Answer Key Eco to Final Exam Review Sheet2011 by suchenfz


									                       Answer Key to Final Exam Review Sheet
                        Environmental Science – Spring 2011

1. Everything that is living and nonliving, natural or manmade that makes up the earth
2. Resource depletion, pollution, and extinction
3. Consumption crisis occurs in developed countries where the citizens consume
resources too much and do not conserve, recycle , reduce or reuse enough of their
existing resources. Population crisis occurs in developing countries where the population
is so high that the citizens use up the resource due to the fact that there are so many
4. State the Problem
    Gather Information
    Form Hypothesis
    Collect and record data

CH. 2
5. Biotic refers to living things, while abiotic refers to nonliving things
6. Habitat is where an organism lives, while niche describes what the organism does.
7. Organism----> population ------> community-----> ecosystem ------> biosphere
8. Predator-lion, mutualism- the bat and the cactus, competion- the lion and the hyena,
commensalism- the orchid, parasitism- a tick
9. Survival of the fittest , if an organism survives then it passes on its genes to help its
offspring survive
10. Adaptation takes place due to an environmental response, while co-evolution is a
response to another organism

CH. 5
22. Only 1% of all water is available for use.
23. Rivers, lakes, groundwater, streams
24. Point pollution comes from one source, nonpoint pollution comes from more than
one source.
25. Conservation, towing water-expensive, ice melts, desalination-expensive, cannot
drink it nor use it for irrigation
26. Groundwater is hard to get to and it replenishes itself very slowly
27. Pathogens, organic matter, organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, toxic chemicals,
physical agent, radioactive waste
28. Fresh water is in such a high demand because all living things need water to survive.
29. Rivers carrying trash from the land to the ocean.
30. Polluting the oceans can disrupt food chains and interrupt the carbon cycle.

31. Transportation, fuel burning, and industry
32. Primary air pollution occurs due to human activity putting the pollutants directly into
the air- major ones are NOx, Sox, CO, VOC and particulates, secondary pollution occurs
when primary mixes with nature- acid rain, smog and ozone
33. Thermal inversion keeps the pollution close to earth instead of allowing it to
dissipate into the upper atmosphere. It acts like a ceiling.
34. Carpooling, and finding other sources of energy, wet scrubbers & electrostatic
precipitators in smoke stacks, catalytic converters in cars
35. Radon, carbon monoxide from furnaces, paints, fertilizers in the garage..... indoor air
pollution occurs in tightly sealed buildings- radon 222 is naturally occurring
36. When rain mixes with sulfur or nitrogen oxides
37. It can harm plants and buildings
38. Acid rain is high in industrial areas.

CH. 7
39. Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere
40. 78% Nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other
41. Plants convert carbon dioxide into oxide, this works fine as long as there are enough
plants and not to much carbon dioxide
42. Latitude and geographic location to water
43. tilt of the earth’s axis
44. The greenhouse effect allows the heat that the earth reradiates out to stay in the
earth’s atmosphere; it is only a danger if too much heat is allowed to stay in the
atmosphere- Greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, CFC, water vapor, nitrous
45. The ozone layer absorbs ultraviolet radiation
46. CFC’s are destroying the ozone layer

CH. 8
47. It expands the boundaries of cities and takes over forest and farmland, which can
destroy ecosystems
48. Too many people moving into cities, and the cities are becoming crowded with a
housing shortage.
49. Harvesting trees, mining, and ranching
50. National parks, wildlife refuges, Indian reservations, military establishments, national

CH. 10
57. The number and variety of species living in an area
58. The Endangered Species Act
59. Keeping the food chain and nutrient cycle healthy
60. Tropical rainforest is the land biome, coral reef for aquatic biome
61. Extinct means there are no more living examples of that species

CH. 11
62. Fossil fuels are burned to create heat, which heat up water and creates steam,
which then turns the turbine, which then turns the generators
63. Renewable: solar, wind, hydro, biomass
    Nonrenewable: fossil fuels, nuclear fission
64. Nuclear fission produces heat, which heats up water, which creates steam, which
turns the turbines, which turns the generator
65. Fossil fuels create air pollution, nuclear fission creates radioactive waste
66. solar energy-expensive
     wind energy – noise pollution, location
     hydroelectric –can destroy ecosystems
    biomass- gives off carbon dioxide
    geothermal- used up very quickly
67. Conservation

CH. 12
68.Landfill is lined with clay, sand and a plastic liner, pipes to vent the methane gas,
pipes to carry leacheates away
69. Incinerators require less land, however air pollution is created and it can create toxic
70. Reduce, reuse, recycle
71. Household cleaners, motor oil, pesticides, paint thinners….
72. Community collection site

CH. 13
73. When the number of births and immigrations out number the number of deaths and
emigration (immigration + births) – ( emigration + death)
74. Scarcity of food, housing shortages, using up resources
75. Developed countries per person cause more damage
76. Maximum growth rate due to birth rate
77. Size at which the population ceases to grow because the environment can not
support it
78. Agricultural revolution has allowed humans to produce more food

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