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SPR QQ Berlin Blockade

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									     SPR Quick Quiz: Berlin Blockade
1.     What were the dates of the Berlin Crisis / Berlin Blockade?        1948 to 1949
2.     What was it? Stalin cut all road, rail and canal links to force the West from Berlin.
3.     Causes of the Berlin Crisis
      Long term:
      Division of Germany into 4 zones
      Berlin in Soviet zone
      Berlin had UK, US and French zones
      Different visions for Germany.
      Stalin wanted communist controlled weak Germany: no threat
      USA / UK wanted united capitalist Germany
      Short term
      West encouraged economic recovery
      US and UK zones merged into Federal Republic (Bizonia)
      New currency for Bizonia
      Marshall Aid
      Stalin saw Federal Republic as a threat – undermine East German economy
      Stalin believed West Berlin used for spying on the East
4.     UK /US options (last one chosen)
      UK / US options: Drive through blockade – could cause hot war
      Withdraw from Berlin – appear weak to Allies, embolden Stalin
      Supply by air – air corridors open, possible UN support, demonstrate
       determination to Stalin
5.     What happened during the Crisis?
      Truman tough line – test of determination
      All Berlin’s needs air-lifted June 48 to May 49
      UK called Operation Plainfare
      B-29 nuclear bombers moved to UK
      Mild winter helped the success
6.     Results of the Crisis
      Increased tension
      Germany divided permanently
      NATO established
      Federal Republic of Germany set up
7.     How did developments 1949-55 increase rivalry?
      NATO: defensive alliance seen by Stalin as a threat. Warsaw Pact set up
      Warsaw Pact: to counter NATO and control eastern Europe ie Hungary in 1956
      1949 China communist under Mao Zedong. Truman Doctrine evolves into
       Domino Theory
      Domino Theory: US belief that if one small county in SE Asia fell to
       Communists, then many more would follow.
      Korean War: UN forces commanded by Ike counter invasion of South Korea by
       communist North
      1949: Soviet atomic bomb – an arms race begins
      Arms Race: by 1955 US and USSR have Hydrogen Bomb
      Death of Stalin and ascendancy of Khrushchev begins period of détente

								
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