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					Trait                             Definition

Agronomic trait                  Describes important agronomic characters of Maize.
100 kernel weight                Weight of 100 kernels randomly selected from the total kernels.
1000 kernel weight               Weight of 1000 kernels randomly selected from the total kernels and adjusted to 10% mois
anthesis silking interval        Determined by (i) measuring the number of days after planting until 50 % of the plants shed
bad husk cover                   Percentage of all plants with bad husk cover.
chupon percentage                Multiple cobs, Chupones, percentage of plants with more than one cob growing in same pla
days to ear leaf senescence      Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf.
days to maturity                 Number of days required from seeding to seed/grain ripening.
days to anthesis                 Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants shed pollen.
days to silking                  Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants silk.
ear dry weight                   Weight of ear taken after drying at 60-70 degree centigrade for 1-2 days.
ear growth                       Difference between the ear length (cm) measured at zero day pollen shedding and 7 days a
ear growth rate                  Measure of growth rate of ear in percentage.
ear number per plant             Number of ears per plant. Counted as number of ears with at least one fully developed grai
female flowering                 Traits associated with the timing of the flowering of female flowers.
foliage rating                   Rating of total leaf surface where: 3, small; 5, intermediate; 7 large.
grain texture                    A measure of the variation of the intensity of a surface, quantifying properties such as smoo
grain yield                      Shelled grain weight per plot adjusted to 12.5% grain moisture and converted to tons per he
growing degree units to anthesis Heat units (growing-degree units) between planting and 50% anthesis; commercial model (1
growing degree units to maturity Heat units (growing-degree units) between planting and black-layer formation, commercial
husk cover                       Measured as percentage of plants with ears that are not completely covered by the husks.
male flowering                   Traits associated with the timing of the flowering of male flowers.
plant aspect                     Qualitative score of the visual appeal (ideotype) of the plant. In another word, it rates chara
plant height                     Height between the base of a plant to the insertion of the first tassel branch of the same pla
plant number                     Number of plants per plot.
relative grain yield             Relative grain yield expressed as percentage of the mean grain yield of the trial. Values abo
root capacitance                 Estimation of root mass at the end of the stress using an electrical capacitance meter.
root lodging                     Measured as percentage of plants that show root lodging, i.e. those stems that are inclining
selection index                  The selection index gives a single measure of the hybrid & aposis worth based on informatio
senescence                       Leaf senescence score on a scale from 0 to 10. Taken during grain-filling by estimating the p
sheath pubescence                Presence and intensity of hairs (sparse or intermediate or dense) on the surface of the leaf
silk growth                      Difference between the silk length (cm) measured at zero day pollen shedding and 7 days a
silk growth rate                 Measurement of growth rate of silk in percentage.
silk length                      Measurement of growth of silk in centimeters.
stem color                       Visual rating of stem color.
stem lodging                     Measured as percentage of plants that show stem lodging, i.e. those stems that are broken
tassel branches dry weight       The dry weight of tassel branches (grams) just prior to pollen shed.
tassel branches number           Number of branches on tassel.
tillering index                  Number of tillers per plant.
total grain weevil number        Number of grain weevils hatching and emerging from an infested grain sample within a give
weevil grain weight loss         Loss of weight of the grain samples caused by weevil feeding during a given period of incub

Morphological trait               Describes important morphological characters of maize.
ear diameter                      Ear diameter measured in centimeter at the central part of uppermost ear.
ear height                        Height between the base of a plant to the insertion of the top (uppermost) ear of the same
ear leaf length                  Measurement of length ear leaf (blade) in centimeter.
ear leaf weight                  Weight of ear leaf (blade) in gm.
ear length                       Measurement of ear growth in centimeter.
ear position                     A ratio of ear height to plant height. Small values indicate low ear position; large values indi
grain color                      Kernel or grain color whether white, yellow, purple, variegated, brown, orange, mottled, wh
kernel length                    Average of 10 consecutive kernels from one row in the middle of the uppermost ear.
kernel number                    Calculated as grain weight divided by single kernel weight.
kernel row arrangement           Visual assessment of kernel row arrangement where: 1, regular; 2, irregular; 3, straight and
kernel row number                Count number of kernel rows in the central part of the uppermost ear.
kernel type                      Visual rating of kernel type from 1 -11 where 1= floury, 3= dent, 6= flint, 7= pop, 8= sweet, 9
kernel width                     Measurement of kernel width in millimeter,
leaf length                      Measurement of leaf length in centimeter.
leaf width                       Measurement of leaf width in centimeter.
tassel size                      A 1-3 visual rating of tassel size after milk stage. The higher the rating the larger the tassel. 1
tassel type                      Branching type of tassel whether primary or primary-secondary or primary-secondary-tertia
uppermost ear shape              Shape of uppermost ear whether cylindrical or cylindrical-conical or conical or round.

Physiological trait                Describes important physiological characters of maize.
abscisic acid content              Measures the abscisic acid content in a plant or plant part.
                                   A
abscisic acid to sugar content ratio ratio of abscisic acid to the sugar content in a plant or plant part.
canopy temperature                 Measured in several rows simultaneously to allow a comparison. Thermal images will be tak
chlorophyll content                Measurement of chlorophyll amount in green tissue of plant or plant part.
ear leaf chlorophyll content       Amount of chlorophyll content in the ear leaf measured at the beginning and the end of the
glucose content                    Amount of glucose present in the plant or plant part.
leaf temperature                   Measured as absolute temperature or as a difference between air and leaf temperature by
                                   index
normalized difference vegetation Measured with a portable field spectroradiometer (e.g. GreenSeeker). The sensor placed ca
osmotic adjustment                 The ability of the plant to adjust the osmotic potential under stress conditions.
osmotic potential                  A measure of the potential of water to move between regions of differing concentrations ac
photochemical radiation index Measured in leaves with a hyperspectral spectroradiometer at anthesis and 2-3 weeks later
proline content                    Amino acid proline content in a plant or plant part.
stable nitrogen isotope compositionDetermined in the same kernels used for stable oxygen isotope enrichment analyses. Measu
                                    in kernels
stable oxygen isotope enrichmentSamples analyzed by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. One measurement per row from the
stomatal conductance               Measured with a portable porometer.
sucrose content                    The amount of sucrose present in the plant or the plant part.
sugar content                      Amount of sugar present in the plant or the plant part.
total mineral content              Determined in the same kernels used for Stable oxygen isotope enrichment analyses. Meas
total nitrogen content             Determined in the same kernels used for stable oxygen isotope enrichment analyses. Measu
water index                        Measured in leaves with a hyperspectral spectroradiometer at anthesis and 2-3 weeks later
young leaf chlorophyll content Amount of chlorophyll content in the young leaf measured at the beginning and the end of

Quality trait                    Describes important quality related traits of maize
ear aspect                       Visual qualitative rating of the ear, usually scored on a scale 1-5. A score of 1 indicates that
endosperm hardness               Measurement of quality of endosperm, usually rated on a scale 1-5 where 1, hard and trans
grain moisture                   Percentage of moisture as measured at harvest.
iron content                     Total iron content in grain.
lysine content                   Total percentage of lysine.
lysine per endosperm             Percentage of lysine in grain endosperm on a dry matter basis.
lysine per whole grain           Percentage of lysine in whole grain m on a dry matter basis.
protein content                  Total protein content in grain.
protein per endosperm            Percentage of protein in grain endosperm on a dry matter basis.
protein per whole grain          Percentage of protein in whole grain on a dry matter basis.
pro-vitaminA content             Total pro-vitaminA content in grain.
seed viability                   Seed viability is measured after 3 month at 100% relative humidity and 30 degrees C, 1 = 10
starch content                   Total starch content in grain.
tryptophan content               Total percentage of tryptophan.
tryptophan per endosperm         Percentage of tryptophan in grain endosperm on dry matter basis.
tryptophan per whole grain       Percentage of tryptophan in whole grain on dry matter basis.
zinc content                     Total zinc content in grain.

Stress trait                     Response by the plant in terms of resistivity or sensitivity to abiotic or/and biotic stresses
Abiotic stress trait             Response by the plant in terms of resistivity or sensitivity to abiotic stress.
leaf rolling                     Leaf rolling score measured under drought stress on a scale from 1 (unrolled, turgid leaves,

Biotic stress trait              Response by the plant in terms of resistivity or sensitivity to biotic stress.
bacterial disease                The trait is scored for the response to the diseases caused by several bacteria.
bacterial leaf stripe            Bacterial leaf stripe (Pseudomonas rubrilinians) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean,
bacterial stalk rot              Bacterial stalk rot (Erwinia chrysanthemi) measured as percentage of plants affected.
corn stunt                       Corn stunt complex (corn stunt spiroplasma, maize bushy stunt phytoplasma [= mycoplasm
maize bushy stunt                Maize bushy stunt (caused by mycoplasma like organism, MLO) symptoms rated on a scale
stewarts wilt                    Stewart's wilt (Erwinia stewartii) measured as percentage of plants affected.

fungal disease                   The trait is scored for the response to the diseases caused by several fungi.
anthracnose leaf blight          Anthracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola) measured as percentage of plants affected.
aspergillus ear rot              Aspergillus ear rot symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely
banded leaf and sheath blight    Banded leaf and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii) symptoms rated on a scale fr
black bundle                     Black bundle (Acremonium strictum) measured as percentage of plants affected.
brown spot                       Brown spot (Physoderma maydis) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection)
brown stripe downy mildew        Brown stripe downy mildew (Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae) measured as percentage of p
charcoal rot                     Charcoal rot or (Macrophomina phaseolina) measured as percentage of plants affected.
common rust                      Score for the severity of common rust, (In highlands and mid altitude, Puccinia sorghi) symp
common smut                      Common smut (Ustilago maydis) measured as percentage of plants affected. The trait is sco
crazy top downy mildew           Crazy top (Sclerophthora macrospora) measured as percentage of plants affected.
curvularia leaf spot             Curvularia leaf spot (Curvularia spp.) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infectio
downy mildew                     Downy mildews (several species of the genera Peronosclerospora, Sclerospora, and Sclerop
ear rot                          Percentage of all ears that are rotten.
fusarium ear rot                 Fusarium ear rot symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely d
fusarium graminearum ear rot     Fusarium graminearum ear rot symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5
fusarium graminearum stalk rot   Fusarium graminearum stalk rot measured as percentage of plants affected.
fusarium moniliforme ear rot     Fusarium moniliforme ear rot symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5
fusarium moniliforme stalk rot   Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot measured as percentage of plants affected.
fusarium stalk rot               Fusarium stalk rot measured as percentage of plants affected.
gray leaf spot                   Gray leaf spot (Cerospora zeae-maydis) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infec
head smut                        Head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) measured as percentage of plants affected.
java downy mildew                Java downy mildew (Peronosclerospora maydis) measured as percentage of plants affected
late wilt                         Late wilt (Cephalosporium maydis) measured as percentage of plants affected.
leaf spot                         Leaf spot symptoms (caused by several fungi) rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection)
                                  Maydis leaf blight
maydis leaf blight (southern corn leaf blight, SCBL) (Bipolaris maydis = Helminthosporium maydis) symptoms rated on a scale
penicillium ear rot               Penicillium ear rot symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely
phaeosphaeria leaf spot           Phaeosphaeria leaf spot (Phaeosphaeria maydis) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean
philippine downy mildew           Philippine downy mildew (Peronosclerospora philippinensis) measured as percentage of pla
polysora rust                     Polysora rust (in lowlands Puccinia polysora) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no
pythium stalk rot                 Pythium stalk rot (Pythium spp.) measured as percentage of plants affected.
rust                              Multiple rust pathogens measured on scale 1_5.
seedling disease                  Seedling disease measured as percentage of plants affected.
sorghum downy mildew              Sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) measured as percentage of plants affec
stalk rot                         Stalk rot from multiple pathogens or an unidentified pathogen measured as percentage of p
stenocarpella ear rot             Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) ear rot symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to
stenocarpella stalk rot           Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) stalk rot measured as percentage of plants affected.
sugarcane downy mildew            Sugarcane downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sacchari) measured as percentage of plants a
sugarcane mosaic virus            Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) measured as percentage of plants affected.
tarspot complex                   Tarspot complex (Phyllachora maydis, Monographella maydis) symptoms rated on a scale fr
tropical rust                     Tropical rust (Physopella zeae) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5
                                  Turcicum leaf blight
turcicum leaf blight (northern corn leaf blight, NCBL) (Exserohilum turcicum = Helminthosporium turcicum) symptoms rated

viral disease                    The trait is scored for the response to the diseases caused by several viruses.
maize dwarf mosaic virus         Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) measured as percentage of plants affected.
maize mosaic virus               Maize mosaic virus (MMV) measured as percentage of plants affected.
maize rayado fino virus          Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) measured as percentage of plants affected.
maize rough dwarf virus          Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) measured as percentage of plants affected.
maize streak virus               Maize streak virus symptoms (MSV) measured as percentage of plants affected.
maize stripe virus               Maize stripe virus (MStV) measured as percentage of plants affected.
mal de rio cuarto virus          Mal de rio cuarto virus (MRCV) measured as percentage of plants affected.

insect damage                   The trait is scored for the response to the damages caused by insects.
aphid damage                    Aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis) damage measured on a scale 1 (= no infestation) to 5 (= sev
army worm damage                Army worm (syn. Spodoptera exempta) damage measured on a scale 1 (= no infestation) to
                                Count of the
busseola damage (african stem borer, b fusca) number of Busseola larvae. Higher the number indicates susceptibility.
chilo damage                    Chilo (Chilo partellus) damage measured on a scale 1 (= no infestation) to 5 (= severely infes
diabrotica damage               Plant damaged caused by daibrotica.
diatraea damage                 Plant damaged caused by daitraea.
ear damage                      Amount of ear damage caused by ear rot and/or insects, etc.
earworm damage                  Ear worm, Heliothis, measures as cm of feeding. 0 - no ear damage, 1 - 1 cm, + 1 for each ad
large grain borer damage        Large grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus) damage rated on selection index or natural infe
maize weevil damage             Maize weevil damage measured based on a selection index or natural infestation (1-10) adj
stem borer damage               Includes different stem borers such as Chilo partellus, sesamia spp. and spodoptera. Scale is

striga damage                    1-5 scale based on number of Striga hermonthica plants emerged or selection index (e.g. St
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posted:11/30/2011
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