Introduction to Facilities Design by kA11bf


									Introduction to Facilities
         Chapter 1
Chronological list of facilities
planning and design activities
       Date                                        Event

     4000 B.C.      Egyptians developed expertise in finding suitable locations for

                    pyramids according to their astrological calculations

   100 B.C. B 100   Romans developed full-fledged methods for the construction of

       A.D.         temples, arenas, and other buildings. Detailed planning of public

                    and residential buildings

    1700 B 1900     Industrial revolution period

       1910         First industrial engineering text book Factory Organization and

                    Administration published by Hugo Diemer.

       1913         First moving automotive assembly line introduced by Henry

Chronological list of facilities
planning and design activities
      1954      Quadratic assignment problem for micro- andmcro-levl location

                problems introduced by Koopmans and Beckman

    1955-1995   Optimal and heuristic algorithms for the quadratic assignment


      1959      Systematic layout planning approach introduced by Muther

      1963      CRAFT (Computerized relative allocation of facilities technique)

                introduced by Armour and Buffa
Chronological list of facilities
planning and design activities
     Early 1980s    The flexible manufacturing system concept is introduced and

                    attention shifts towards achieving plant-wide flexibility via

                    medium-volume, medium-variety production using cellular

                    manufacturing techniques

     Late 1980s     The term automation introduced to cope with plant flexibility


     1985-present   Modern software for facilities design problems

    1990s-present   Research on new layout concepts including dynamic layouts,

                    robust layouts, and reconfigurable layouts introduced to support

                    mass customization techniques
Typical Design and Planning
     Facility Location      Type, Number of Material      Determining Flow of
                               Handling Devices            Products (People)

 Type, Volume of Products     Determining Material     Scheduling and planning of
 to be Manufactured or         Handling Methods           Jobs (Service steps)
 Service to be Provided

                                                         Overall System Design
  Manufacturing (Service)     Layout of Equipment
   Processes Required           Within Each Cell

   Design of Components        Layout of Machine           Inventory Control
         (Service)               (Service) Cells

     Type, Number of        Determination of Machine     Distribution of goods
    Equipment Required           (Service) Cells

     Process Planning           Tooling, Fixture          Quality Control and
                                 Determination             Customer Service
          Levels of decisions
• Strategic or Design or Long-term
• Planning or Intermediate
• Operational or short-term
 Why is facilities layout important?
• 20-75% of product cost attributed to
  materials handling (Sule, 1991 and
  Tompkins et al. 2003)
• Layout of facilities affects materials
  handling costs
• Facilities includes machines, departments,
  workstations, locker rooms, service areas,
 Why is facilities layout important?
• Good layout increases productivity
• Reducing congestion permits smooth flow
  of people and material
• Space utilization is effective and efficient
• Facilitates communication and supervision
• Safe and pleasant working environment
• Pilferage
 Constraints in developing facilities
• Some pairs of departments must be
• Some pairs of departments must not be
• Some departments only in specific
• Existing building constraints
• OSHA regulations, fire codes, etc.
 Types of layout problems – Some
• JIT manufacturer
• Relayout of an existing facility
• Relayout due to increased traffic (resulting from
  a merger)
• Consolidation of manufacturing operations from
  two or more sites to one
• Leasing of office space in a multi-story building
• Find a better layout in existing space
• Introduction of new product lines
       Types of layout problems
•   Layout of a service system
•   Layout of a manufacturing facility
•   Warehouse layout
•   Nontraditional layout
• Manufacturing
• Healthcare
• Service
  –   Restaurants
  –   Banks
  –   Airports
  –   Entertainment
• Logistics and
  – Ports/Terminals
  – Distribution Centers
              Types of Projects
• New Facility (rare to face in one’s career)
• General Re-layout (retrofit)
  –   Expansion due to new product(s)
  –   Expansion due to sales growth in existing products
  –   Re-organization of work areas (evolutionary design)
  –   Outsourcing of logistics capability
  –   Addition of automation technology
  –   Problem elimination
  –   Cost reduction
  –   Product discontinuation
Service system layout – Dentist’s

         Staff Lounge      X-Ray Room    Records Room

        Dentist’s Room                       Room

                                        Oral Hygienist’s
        Oral Hygienist’s

                                        Men’s Rest Room

                                         Women’s Rest
            Waiting                        Room
Service system layout – Grocery
Operations review for office layouts
         (Suskind, 1989)
•   Is the company outgrowing its space?
•   Is available space too expensive?
•   Is building in the proper location?
•   How will a new layout affect the organization and
•   Are office operations too centralized or decentralized?
•   Does the office structure support the strategic plan?
•   Is the new layout in tune with the company’s image
•   Does customer physically participate in service delivery?
            Office structures
•   Closed structure
•   Semiclosed structure
•   Open structure
•   Semiopen structure
Closed structure
Semiclosed structure

     Teller   Teller   Teller
Open structure
Semiopen structure
         Manufacturing layout
• Minimize transportation cost of raw materials,
  sub-assemblies, work-in-process inventory,
  tools, parts, finished products, etc.
• Facilitate traffic flow
• Improve employee morale
• Minimize or eliminate risk of injury and property
• Ease of supervision and face-to-face
Assembly facility layout
Driveway layout
Warehouse layout
          Nontraditional layout
•   Keyboard layout
•   IC board layout
•   Computer disk storage layout
•   Airport gate layout

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