Bomb Threat Assessment by 327a3jvL


Bomb Threat Management for
   Educational Facilities

  To evaluate bomb threats
and determine an appropriate
  response for educational

       Bomb Threats
 Paradigm shift in evacuation
 Making an “Unknown” a
 Schools are no longer
  considered secure until a
  search determines otherwise
  During a bomb threat incident
 or suspicious package situation,
   a total evacuation may not be
     the best course of action.
It could actually expose students
 and faculty to other dangers not
        normally considered.

Evacuation to a pre-determined location
creates an environment which leaves
students/faculty vulnerable to:
    • Active Shooter
    • Secondary Explosive Devices
    • Homicide Bomber
    • Vehicle Bomb

All threats must be treated
seriously and thoroughly

Until the threat has been assessed
and a search has been completed,
 schools should initiate lock down

 - Remain in Secure Location -

Bombing and Hoax Device Incidents

 According to ATF

 …If someone is going to use an
 actual explosive device, statistics
 show they are not going to
 communicate the threat.

Common Explosive Devices

                         Military Ordinance

             Homemade     Over Pressured
             Fireworks        Device
Common Explosive Devices


Pipe bombs

             Incendiary devices
     Hollywood creates a
 misconception that a bomb will
   destroy a school building.

Historically, the majority of IED’s
 used in the United States have
been of such size that would not
cause catastrophic destruction to
            a building.
Michigan School Bombing Incident
     A pipe bomb functions in a hallway

                                          Except for a
                                          few tiles
                                          down, the
                                          building was
                                          able to
                                          withstand a
                                          in a hallway.
                                          The bricks
                                          and mortar
                                          the integrity
                                          of the
Post Blast Damage - 2” Steel Pipe Bomb            12
     Standards for Schools

   The construction of schools
complies with the State of Michigan
          building codes.
 Our schools are built to protect its
 occupants from various hazards
     (natural and man-made).
 Bomb Threat Procedure Policy
• Any time a bomb threat is received,
  you should refer to your bomb threat
  policy/procedure for guidance.
• This policy should be accessible to
  assist administration.
• This policy/procedure should be
  reviewed by all staff annually.
• It is important to brief substitute
  teachers and new employees.            14
Policy and Procedure

 Bomb Threat Search Procedures
    School Response Teams
 Each school is encouraged to have a
  School Response Team.
 The School Response Team should
  consist of a key decision maker,
  assistants, and a person with detailed
  knowledge about the facility.
 The key decision-maker should have
  the authority to activate a lock
  down/restrict movement in the school.
If possible, search teams
should consist of two person
teams including someone
familiar with the area being
searched (i.e. teacher,
custodian, administration).

    Bomb Threat Received
•   Telephone/Answer Machine
•   Mail/Letter/Written Threat
•   Internet/E-Mail/Text
•   Note
•   In Person/Third Person

Bomb Threat Received

  Bomb Threat Response Report
 The bomb threat
  response report
  should be prepared
  by the person who
  received the threat

 Provide to law
  enforcement &
  School Emergency
  Response Team
                                          Call 911
Bomb Threat Received           Activate Bomb Threat Response

Search & Secure Classrooms     Search & Secure Perimeter       Search & Secure Public Areas

                              Suspicious Package Found?

                              YES                    NO

Activate Bomb Evacuation Plan to Secure             Continue Police Investigation
 Area (Be Aware of Secondary Devices)                  for Bomb Threat Hoax

    Bomb Squad Render Safe

   Secondary Search by Police

  Continue Police Investigation
            Bomb Threats
Conducting a proper threat
assessment will assist in decision
making and determining the risk
associated with the bomb threat.
  • Is the threat credible?
  • What is the risk level?
  • Where is the physical area of danger?
  • What is the appropriate response?
• Threat Received:
  – Indirect
  – Vague                           LOW
• Location of Threat:
  – On Wall
  – E-Mail to student
• Lacks realism / sophistication
• Age of caller
  – Very Young
• Identification and frequency of caller
• Ability to carry out threat questionable   23
• Threat is direct
• Wording in the threat suggests         MEDIUM
  the perpetrator has given some
  thought on how the act will be carried out.
• Increased specificity inherent in threat
   – Time and place (general location)
   – Indication of size of device
   – Indication and details regarding availability of
     components (explosives used)                     24
• Threat is direct and specific
• Naming possible targets       HIGH
• Credible motive
• Bomber provides personal
• Specific time and location of
• Perpetrator provides names of
  intended victim(s)                   25
                      Immediately Following Threat
                                     Strongly Consider

                                Full Lockdown:
                            Remain in Secure Location

                                 Recommended Steps

• Control access to the school building.
• Restrict movement in school whereby occupants are restrict to the interior of the
  building/classroom and the building is secured until a search can be completed.
• Limit radio communication until a search has been completed in the room/area.
• It is important to know who is in the building at all times. Take attendance.
• If evacuation is contemplated, a search of the evacuation route and holding area
  is necessary prior to ordering an evacuation.
• Consider asking law enforcement about the availability of an explosive detective K-9.

                                  After Assessing Threat
      Consider                             Consider                     Consider

  Partial Lockdown:
                                    Full Evacuation               Partial Evacuation
Limit Class Movement
Always Consider the
     Totality of

        Bomb Threat Search

                   Call 911

Search & Secure   Search & Secure   Search & Secure
  Classrooms         Perimeter        Public Areas

  As a school employee, you know
 your building and your classroom
      better than anyone else.
If there was a bomb threat, you will
be asked to look around and report
  suspicious items or things out of
 place so public safety responders
    can then follow-up with those
          particular items.
 Do not touch anything suspicious. 29
Search & Secure Perimeter

             Search & Secure Perimeter
• Performed by Staff
• Lock perimeter doors
• Check for unusual/suspicious items – search
  in pairs when possible
  –   Bushes
  –   Trash cans
  –   Other obscure areas
  –   50 ft. radius
• Double check area of partner to ensure
• Report search results to School Response
Exterior Search Team – Parking Lots
  Except for a visual exterior search -
 do not search the inside of a vehicle.

                           Parking stickers will help
                           minimize search times by
                       identifying which cars should
                      be there and which should not
Search Interior of the Building

      Search & Secure Classrooms
• Performed by Staff
• Take attendance
• Search for unusual/suspicious items - in pairs when
• Start at center of room, eyes closed, listen for ticking
• Begin a visual search, check by sections
   – Floor to waist
   – Waist to head
   – Head to ceiling
   – Ceiling tiles
• Double check area of partner to ensure coverage
• Report search results to School Response Team
 Interior Search Team Procedures
• Once a room has been
  searched, lock the door
  and mark the room as
• This will prevent the
  researching of the same
  room by other teams.
       Search & Secure Public Areas
• Performed by Staff
• Check for unusual/suspicious items in common areas – search
  in pairs when possible
   – Bathrooms
   – Halls, including closets, stairs and utility areas
   – Cafeteria
   – Gymnasium
   – Offices
   – Library
• Start at center of room, eyes closed, listen for ticking
• Begin a visual search, check by sections
   – Floor to waist
   – Waist to head
   – Head to ceiling
   – Ceiling tiles
• Double check area of partner to ensure coverage
• Report search results to Response Team                    36
Law Enforcement Response

Search & Secure Procedures


   No Suspicious Package
• Complete threat assessment with
  school emergency response team
  and law enforcement
• Continue police investigation for
  bomb threat hoax

Search & Secure Procedures


 Yes                  No

Suspicious Package Found

 Use of Radio/Cell Phones if Suspicious
            Package Found
• Do not use a radio/cell phone
  within close proximity to a
  suspicious package.
• Leave the immediate area,
  then communicate to school
• Put brick and mortar
  between you and the
  suspicious package before
  you communicate.                        42
Bomb Threat Evacuation Continuum

      Suspicious Package Found –
    Bomb Threat Evacuation Continuum
• Activate bomb evacuation plan to secure immediate
  areas – put bricks and mortar between the suspicious
  package and humans
• Before an evacuation occurs, all routes for
  students/staff must be searched for suspicious items.
• Search evacuation routes for secondary devices and
  avoid routes that are near device location. The
  evacuation may occur while other areas of the building are
  being searched.
• The evacuation routes and assembly areas chosen will
• Continue police investigation

             Reducing the Risk
• Develop a school safety response team.
• Develop a bomb threat response plan.
• Ask your emergency responders to conduct a security
• Control access to the school building and premises.
• Have good sign-in procedures and enforce them.
• Monitor communication into and out of the school and
• Warn and educate students that weapons, contraband,
  bomb-related materials and bomb threats are
• Foster a positive school climate, free of aggression.
• Encourage students and staff to report what they see
  and hear.
      Explosives Detecting K-9
National Guidelines for Clearing Suspect Packages
with Canines or Explosives Detection Instruments

• Explosive Detection Canine Teams are
  appropriate for searching buildings, vehicles,
  baggage, packages etc. during threats or general
  sweeps. They are not to be used to assess,
  examine, or clear items already identified as a
  suspected explosive item or possible Improvised
  Explosive Device (IED). Searching refers to
  conducting a systematic examination of an area,
  vehicle or other non-suspect items with
  Explosives Detection Canine Teams.              49
         Explosives Detecting
• It is recognized that explosives detection systems
  are commonly used by security and law
  enforcement personnel who are not bomb

• Due to the possibility of a false negative
  response, such methods of explosive detection
  should NEVER be used to assess suspected
  improvised explosive devices.

                     Explosive Laws
                            Bomb Threats
•   False report of a bombing, attempted bombing or threat to
    bomb - Felony 5 years
                          Hoax Devices
•   Sending or placing a device representing a bomb - Felony 5
                           Actual Devices
•   Explosive or Incendiary Devices - Possession - Felony 4 years
•   Placing explosive with intent to destroy - Felony 15 years (the
    device does not have to function or cause damage)
•   Damaging property with explosives - Felony 25 years
•   Placing explosives with intent to destroy - Injury to persons -
    Felony Life without Parole
      Laws that Impact Students
• Public Act 135 of 2001 – If a student falsely
  reports a bomb threat, it is a felony
  punishable by up to five years in prison,
  and/or a fine of up to $10,000. The offender
  also must reimburse any governmental
  agency (law enforcement, fire department)
  for its expenses incurred as a result of the
• Public Act 422 of 2002 - If a student is
  convicted of making a bomb threat to a
  school, the Secretary of State will either
  deny a person their Driver’s license or
  immediately suspend the driver’s licenses
  for up to one – three years.                 52
    Public Act 102 of 1999
The law required a policy which
identifies reportable incidents and
describes the protocol to be followed
by building principals and staff when
certain events occur. The protocol
specifies under what circumstances
principals are required to call 911 or
the local police.
   Public school districts must report the
following offenses to local law enforcement
 Armed Student or Hostage     Threat of suicide
 Suspected armed student      Suicide attempt
 Weapons on school            Larceny
  property                     Intruders
 Death or homicide            Illegal drug use or overdose
 Drive-by shooting            Drug possession or drug
 Physical assault (fights)     sale
 Bomb threat                  Vandalism / destruction of
 Explosion                     property
 Arson                        Minor in possession of
 Sexual assault (CSC)          alcohol or tobacco products
 Robbery or extortion         Bus incident or accident
 Unauthorized removal of
  students                                                54
 Law Enforcement’s Responsibility

 Local law enforcement is required to
  report, to the school district, crimes
  committed on school property, or
  crimes committed off school property
  which may reasonably be expected
  to, "pose a significant threat of
  imminent danger to students, staff or
  school property".
Locations of MSP Bomb Squads

  Michigan State Police
  Bomb Squad Contact:
     (517) 336-6100

Emergency Management
Homeland Security Division
    (517) 336-6198

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