Agronomic trait Describes important agronomic characters of Maize.
100 kernel weight Weight of 100 kernels randomly selected from the total kernels.
1000 kernel weight Weight of 1000 kernels randomly selected from the total kernels and adjusted to 10% mois
anthesis silking interval Determined by (i) measuring the number of days after planting until 50 % of the plants shed
bad husk cover Percentage of all plants with bad husk cover.
chupon percentage Multiple cobs, Chupones, percentage of plants with more than one cob growing in same pla
days to ear leaf senescence Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf.
days to maturity Number of days required from seeding to seed/grain ripening.
days to anthesis Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants shed pollen.
days to silking Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants silk.
ear dry weight Weight of ear taken after drying at 60-70 degree centigrade for 1-2 days.
ear growth Difference between the ear length (cm) measured at zero day pollen shedding and 7 days a
ear growth rate Measure of growth rate of ear in percentage.
ear number per plant Number of ears per plant. Counted as number of ears with at least one fully developed grai
female flowering Traits associated with the timing of the flowering of female flowers.
foliage rating Rating of total leaf surface where: 3, small; 5, intermediate; 7 large.
grain texture A measure of the variation of the intensity of a surface, quantifying properties such as smoo
grain yield Shelled grain weight per plot adjusted to 12.5% grain moisture and converted to tons per he
growing degree units to anthesis Heat units (growing-degree units) between planting and 50% anthesis; commercial model (1
growing degree units to maturity Heat units (growing-degree units) between planting and black-layer formation, commercial
husk cover Measured as percentage of plants with ears that are not completely covered by the husks.
male flowering Traits associated with the timing of the flowering of male flowers.
plant aspect Qualitative score of the visual appeal (ideotype) of the plant. In another word, it rates chara
plant height Height between the base of a plant to the insertion of the first tassel branch of the same pla
plant number Number of plants per plot.
relative grain yield Relative grain yield expressed as percentage of the mean grain yield of the trial. Values abo
root capacitance Estimation of root mass at the end of the stress using an electrical capacitance meter.
root lodging Measured as percentage of plants that show root lodging, i.e. those stems that are inclining
selection index The selection index gives a single measure of the hybrid & aposis worth based on informatio
senescence Leaf senescence score on a scale from 0 to 10. Taken during grain-filling by estimating the p
sheath pubescence Presence and intensity of hairs (sparse or intermediate or dense) on the surface of the leaf
silk growth Difference between the silk length (cm) measured at zero day pollen shedding and 7 days a
silk growth rate Measurement of growth rate of silk in percentage.
silk length Measurement of growth of silk in centimeters.
stem color Visual rating of stem color.
stem lodging Measured as percentage of plants that show stem lodging, i.e. those stems that are broken
tassel branches dry weight The dry weight of tassel branches (grams) just prior to pollen shed.
tassel branches number Number of branches on tassel.
tillering index Number of tillers per plant.
total grain weevil number Number of grain weevils hatching and emerging from an infested grain sample within a give
weevil grain weight loss Loss of weight of the grain samples caused by weevil feeding during a given period of incub
Morphological trait Describes important morphological characters of maize.
ear diameter Ear diameter measured in centimeter at the central part of uppermost ear.
ear height Height between the base of a plant to the insertion of the top (uppermost) ear of the same
ear leaf length Measurement of length ear leaf (blade) in centimeter.
ear leaf weight Weight of ear leaf (blade) in gm.
ear length Measurement of ear growth in centimeter.
ear position A ratio of ear height to plant height. Small values indicate low ear position; large values indi
grain color Kernel or grain color whether white, yellow, purple, variegated, brown, orange, mottled, wh
kernel length Average of 10 consecutive kernels from one row in the middle of the uppermost ear.
kernel number Calculated as grain weight divided by single kernel weight.
kernel row arrangement Visual assessment of kernel row arrangement where: 1, regular; 2, irregular; 3, straight and
kernel row number Count number of kernel rows in the central part of the uppermost ear.
kernel type Visual rating of kernel type from 1 -11 where 1= floury, 3= dent, 6= flint, 7= pop, 8= sweet, 9
kernel width Measurement of kernel width in millimeter,
leaf length Measurement of leaf length in centimeter.
leaf width Measurement of leaf width in centimeter.
tassel size A 1-3 visual rating of tassel size after milk stage. The higher the rating the larger the tassel. 1
tassel type Branching type of tassel whether primary or primary-secondary or primary-secondary-tertia
uppermost ear shape Shape of uppermost ear whether cylindrical or cylindrical-conical or conical or round.
Physiological trait Describes important physiological characters of maize.
abscisic acid content Measures the abscisic acid content in a plant or plant part.
abscisic acid to sugar content ratio ratio of abscisic acid to the sugar content in a plant or plant part.
canopy temperature Measured in several rows simultaneously to allow a comparison. Thermal images will be tak
chlorophyll content Measurement of chlorophyll amount in green tissue of plant or plant part.
ear leaf chlorophyll content Amount of chlorophyll content in the ear leaf measured at the beginning and the end of the
glucose content Amount of glucose present in the plant or plant part.
leaf temperature Measured as absolute temperature or as a difference between air and leaf temperature by
normalized difference vegetation Measured with a portable field spectroradiometer (e.g. GreenSeeker). The sensor placed ca
osmotic adjustment The ability of the plant to adjust the osmotic potential under stress conditions.
osmotic potential A measure of the potential of water to move between regions of differing concentrations ac
photochemical radiation index Measured in leaves with a hyperspectral spectroradiometer at anthesis and 2-3 weeks later
proline content Amino acid proline content in a plant or plant part.
stable nitrogen isotope compositionDetermined in the same kernels used for stable oxygen isotope enrichment analyses. Measu
stable oxygen isotope enrichmentSamples analyzed by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. One measurement per row from the
stomatal conductance Measured with a portable porometer.
sucrose content The amount of sucrose present in the plant or the plant part.
sugar content Amount of sugar present in the plant or the plant part.
total mineral content Determined in the same kernels used for Stable oxygen isotope enrichment analyses. Meas
total nitrogen content Determined in the same kernels used for stable oxygen isotope enrichment analyses. Measu
water index Measured in leaves with a hyperspectral spectroradiometer at anthesis and 2-3 weeks later
young leaf chlorophyll content Amount of chlorophyll content in the young leaf measured at the beginning and the end of
Quality trait Describes important quality related traits of maize
ear aspect Visual qualitative rating of the ear, usually scored on a scale 1-5. A score of 1 indicates that
endosperm hardness Measurement of quality of endosperm, usually rated on a scale 1-5 where 1, hard and trans
grain moisture Percentage of moisture as measured at harvest.
iron content Total iron content in grain.
lysine content Total percentage of lysine.
lysine per endosperm Percentage of lysine in grain endosperm on a dry matter basis.
lysine per whole grain Percentage of lysine in whole grain m on a dry matter basis.
protein content Total protein content in grain.
protein per endosperm Percentage of protein in grain endosperm on a dry matter basis.
protein per whole grain Percentage of protein in whole grain on a dry matter basis.
pro-vitaminA content Total pro-vitaminA content in grain.
seed viability Seed viability is measured after 3 month at 100% relative humidity and 30 degrees C, 1 = 10
starch content Total starch content in grain.
tryptophan content Total percentage of tryptophan.
tryptophan per endosperm Percentage of tryptophan in grain endosperm on dry matter basis.
tryptophan per whole grain Percentage of tryptophan in whole grain on dry matter basis.
zinc content Total zinc content in grain.
Stress trait Response by the plant in terms of resistivity or sensitivity to abiotic or/and biotic stresses
Abiotic stress trait Response by the plant in terms of resistivity or sensitivity to abiotic stress.
leaf rolling Leaf rolling score measured under drought stress on a scale from 1 (unrolled, turgid leaves,
Biotic stress trait Response by the plant in terms of resistivity or sensitivity to biotic stress.
bacterial disease The trait is scored for the response to the diseases caused by several bacteria.
bacterial leaf stripe Bacterial leaf stripe (Pseudomonas rubrilinians) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean,
bacterial stalk rot Bacterial stalk rot (Erwinia chrysanthemi) measured as percentage of plants affected.
corn stunt Corn stunt complex (corn stunt spiroplasma, maize bushy stunt phytoplasma [= mycoplasm
maize bushy stunt Maize bushy stunt (caused by mycoplasma like organism, MLO) symptoms rated on a scale
stewarts wilt Stewart's wilt (Erwinia stewartii) measured as percentage of plants affected.
fungal disease The trait is scored for the response to the diseases caused by several fungi.
anthracnose leaf blight Anthracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola) measured as percentage of plants affected.
aspergillus ear rot Aspergillus ear rot symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely
banded leaf and sheath blight Banded leaf and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii) symptoms rated on a scale fr
black bundle Black bundle (Acremonium strictum) measured as percentage of plants affected.
brown spot Brown spot (Physoderma maydis) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection)
brown stripe downy mildew Brown stripe downy mildew (Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae) measured as percentage of p
charcoal rot Charcoal rot or (Macrophomina phaseolina) measured as percentage of plants affected.
common rust Score for the severity of common rust, (In highlands and mid altitude, Puccinia sorghi) symp
common smut Common smut (Ustilago maydis) measured as percentage of plants affected. The trait is sco
crazy top downy mildew Crazy top (Sclerophthora macrospora) measured as percentage of plants affected.
curvularia leaf spot Curvularia leaf spot (Curvularia spp.) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infectio
downy mildew Downy mildews (several species of the genera Peronosclerospora, Sclerospora, and Sclerop
ear rot Percentage of all ears that are rotten.
fusarium ear rot Fusarium ear rot symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely d
fusarium graminearum ear rot Fusarium graminearum ear rot symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5
fusarium graminearum stalk rot Fusarium graminearum stalk rot measured as percentage of plants affected.
fusarium moniliforme ear rot Fusarium moniliforme ear rot symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5
fusarium moniliforme stalk rot Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot measured as percentage of plants affected.
fusarium stalk rot Fusarium stalk rot measured as percentage of plants affected.
gray leaf spot Gray leaf spot (Cerospora zeae-maydis) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infec
head smut Head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) measured as percentage of plants affected.
java downy mildew Java downy mildew (Peronosclerospora maydis) measured as percentage of plants affected
late wilt Late wilt (Cephalosporium maydis) measured as percentage of plants affected.
leaf spot Leaf spot symptoms (caused by several fungi) rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection)
Maydis leaf blight
maydis leaf blight (southern corn leaf blight, SCBL) (Bipolaris maydis = Helminthosporium maydis) symptoms rated on a scale
penicillium ear rot Penicillium ear rot symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely
phaeosphaeria leaf spot Phaeosphaeria leaf spot (Phaeosphaeria maydis) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean
philippine downy mildew Philippine downy mildew (Peronosclerospora philippinensis) measured as percentage of pla
polysora rust Polysora rust (in lowlands Puccinia polysora) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no
pythium stalk rot Pythium stalk rot (Pythium spp.) measured as percentage of plants affected.
rust Multiple rust pathogens measured on scale 1_5.
seedling disease Seedling disease measured as percentage of plants affected.
sorghum downy mildew Sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) measured as percentage of plants affec
stalk rot Stalk rot from multiple pathogens or an unidentified pathogen measured as percentage of p
stenocarpella ear rot Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) ear rot symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to
stenocarpella stalk rot Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) stalk rot measured as percentage of plants affected.
sugarcane downy mildew Sugarcane downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sacchari) measured as percentage of plants a
sugarcane mosaic virus Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) measured as percentage of plants affected.
tarspot complex Tarspot complex (Phyllachora maydis, Monographella maydis) symptoms rated on a scale fr
tropical rust Tropical rust (Physopella zeae) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5
Turcicum leaf blight
turcicum leaf blight (northern corn leaf blight, NCBL) (Exserohilum turcicum = Helminthosporium turcicum) symptoms rated
viral disease The trait is scored for the response to the diseases caused by several viruses.
maize dwarf mosaic virus Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) measured as percentage of plants affected.
maize mosaic virus Maize mosaic virus (MMV) measured as percentage of plants affected.
maize rayado fino virus Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) measured as percentage of plants affected.
maize rough dwarf virus Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) measured as percentage of plants affected.
maize streak virus Maize streak virus symptoms (MSV) measured as percentage of plants affected.
maize stripe virus Maize stripe virus (MStV) measured as percentage of plants affected.
mal de rio cuarto virus Mal de rio cuarto virus (MRCV) measured as percentage of plants affected.
insect damage The trait is scored for the response to the damages caused by insects.
aphid damage Aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis) damage measured on a scale 1 (= no infestation) to 5 (= sev
army worm damage Army worm (syn. Spodoptera exempta) damage measured on a scale 1 (= no infestation) to
Count of the
busseola damage (african stem borer, b fusca) number of Busseola larvae. Higher the number indicates susceptibility.
chilo damage Chilo (Chilo partellus) damage measured on a scale 1 (= no infestation) to 5 (= severely infes
diabrotica damage Plant damaged caused by daibrotica.
diatraea damage Plant damaged caused by daitraea.
ear damage Amount of ear damage caused by ear rot and/or insects, etc.
earworm damage Ear worm, Heliothis, measures as cm of feeding. 0 - no ear damage, 1 - 1 cm, + 1 for each ad
large grain borer damage Large grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus) damage rated on selection index or natural infe
maize weevil damage Maize weevil damage measured based on a selection index or natural infestation (1-10) adj
stem borer damage Includes different stem borers such as Chilo partellus, sesamia spp. and spodoptera. Scale is
striga damage 1-5 scale based on number of Striga hermonthica plants emerged or selection index (e.g. St