumetric Analysis by stariya


									                                   VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS

Volumetric Analysis - a procedure that accurately measures the volumes of solutions in order
to determine the concentration of an unknown solution. The experimental procedure is called
titration. For example, an acid-base titration will allow for the calculation of an unknown
concentration of either the acid or base. In order to ensure accuracy, the titration is done at

Titration - the progressive addition of a base to an acid

Endpoint - the change in colour of indicator marks the point where neutralization is complete.

Materials used in titration :

Erlenmeyer flask - contains the unknown acid or base with precise volume

Pipette - used to transfer precise and very accurate volumes of solution

Burette - device for dispensing very precise volumes of solutions.

Indicator- provides visual evidence of the magnitude of [H+] present in the solution. Acid-base
indicators contain dye that is extremely sensitive to little amounts of acid.

Examples of indicators:

     Phenophthalein
     Bromothymol Blue
     Universal indicator

Calculation Example: In a titration, 10 mL of sodium hydroxide solution was neutralized by
16.36 mL of sulfuric acid (0.1286 M). Determine the concentration of sodium hydroxide.

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