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THE NERVOUS

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					   THE
NERVOUS
 SYSTEM
   Study the pictures below and answer
        the questions that follow.




http://sprtshub.com   http://www.flickr.com/photos/14654539@N03/1507069003   /
Q: Which systems in our body are at work
when we play a sport?
A: Our skeletal, muscular and nervous
systems
Q: How do we know when and where to
move to during a sport?
A: Our nervous system helps us to react to
our surroundings and move according.
Parts and function
of the NERVOUS
     SYSTEM
             SPINAL CORD
-    about 18 inches long
-    made of many nerves located around the spine
-    located inside the vertebral canal
-    CARRIES MESSAGES TO & FROM THE BRAIN
-    Protected by the vertebral column
-    Has vertebral disks
    o which absorb shock during activities
    o allow spine to flex and extend
SPINAL CORD
 NERVE CELL/NEURON
- form a network throughout our body
- send messages to our body parts and receive messages
from our surroundings through the spinal cord
- connected end to end and transmits electrical impulses
from one point to another
-two types : sensory nerves and motor nerves
   - Sensory nerves pick up information from our
     surroundings
   - Motor nerves carry out the actions as a response to an
     information
NERVE CELL/NEURON
                     B R A IN
- soft organ protected by the skull
- controls the entire nervous system
- has the following parts:


    B R A IN: CEREBRUM
- biggest part of the brain
- makes up 85% of the brain's weight
- thinking part of the brain
- controls voluntary muscles (the ones that move when you
want them to)
B R A IN: CEREBRUM




           http://health.allrefer.com/pictures-images/left-cerebral-hemisphere-function.htm
B R A IN: CEREBRUM




           http://health.allrefer.com/pictures-images/right-cerebral-hemisphere-function.h
B R A IN: CEREBELLUM
- is at the back of the brain, below the cerebrum
- only 1/8 of the size of the cerebrum
- controls balance, movement, and coordination (how
  muscles work together)
B R A IN: CEREBELLUM




              http://health.allrefer.com/pictures-images/cerebellum-function.html
  B R A IN: BRAIN STEM
 - sits beneath cerebrum and in front of cerebellum
- connects the rest of the brain to spinal cord, which runs
    down our neck and back
- controls involuntary muscles (muscles that work
    automatically, without you controlling it)
- it sorts through millions of messages that the brain and the
    rest of the body send back and forth
B R A IN: BRAIN STEM




           http://health.allrefer.com/pictures-images/brainstem-function.html
   OTHER BRAIN PARTS
Pituitary gland
• produces and releases hormones
• controls our growth

Hypothalamus
• controls body temperature
• if we feel warm, the hypothalamus tells the body to
  produce sweat. If we’re too cold, it gets us shivering
OTHER BRAIN PARTS




        http://www.besthealth.com/besthealth/bodyguide/reftext/images/PituitaryGland.jpg
       PATH OF MESSAGE

   The                      The                  The motor
 sensory                  sensory    The brain     nerves
  nerves   Message is      nerves      gives a    help the
pick up    sent as a     bring the    response   muscles in
   the       nerve      message to    through     carrying
message     impulse     the spinal   the motor     out the
 from a                 cord, then     nerves     response
stimulus                   brain.                  action
     PATH OF MESSAGE
• Tell the path of message if
  – A young boy gets an apple from inside the
    refrigerator
  Sensory nerves of the eyes     message travels to the brain
    via spinal cord       brain decide on an action
    message of action travels from brain via the spinal cord
    motor nerves of arm
  – You hear your mobile phone’s message alert
    tone.
How about this?
                      Reflex
Reflex actions
  – Actions to stimulus which are almost
    instantaneous
     • Stimulus       spinal cord     reaction
     • Reaction to potential danger
  – Blinking of eyes faster than the approach of a
    foreign object
Are the actions of an athlete reflex or common
 stimulus response?
COMMON ILLNESSES OF
 THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
   Alzheimer’s Disease
               - deterioration of memory, thinking, and reasoning
Description/s -usually occurs in old age


           gradual loss of memory, lessened ability to perform
           routine tasks, disorientation, difficulty in learning,
  Symptoms loss of language skills, impairment of judgment and
           planning, and mood or behavioral changes



        Cure currently no cure
                  Epilepsy
              -result of trauma at the time of birth, such as
              insufficient oxygen to the brain or head injury.
Description/s - may be caused by head injury resulting from
              accident, alcoholism, infectious diseases such as
              measles or mumps, or lead or mercury poisoning


            marked by seizures that often involve convulsions
   Symptoms or the loss of consciousness




             is a recurrent, lifelong condition that must be
        Cure managed on a long-term basis
 Huntington’s Disease
Description/s Inherited, progressive disease


           -uncontrollable physical movements and mental
           deterioration.
           -symptoms usually appear in people between the
  Symptoms ages of thirty and fifty
           -include restlessness, twitching, and a desire to
           move about



        Cure there is no cure and treatment
                 Migraine
              -a particularly intense form of headache lasting
              several hours or more
              -headaches provoked by a particular stimulus, such
Description/s as stress, loud noises, missed meals, or eating
              particular foods.



  Symptoms Headaches, nausea, sensitivity to light and/or
               sound




               Several drugs may be used to reduce the pain and
        Cure
               severity of a migraine attack.
      Multiple Sclerosis
              -occurs when the protective coating around the
              nerves deteriorates. Nerves become exposed and
              directly interferes with the way the brain sends
Description/s signals to the rest of the body. The exposed nerves
              become hardened (sclerosis),therefore the body
              cannot respond to signals being sent by the brain.

            -severe exhaustion, bladder and bowel weakness,
            balance and coordination problems, dizziness,
   Symptoms vision problems and pain in eyes, muscle stiffness,
            weakness, cramps and pain



        Cure -no known cure
             - treatment involves management of symptoms
    Parkinson’s Disease
              -progressive disease in which cells in one of the
Description/s movement-control centers of the brain begin to
              die

               -nerves and muscles become weak, and control over
               speech body movements is lost
               -symptoms include tremors (usually beginning in the
  Symptoms     hands), slow movements, muscle rigidity or stiffness,
               balance problems, decreased eye-blinking, depression,
               speech changes, sleep problems, constipation, and
               irritability



        Cure -currently no cure for or a way to prevent PD
    Poliomyelitis/Polio
              - infectious viral disease that attacks muscle-
              controlling nerves that can cause paralysis
              -affects children
Description/s -spreads primarily through contact with saliva or
              feces of infected person. Virus enters and multiplies
              rapidly in the intestines. It enters the bloodstream,
              then gains access to the central nervous system


                 - fever, sore throat, vomiting, diarrhea, stiff neck
  Symptoms and back, and muscle pain




                vaccines were developed to provide the
         Cure
                body immunity to the poliomyelitis virus
                     Stroke
              -occurs when a blood vessel carrying oxygen and
              nutrients to the brain is either blocked by a blood
Description/s clot or bursts
              -part of the brain is deprived of the blood and
              oxygen it needs, so it begins to die


            weakness or numbness of one side of the face, arm
   Symptoms and/or leg; trouble speaking or understanding;
            dizziness, trouble walking or loss of balance.


              -Treatment through intake of medicine
         Cure -Rehabilitation
              -Surgery
            Care for the NS
   Learn how to cope with emotions.
   Have a balanced diet.
   Read and write regularly.
   Avoid alcohol, drugs and cigarettes.
   Exercise caution at work and play.
Sources:
http://kidshealth.org/kid/htbw/brain.html#
http://www.humanillnesses.com/Behavioral-Health-A-Br/The-Brain-and-Nervous-System.html
http://www.faqs.org/health/Body-by-Design-V2/The-Nervous-System-Ailments-what-can-go-
    wrong-with-the-nervous-system.html

				
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posted:12/1/2011
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