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The Atlantic Slave Trade (PowerPoint download)

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					The Atlantic Slave Trade
     I. Introduction
   Slavery: is the ownership, buying & selling
    of human beings for the purpose of forced &
    unpaid labor
Slavery existed long before…
   Maya & Aztecs (Meso-America)
   Sumerians & Babylonians (Mid-East)
   Egyptians
   Greeks & Romans
   Ottomans
   African societies kept slaves for domestic
    purposes (power/wealth)
    • Europeans changed that
     II. Why Africans?
   600s: Islam spread into Af. (used slaves)
   Euro. empires in Amers. needed a labor force
    • Native Amers. unaccustomed to hard agrarian labor;
      died of Euro. disease; escaped
   W. Af. tribes had already begun to practice
    slavery (POWs)
     Why Africans?
   1) proved resistant to Euro. disease
   2) were familiar w/tropical climate & accustomed
    to agriculture/pastoralism
   3) less-likely to escape (not familiar
    w/surroundings)
   4) could not blend in w/others (skin color)
   1518: Spain & Portugal started shipping slaves
    across the Atlantic
    • 1650: 300,000 slaves in Spanish Amer.
    • Soon after, British, Dutch, & French
   1600s: Brazil dominated Euro. sugar market
    • >40% of Afs. brought to Amers. = Brazil
   1690-1807: England dominated slave trade
     III. The Triangular Trade
   1450 – end of 19th Cent.: slaves were
    obtained along W. coast of Africa
    w/cooperation of W. African kings & merchants
    • POWs from tribal wars were sold first, then raiding
      parties began
   African kings received Euro. manufactured
    goods (textiles, brandy, horses, & GUNS)
    • Guns = strengthened African kingdoms
    • Euros. built forts along W. Af. coast to hold captured
        slaves until slave ships arrived
    •   THIS EXPORT OF EURO. GOODS TO AF. WAS
        THE FIRST LEG OF TRIANGULAR TRADE
A. The Middle Passage
   The transport of slaves from W. Af. to
    Amers. (2nd leg of Triangular Trade)
    • Journey = >4,000 miles, 5 – 12 weeks
    • Ships carried 250 – 600 slaves (overcrowded)
    • Conditions were appalling
    • Ships smelled of urine, faeces, & vomit
    • Slaves = $$$$$$$
   A ship’s surgeon
   Causes of Death: dysentery, smallpox,
    depression (suicide)
    • 20% lost at sea
   “It was not atypical to see a massive school of
    sharks darting in & out of the wake of the ships
    filled w/human cargo plying the Atlantic. For
    miles they followed the battered & moldy
    vessels, waiting to attack the disease-ravaged
    black bodies that were periodically tossed into
    the ocean. If the Atlantic were to dry up, it
    would reveal a scattered pathway of human
    bones, African bones marking the various
    routes of the Middle Passage”
       ----Ship’s Surgeon
   Third leg of Triangular Trade: the return to
    Europe w/produce from the slave-labor
    plantations (cotton, sugar, tobacco, rum, etc.)
   12 million slaves left Africa while 10 million
    made it to Amer.
IV. Consequences of the Atlantic
Slave Trade
   1) Loss of the fittest members of Af. Societies
    • Families torn apart
   2) Introduction of guns to Af.
   3) Economic contributions to other countries
   4) Agricultural/pastoral expertise
   5) Diffusion of African culture
   6) Af.-Amer. pops
    • Mulattos

				
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posted:11/30/2011
language:English
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