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									       INTEGRATED
 RESERVE MANAGEMENT PLAN

HARMONY FLATS NATURE RESERVE

          March 2011
INTEGRATED RESERVE MANAGEMENT PLAN




                      Compiled by

                     Sabelo Lindani

             Biodiversity Management Branch

      Environmental Resource Management Department

                   City of Cape Town



              Harmony Flats Nature Reserve




                       March 2011




                                                     ISBN NUMBER
TABLE OF CONTENTS

  PART                     SECTION AND SUBSECTIONS                          PAGE
 NUMBER                                                                    NUMBER
               List of Maps                                                    ii
               List of Figures                                                 ii
               List of Tables                                                  ii
               List of Appendices                                             iii
               List of Abbreviations used                                     iv

  Part 1       1. Introduction                                                 1
Description    1.1. Aim of the Integrated Reserve Management Plan              2
               1.2. Location and Extent                                        5
               2. Description of landholdings and ownership                   7
               2.1. Property Details and Title Deed Information               7
               2.2. Landscape Perspective                                     7
               2.3. Physical Environment                                      8
               2.4. Biological Environment                                    11
               2.5. Socio-Political Context                                   13
               2.6. Protected Area Expansion                                  16
               3. Purpose, Vision / Mission, Significance / Value             16
               3.1. Purpose of the Protected Area                             16
               3.2. Vision and Mission                                        16
               3.3. Significance of Property (Biodiversity, Heritage and      18
                      Social)

    Part 2     4. Administrative and Legal       Framework     for   the      19
Management        Management Authority
    policy     4.1. Legal Framework                                           19
 framework     4.2. Administrative Framework                                  25
               5. Protected Area Policy Framework & Guiding                   26
                  Management Principles
               5.1. Management Objectives                                     26
               5.2. SWOT analysis                                             36
               5.3. Protected Area management policy framework and            37
                      Guiding Principles
               5.4. Sensitivity Analysis                                      42
               5.5. Zonation Plan of the Harmony Flats Nature                 42
                  Nature Reserve
               6. Development Plan                                            44
               7. Costing Plan                                                45

  Part 3       8. Monitoring & Auditing                                       46
Monitoring &
 Auditing
               8.1. Annual Audit Procedure                                    46
               8.2 Biodiversity Monitoring                                    46
  Part 4       9. References                                                  49
References
  Part 5       10.   Appendices                                               51
Appendices




                                                       Integrated Reserve Management Plan | i
List of Maps                                                          Page Numbers
Map 1: Nature Reserve Location in the CCT                                     6
Map2: Nature Reserve Boundary
Map3: Nature Reserve Erven
Map4: Catchments including Rivers and wetlands
Map5: Nature Reserve and Biodiversity Network
Map6: Zonation Map                                                            43
Map7: Vegetation Distribution Map




List of Figures                                                       Page Numbers
Figure 1: Integrated Nature Reserve Management                                3
Figure 2: City Development Strategy                                           4
Figure 3: Long-term Precipitation trends                                      9
Figure 4: Mean Annual Precipitation                                           9




List of Tables                                                         Page
Table 1: Legal Framework                                                      19
Table 2: Staffing Complement                                                  25
Table 3: Management Objectives                                                26
Table 4: SWOT Analysis                                                        36
Table 5: Protected Area Policy and Guiding Management Principles               ?
Table 6: Environmental Education Programmes                                   38
Table 7: Costing Plan                                                         45
Table 8: Monitoring Requirements                                              47




                                                    Integrated Reserve Management Plan | ii
List of Appendices
A. Charts and Tables
   Rainfall Table
   Zonation Table


B. Legal Agreements
   Government Gazette for Nature Reserve Proclamation
   Surveyor General (SG) diagrams (Cliff Dorse to arrange)
   Office Space Memorandum of Agreement
   Lease Agreement
   Memorandum of Agreement (transfer of management)
   Title deed


C. Species Checklists
   Plants
   Mammals
   Birds
   Reptiles


D. Other documents as required :
   METT-SA (The HF METT is write protected therefore one should be printed out and
    attached on the document)




                                                     Integrated Reserve Management Plan | iii
List of Abbreviations used
APO          Annual Plan of Operations

BMB         Biodiversity Management Branch

C.A.P.E      Cape Action for People and the Environment

CARA         Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act

CBO          Community Based Organisations

CCT          City Of Cape Town

CDF         Conservation Development Framework

CFR          Cape Floristic Region

DLA          Department of Land Affairs

EIA          Environmental Impact Assessment

EMS          Environmental Management System

EPWP        Expanded Public Works Programme

HFWG        Harmony Flats Working Group

IS           Invasive Species

IDP          Integrated Development Plan

IMEP         Integrated Metropolitan Environmental Policy

IRMP        Integrated Nature Reserve Management Plan (IRMP)

LBSAP        Local biodiversity Strategic Action Plan

LAF         Lourensford Alluvium Fynbos

MCM          Marine & Coastal Management

MEC          Member of Executive Councils

MOU          Memorandum of Understanding

MPA          Marine Protected Area

MTEF         Medium Term Expenditure Framework

NEMA         National Environmental Management Act

RPC         Nature Reserve Planning Committee

SANBI        South Africa National Biodiversity Institute

WESSA        Wildlife and Environment Society of South Africa

WfW          Working for Water

                                                        Integrated Reserve Management Plan | iv
PART 1
DESCRIPTION
1. INTRODUCTION
Harmony Flats Nature Reserve was officially opened in 1986 and later proclaimed as a
Provincial Nature Reserve in 1989 mainly for the protection of the endangered geometric
tortoise (Psammobates geometricus). Since the Nature Reserves proclamation the area has
been subjected to mass urban development that resulted in the reduction and transformation
of the indigenous vegetation particularly in the areas surrounding the Nature Reserve. This
reduction is further exacerbated by the irresponsible activities by humans such as frequent
fires, illegal plant harvesting. Sadly in the end the geometric tortoise has disappeared due to
theft and frequent fires.


Harmony Flats Nature Reserve conserves a critically endangered vegetation type known as
Lourensford Alluvium Fynbos (LAF). Less than 1% of this vegetation is currently protected
and more than 94% transformed falls under private land ownership. The national target for
the conservation of this vegetation is 30% and only 5% is available (Rebelo et al. 2006). This
management plan will address all the threats that are continuously experienced in the Nature
Reserve and at the same time discuss the various programmes (from monitoring to
environmental awareness) that have been carefully selected to address these challenges.


The strategic management planning process, which results in the development of an
Integrated Reserve Management Plan, for the Harmony Flats Nature Reserve, begins with
the definition of the Vision followed by the Purpose for the Nature Reserve. This Purpose is
then supported by Desired States for the Nature Reserve. The Nature Reserve Objectives
contribute to realizing the Purpose and Desired States. For each Desired State a number of
Management Objectives are identified. These Management Objectives are then made
operational through the identification of Outputs. Objectives for each Desired State are
prioritized for the five-year time horizon of the plan. Time frames, deliverables, performance
indicators and targets are then allocated for each objective, or a group of linked outputs
contributing to the Desired State.




                                                        Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 1
1.1. Aim of the Integrated Reserve Management Plan
The aim of the Integrated Reserve Management Plan (IRMP) is to ensure that the Harmony
Flats Nature Reserve has clearly defined objectives and activities to direct the protection and
sustainable use of its natural, scenic and heritage resources over a five year time period.
The IRMP thus provides the medium-term operational framework for the prioritized allocation
of resources and capacity in the management, use and development of the Nature Reserve.
The IRMP intends to add value and continuity by clearly stating management objectives,
scheduling action and providing guidelines on the management approach.


The context of the Nature Reserve planning process for the Harmony Flats Nature Reserve
are: (i)   City’s Integrated Development Plan (IDP) (Anon 2010);       (ii) City’s IMEP (Anon
20031); (iii) Biodiversity Strategy (Anon 20032) and Local Biodiversity Strategic Action Plan
(LBSAP) (Anon 20091); and (iv) Bioregional context (Cape Action for People and the
Environment (C.A.P.E.).    The major elements of the IRMP are: this document (overall
strategy, vision and context); the detailed subsidiary plans (as required) and an annual plan
of operations (APO). The IRMP for the Harmony Flats Nature Reserve is supported by a
State of Biodiversity Report, Operational Guidelines, and Monitoring and Evaluation
framework to ensure ongoing implementation and review of protected area management
activities (Figure 1).




                                                        Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 2
                          Integrated Nature Reserve Management
                                           Plan

                                     Strategic Plan
                                       for Nature
                                    Reserve: vision,
                                      background,
                                         context                                 Operational
     State of                                                                    guidelines
   Biodiversity
     Report                                                                    Monitoring and
                                                                                Evaluation
     LBSAP




                                                        Annual
                           Subsidiary
                             plans                      Plan of
                                                       Operations




Figure 1: The elements of the Nature Reserve management plan

The IRMP for the Harmony Flats Nature Reserve forms part of a tiered series of policies,
legislation and related planning documents at the sectoral, institutional, agency and local
levels (Figure 2).




                                                             Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 3
Figure 2: Legal and planning framework for the integrated management plan


Where possible, emphasis has been placed on the following:

    Assigning responsibility for management interventions;

    Scheduling, said management interventions; and

    Quantifying management costs.


This approach has the specific intention of creating a mechanism whereby management
intervention can be monitored and audited on an annual basis.


In context, this IRMP is a dynamic document and the detailed subsidiary plans should be
updated on an annual basis or as soon as new information comes to light that may better
inform decisions on responsible land management. The IRMP should be updated every five
years.

The drafting of this Management Plan has been guided by a small interdisciplinary Nature
Reserve Planning Committee (RPC) comprising the Branch Manager, the Regional
Manager, the Area Manager, the Reserve Manager, various specialists and other interested


                                                      Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 4
and affected persons. Iterative drafts of the IRMP were presented to, and discussed by, the
RPC before broader circulation for inputs from the public.




Pre-engagement workshops were held with community partners during March to May 2010.
This afforded key community partners an opportunity to input at an early stage. The ideas
and outputs from the workshops have been (where practical) incorporated into the IRMP.



1.2. Location and Extent
Harmony Flats Nature Reserve is approximately nine ha in size and is situated within the
Helderberg basin (grid reference 34º08’15’’S: 18º51’35’’E) within the CCT. The Nature
Reserve is located near the boundary of Strand and Gordon’s Bay about 2km inland, in the
centre of the following low income residential areas: Cassablanca, Gustrouw and Rusthof
(Figure 3). Harmony Flats Nature Reserve was officially proclaimed on the 21 June 1989 by
the Administrator of the Province of the Cape of Good Hope in terms of section 6(1) of the
Nature and Environmental Conservation Ordinance, 1974 (Ordinance 19 of 1974) as a
Provincial Nature Reserve on Portion of Erf 5544, Strand. Provincial Gazette no. 4593
published on the 7 July 1989 (Appendix 3).




                                                        Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 5
Location Map (INSERT LOCATION MAP HERE!)from Adele




                                              Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 6
2.   DESCRIPTION OF LANDHOLDINGS AND OWNERSHIP
2.1. Property Details and Title Deed Information
Harmony Flats Nature Reserve is a property of the CCT and located on Erf 5544 in the
Strand area. This land was part of a larger Erf 5079 which was expropriated by the Registrar
of Deeds in Cape Town from Casper Frederick Christiane on the 30 September 1965 and
subdivided for the Gustrouw Sports Field and housing. The land was transferred to the
Municipality of Strand, Title Deed number: T2402/ 1965 (Appendix 8). See Surveyor General
Diagram on Appendix 4.


2.2. Landscape Perspective
The Nature Reserve falls within the CFR. The CFR in South Africa is the smallest and richest
of the six floral kingdoms in the world, and it is the only one to be found entirely within one
country. This rich biodiversity is under serious threat for a variety of reasons including
conversion of natural habitat to permanent agriculture, inappropriate fire management, rapid
and insensitive development, overexploitation of water resources, and infestation by alien
species. The region has been identified as one of the worlds "hottest" hotspots of biodiversity
(Myers et al. 2000).

In response to this challenge, a process of extensive consultation involving various
interested parties, including local government and nongovernmental organizations resulted
in the establishment of a strategic plan (C.A.P.E Project Team 2000) referred to as Cape
Action Plan for the Environment which, identified the key threats and root causes of
biodiversity losses that need to be addressed in order to conserve the floral kingdom. This
resulted in a spatial plan identifying areas which need to be conserved and a series of broad
programme activities which need to be done over a 20 year period. Based on the situation
assessment and analysis of threats, three overarching themes that complement and
reinforce one another were developed:


    establish an effective Nature Reserve network, enhance off-Nature Reserve
     conservation, and support bioregional planning;


    strengthen and enhance institutions, policies, laws, co-operative governance, and
     community participation; and

    develop methods to ensure sustainable yields, promote compliance with laws,
     integrate biodiversity concerns into catchment management, and promote sustainable
     eco-tourism.




                                                        Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 7
The Cape Action for People and Environment (C.A.P.E.) partnership was formed that works
together to implement the C.A.P.E. vision and plan by strengthening institutions, supporting
conservation efforts, supporting education, developing tourism benefits, and involving people
in conservation.    The CCT was one of the 19 founding signatories of the C.A.P.E.
memorandum of understanding (MOU).

The Harmony Flats Nature Reserve forms an important platform and integral link within the
city’s Biodiversity Network (Anon 20092).        It is this network that ensures parcels of
conservation worthy land are included in a protective network, connected to other parcels of
conservation worthy land.


2.3. Physical Environment
2.3.1. Climate
The climate in this area is Mediterranean and is characterised by warm dry summers with
mild rainy winters. The average daily maximum and minimum temperature on the Nature
Reserve is 22.2°C and 13.2°C based on a 24 year period (1985-2009) with infrequent frost
incidence. The Nature Reserve experiences prevailing and strong summer winds from the
South East direction while the winter wind is dominated by the North and North West. In the
period of 2005-2009 42% of the wind recorded was the South Easterly wind and 20% of this
wind had a strong speed of more than 10.7 meters per second. The winter-rainfall climate
peaks up from May to August with a Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP) of 400–768 mm
(mean: 598 mm). Following is the graph that illustrates the rainfall fluctuations since 1985
that also depicts the driest year (1998) in the period.




                                                          Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 8
                                              Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP)

         900.0

         800.0

         700.0

         600.0

         500.0
  (mm)




                                                                                                      Annual Rainfall Over 24 Years
         400.0

         300.0

         200.0

         100.0

           0.0
             85


                    87


                           89


                                  91


                                         93


                                                95


                                                       97


                                                              99


                                                                     01


                                                                            03


                                                                                   05


                                                                                          07


                                                                                                 09
           19


                  19


                         19


                                19


                                       19


                                              19


                                                     19


                                                            19


                                                                   20


                                                                          20


                                                                                 20


                                                                                        20


                                                                                               20
                                                       Years


Figure 3: Long Term Precipitation Trends (Data from Weather Services, 2010)

These rainfall data could be useful over a period of years for comparative purposes and to
determine long term trends. The following graph illustrate the rainfall patterns over one year
period, once again the data plays a crucial role in the management of the Nature Reserve as
it influences what interventions to take place and by what time of the year. See rainfall table
on Appendix 1.




Figure 4: Graph showing Mean Annual Precipitation from a monthly perspective, for
the Strand area (Van Tonder 2010)


                                                                                 Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 9
2.3.2 Geology, geomorphology, soils and land types
The Nature Reserve is characterised of plinthic, duplex, silty soils often with small cobbles
and pebbles embedded. Found over Cape Suite granite and metasediments of the
Tygerberg Formation (Malmesbury Group) with a shale rock at a depth of 0.3 to 1.3m
throughout much of the area.



2.3.1 Hydrology and aquatic systems
As a result of the flat topography and underlying hardpan the water penetration is very slow
and therefore large parts of the area become waterlogged between May and October.



2.3.1 Catchments
The Nature Reserve is characterised as a seasonal wetland and it falls within the Catchment
Area. WHICH CATCHMENT AREA – FROM ADELE!




                                                      Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 10
2.4      Biological
2.4.1 Vegetation
The Vegetation Scientists have in the past referred to the vegetation in this area as either
renosterveld or fynbos. This is as a result of the Nature Reserve being in a lowland area
where the screes, sands and silt have been deposited in alluvial fans. The species typical of
renosterveld are found on the finer sediments and fynbos on the courser sediments. Thus
referred to as LAF. LAF is endemic to the Cape Town area and is found in the low-lying
plains between Firgrove and Gordon’s Bay, including much of the Strand and Somerset
West area, with the extension to the Lourensford Estate (Rebelo et al. 2006).


On these low-lying plains, low-medium dense shrubland with short graminoid understorey is
supported. Restioid and asteraceous fynbos are dominant; however there is some evidence
that proteoid fynbos might once have been dominant in the area. Some parts of the Nature
Reserve have remnants that are exceptionally rich in geophytes. In the Nature Reserve 215
plant species have been recorded to date with 23 species listed as species of special
conservation concern in the Red Data List (Raimondo et al. 2009). Such species include
Lotononis prostrata, Leucadendron lanigerum, Elegia verreauxii, Ixia versicolor. The latter
has its only viable population occurring in this Nature Reserve (see Appendix 9 for species
list).


The conservation status of LAF is Critically Endangered with more than 94% of it
transformed inter alia by urban development, roads and farming.            LAF is the most
transformed endemic vegetation type within the CCT and one of the most transformed types
in South Africa. The national target for its conservation is 30% and only 5% is available with
less than 1% currently conserved in Harmony Flats Nature Reserve. The re-mapping of the
area is highly necessary since intensive development has taken place in the area since the
last analysis (National Vegetation Map for the Fynbos Biome, 2006). The integrity of LAF is
further and largely threatened by frequent fires that have partially changed vegetation
structure from dense shrubland to mostly grassy communities. (Refer to Appendix 14 for the
distribution of LAF in the area).


2.4.2 Mammals
Harmony Flats Nature Reserve only has a limited number of small mammals as the Nature
Reserve itself could not support viable populations of any large mammals due to the fact that
it is only nine hectares in size. A small mammal survey is conducted twice a year and so far
two rodent species have been recorded, namely, Mus minutoides (Pygmy Mouse) and
Rhabdomys pumilio (Striped Field Mouse). Due to the size of the Nature Reserve and
available habitat the Nature Reserve management has no intentions of introducing any

                                                      Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 11
bigger mammals in the future but to manage and monitor the ones that are already on site
(Appendix 10).


2.4.3. Birds
The Nature Reserve does not have a comprehensive bird list but over a period of three years
more than 13 bird species have been recorded, this list includes species such Elanus
caeruleus (Black Shouldered Kite), Vanellus coronatus (Crowned Lapwing), Scopus
umbretta (Hamerkop). Of the significance are the pairs of Mirafra apiata (Cape Clapper Lark)
which still occur on site (Appendix 6).


2.4.4 Amphibians
To date only one frog species has been recorded on site and this is the Strongylopus grayi
(Clicking Stream Frog).


2.4.5 Reptiles
The reptiles recorded to date include Homopus areolatus (Parrot Beaked Tortoise), Chersina
angulata (Angulate Tortoise), the latter does not originally occur on site however was
released by person(s) unknown, Naja nivea (Cape Cobra) and the Agama hispida (Southern
Spiny Agama) which was last recorded within CCT in 1985 and therefore thought to be
locally extinct. Additionally Harmony Flats Nature Reserve was once a home to a Critically
Endangered Geometric Tortoise which was later translocated to Tygerberg Zoo as the
Nature Reserve experienced frequent fires that threatened the survival of these tortoises.
See Appendix 12 for a list of the reptile species recorded to date.


2.4.6 Invertebrates
The Nature Reserve has no data with regards to the invertebrates however a baseline
survey is envisaged in the near future.




                                                        Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 12
2.5   Socio-Political Context
2.5.1 History
The significance of Harmony Flats Nature Reserve was first realised in the mid 1970’s when
a relic population of Geometric Tortoise was found in the Rusthof area between Strand and
Gordon’s Bay. It was during this time that the Strand Municipality was approached by the
then Department of Nature and Environmental Conservation (now Cape Nature) and
representation was made to have an area set aside for conservation purposes. As a result of
this initiative nine hectares was subsequently earmarked for the conservation of the
threatened habitat (LAF), in which the above endangered geometric tortoise survived. In
addition the Jarman (1986) report revealed that out of the 55 sites that were studied,
Harmony Flats Nature Reserve and the Dassenberg Hills had the highest score of
threatened flora of which about 100ha was still intact.


Nonetheless as a result of the rapid urban sprawl and desperate need for housing the area
adjoining the Nature Reserve was bulldozed in October 1985 and the building of residential
sites commenced. During this time the Department decided to collect the tortoises and keep
them in a safe place until the Nature Reserve has been fenced off and proclaimed. As a
result of this the department with help from the members of the Hottentots Holland Centre of
the Wildlife Society collected and removed 292 Homopus aereolatus (Padlopers) and 52
Geometric Tortoises. The Geometric Tortoises were temporarily housed by Admiral Dirk
Nortier at Gordon’s Bay and the padlopers by Mr. Steve Mitchell a nature conservation
official employed by Somchem in Somerset West.


During this time there were ongoing discussions between the Strand Municipality and the
Provincial Department of Nature Conservation (now Cape Nature) to conserve the area
which resulted to an agreement on conditions under which a small Nature Reserve would be
set up. The Nature Reserve was then leased to Cape Nature for a period of nine years and
eleven months (from 01 October 1986) at a very nominal rate of R1 per annum (Appendix 3).
In the meanwhile the then editor of African Wildlife (John Comrie-Craig) and the Wildlife
Society of Southern Africa (now WESSA) took an initiative together with the SA Nature
Foundation to raise funds for the erection of security fence around the Nature Reserve. The
Geometric Tortoise appeal fund was established whereby the public was called upon to
make contributions, the two organisations (SA Nature Foundation and Wildlife Society of SA)
contributed R5 000 each, and eventually a total amount of R37, 000 was received.




                                                          Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 13
The Nature Reserve was officially opened on 24 October 1986 and at that ceremony the
then Mayor of Strand (Mr Hattingh) handed over to WESSA (Hottentots Holland Region) the
sum of R2, 000.00. At this opening 42 Geometric Tortoises and 100 padlopers all marked
were released back into the Nature Reserve. WESSA undertook to fence the property and it
is believed that roughly R80, 000.00 was raised and the fence and signage was erected. The
Nature Reserve is officially called the “Harmony Flats Nature Reserve” the name of the farm
prior to its sale and subdivisions for housing development being put into place.


In the years to follow it became a major challenge for the provincial authority to manage the
Nature Reserve adequately due to financial constraints and lack of dedicated staff to the
Reserve, irresponsible human activities, theft of the new fence and signage, and alien
vegetation was cleared irregularly, the site was regularly set alight by persons unknown
leaving a high number of both types of tortoises dead. These challenges resulted to Cape
Nature not renewing the lease to manage the Nature Reserve when it lapsed on the 31
August 1996 (see memorandum on Appendix 7). The land therefore reverted back to the
management of the local authority (Helderberg Municipality, now CCT) which included the
local areas of Somerset West, Strand, Gordon’s Bay, Lwandle and Nomzamo. The Nature
Reserve was then placed under the management of City Parks and Nature Conservation unit
based at Somerset West.


In 2005 the management was taken over by the Biodiversity Management Branch. By the
time the local authority took over the management of the Nature Reserve most of the once
intact lowland vegetation adjoining it had been extensively transformed. A study undertaken
by Maze and Rebelo (1999) identified a 40 hectares area (Weltevreden) just northwest of
Harmony Flats Nature Reserve and south of Lwandle as one of the 35 Core Flora
Conservation Areas on the Cape Flats.        This site is currently referred to as Morkel’s
Cottages (name of residential area adjacent to the land) and is facing housing development.
However negotiations between the BMB and the Housing Department (CCT) to set aside
some land for conservation are currently taking place.


In 2002 Harmony Flats Nature Reserve was identified as one of the four pilot sites by SANBI
through the Cape Flats Nature Project which aimed at building a good relationship between
nature and surrounding communities within the city. The project secured R50, 000.00 worth
of funds received via J&B Whiskey allocated for a period of two years. The funding was
mainly for the employment of a nature conservation student and was handed over to the
Friends of The Helderberg Nature Reserve to administer.




                                                         Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 14
A third year Nature Conservation student from Cape Technikon was employed during 2003
as a Student/Site Manager and carried out some intensive work that involved establishing an
enthusiastic local group called Harmony Flats Working Group (HFWG) with the aim to assist
in the management of the Nature Reserve. Cape Flats Nature lobbied for a container after a
request was made by the HFWG, a 12 meter long container was purchased by the CCT that
was going to be used by the group.


The approach to employ students became challenging as there was no continuity due to the
fact that the students were only employed for one year to complete the in-service training. As
a result of this the relationship between the Nature Reserve and the HFWG suffered
tremendously due to a lack of continuity. During this time Cape Flats Nature was fund raising
to have a dedicated and qualified Site Manager employed to manage the Nature Reserve.
Finally in October 2007 a full time Nature Conservator was employed on contract with the
aim to apply sound management to the Nature Reserve at the same time engaging the local
communities on the management and activities within the Nature Reserve. In July 2009 as
part of the City realignment process the Nature Reserve was amalgamated under the
management of Steenbras Nature Reserve so that it can have access to work resources that
it still lacks such as staff and equipment. The City finally made the Site Manager position
permanent in November 2009 and the title was changed to Reserve Manager for operational
alignment reasons.


2.5.2 Socio-economic context
The Nature Reserve is surrounded by communities of different economic status, the
communities on the close proximity of the Nature Reserve are Cassablanca, Sercor Park,
Southfork, Gustrouw which are low income areas and other border is Gordon’s Bay which
ranges from middle to high income communities. The Cassablanca and Sercor Park
communities are represented by two CBO groups HFWG and TAG Changers. The HFWG
was established in 2003 with the aim to assist voluntarily in the management activities of the
Nature Reserve. This group was originally made up of 15 members of mostly pensioners
from the area, and their activities included removal of invasive species, environmental
education and held public meetings when job opportunities existed. The membership of the
group (HFWG) has now decreased tremendously over the years and it now stands at five
members. Some of the members of the group have either passed on, found work and others
have retired. The TAG Changers is a youth organisation who’s purpose is to interact and
entertain younger people in the Strand area. The partnership that the Nature Reserve has
with TAG Changers gives an opportunity to work with younger people during environmental
awareness programmes. On the outskirts (near the N2) a township dominated by low income
black communities known as Lwandle exists. There is not formal partnership between the

                                                      Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 15
Nature Reserve and these communities except with a few schools that are approached
during environmental education interventions.


The management of Harmony Flats Nature Reserve also aims to explore the possible
tourism opportunities for the Nature Reserve that will at the same time bring economic
benefits to the local communities by training local guides. The Nature Reserve has in the
past created some temporary employment for more than 30 local residents through Poverty
Relief projects; these include a Working for Wetlands project, a fence erection project among
others.   Additionally the Nature Reserve has received some funding from the National
Department of Tourism and CCT to construct a Tourism Facility, this facility will have a
potting shed developed for the nursery. The initial employment potential of the project was
26 people and currently only 11 people have been employed.


2.6   Protected Area Expansion
Cape Nature in conjunction with the BMB is in the process of negotiation with the private
land owners to have a portion of their land set aside for conservation purposes and
incorporated to the Nature Reserve through a Stewardship Programme. All these properties
consist of LAF and are situated in the Gordon’s Bay area. Once this process has been
finalised the size of the corridor will expand from 9ha to 19.58 hectares in total. The sites
areas include the following erven: 6331, 6330, 6329, 6334, 6341, 6342, 6343 and 32634.
Refer to Appendix 15.



3.    PURPOSE, VISION / MISSION, SIGNIFICANCE / VALUE
3.1   Purpose of the Protected Area
The primary purpose of Harmony Flats Nature Reserve is to conserve the ecological
processes associated with the LAF.


3.2   Vision and Mission
3.2.1 Vision
Integrated Development Plan Vision
The vision of the CCT remains as follows:
     To be a prosperous City that creates an enabling environment for shared growth and
      economic development

     To achieve effective and equitable service delivery

     To serve the citizens of Cape Town as a well-governed and effectively run
      administration.


                                                      Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 16
To achieve this vision, the City recognises that it must:

     actively contribute to the development of its environmental, human and social capital;

     offer high-quality services to all who live in, do business in, or visit the city as tourists;
      and

     be known for its efficient, effective and caring government.

C.A.P.E. Vision
We, the people of South Africa, are proud to be the custodians of our unique Cape Floral
Kingdom, and share its full ecological, social and economic benefits now and in the future.


Environmental Resource Management Department Vision
To ensure that sustainable and equitable development is combined with sound
environmental practice for a healthy local environment, which sustains people and nature,
provides protection for our unique resources and results in an enhanced quality of life for all.


Biodiversity Management Branch Vision
To be a City that leads by example in the protection and enhancement of biodiversity. A City
within which biodiversity plays an important role, where the right of present and future
generations to healthy, complete and vibrant biodiversity is entrenched, and to be a City that
actively protects its biological wealth and prioritises long term responsibility over short-term
gains.


Harmony Flats Nature Reserve Vision
To protect the long term ecological integrity of the LAF             at the same time building
environmental harmony among various cultures that are found outside the borders of
Harmony Flats Nature Reserve.


3.2.2 Mission
Biodiversity Management Branch
     Manage biodiversity proactively and effectively
     To ensure an integrated approach to biodiversity between CCT line functions &
      departments and actively pursue external partnerships
     To adopt a long-term approach with regards to biodiversity
     To ensure sustainability of our rich biodiversity
     To adopt a holistic and multifaceted approach to biodiversity


                                                          Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 17
     To continually measure and monitor the CCT’s performance in the protection and
      enhancement of biodiversity
     To continually measure and monitor the state of biodiversity in Cape Town


Harmony Flats Nature Reserve
     To proactively manage the Nature Reserve ecosystem as expected by the Biodiversity
      Management Branch.
     To ensure effective monitoring and evaluation of all ecological processes.
     To integrate the neighbouring communities through environmental awareness
      programmes.


3.3   Significance of Property (Biodiversity, Heritage and Social)
     Harmony Flats Nature Reserve is home to LAF which is Critically Endangered. The
      Nature Reserve has recorded more than 215 plant species of which more than 20 of
      them are listed as species of conservation concern. One of the plant species is Ixia
      versicolor and the Nature Reserve is known to have the last viable population of this
      Critically Endangered plant.

     The Nature Reserve has recorded a number of avifauna and, reptile species that
      included a Southern Spiny Agama (Agama hispida) which was considered extinct
      within the City boundaries.

     Harmony Flats Nature Reserve has a very good partnership with some community
      groups from the Cassablanca Area.




                                                      Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 18
PART 2
MANAGEMENT POLICY FRAMEWORK
4.     ADMINISTRATIVE AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE MANAGEMENT                                                              AUTHORITY
4.1    Legal Framework
Table 1: Legal Framework
The following is a list of Legislation applicable to the management of the CCT’s Biodiversity Management branch, with particular reference to the
Harmony Flats Nature Reserve. Repealed legislation has been included as greyed out text for information purposes only.

 Legislation:                                   Relevance:                                                                      Amendment:                      Comment:
 Act, Ordinance, By-law                         Description                                                                     Latest Amendment Date           Other Notes
 Constitution of the Republic of South Africa                                                                                                                   Chapter 2: Bill of rights assigns citizens
                                                Lists South African citizen’s environmental rights.                             N/A
 Act; No 108 of 1996                                                                                                                                            with particular rights.
 ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION
 National Legislation
                                                One of the most important environmental laws relating to most aspects            Amendment Act 56 of 2002
 National Environmental Management Act, No                                                                                                                      Provides for cooperative environmental
                                                of the environment including EIA’s the roles of DWE, environmental               Amended by GN. 26018 Vol.
 107 of 1998                                                                                                                                                    governance
                                                information and legal standing etc.                                               464 –of 2004-02-13
                                                The objectives of the Act are to provide for:                                                                   The development of the IRMP will assist in
                                                        the   management         and    conservation   of   South   Africa’s                                   ensuring that the NEM:BA objectives are
                                                         biodiversity   within     the    framework     of   the     National                                   achieved in the Nature Reserve.
                                                         Environmental Management Act, 1998
                                                        the protection of species and ecosystems that warrant
 National       Environmental     Management:            national protection
                                                                                                                                N/A
 Biodiversity Act No 10 of 2004                         the sustainable use of indigenous biological resources
                                                        the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from bio-
                                                         prospecting involving indigenous biological resources
                                                        the establishment and functions of a South African National
                                                         Biodiversity Institute




                                                                                                                                                        Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 19
                                               In essence, the Act was put in place to safeguard the important
                                               biodiversity attributes in the country, whilst allowing people to benefit
                                               equally from the natural resources. In order to achieve these goals, the
                                               Act made provision for the South African National Biodiversity Institute
                                               (SANBI), which has been designated certain functions and has been
                                               afforded powers and duties in respect of this Act.
                                                       To provide for the protection and conservation of ecologically                                       Regulations Notice 1029 of 2009 list
                                                        viable areas representative of South Africa’s biological                                             specific     regulations   for    reserves
                                                        diversity and its natural landscapes and seascapes;                                                  proclaimed by the MEC (draft August
                                                       for the establishment of a national register of all national,                                        2009)
National    Environmental     Management:               provincial and local protected areas;                                Amendment Act 62 of 2008
Protected Areas Act No 57 of 2003                      for the management of those areas in accordance with                 Amendment Act 15 of 2009
                                                        national norms and standards;
                                                       for inter-governmental cooperation and public consultation in
                                                        matters concerning protected areas;
                                                       and for matters in connection therewith.
                                               CARA Regulations contain a list of alien invasive vegetation                  Amended by GN R 2687 of
Conservation of Agricultural Resource Act,                                                                                                                   Alien invasive plant legislation to be
                                               categorized according to there legal status. Act regulates sale position       1985-12-06 and GN R 280 of
1983 (ACT 43 OF 1983)                                                                                                                                        included under NEM:BA in future
                                               and use of listed species                                                      2001-03-30
National Veld and Forest Fire Act; No 101 of   Relates to veld fire prevention, fire protection associations, fire danger                                    A detailed Fire Management Plan will be
                                                                                                                            N/A
1998                                           indexing, enforcement of fire legislation and the fighting of fires                                           developed.
                                               The Environment Conservation Act is the other law that relates                Environment     Conservation
                                               specifically to the environment. Although most of this Act has been            amendment Act 98 of 1991
                                               replaced by NEMA there are still some important sections that remain          Environment     Conservation
                                               in operation. These sections relate to:                                        amendment Act 79 of 1992
                                                       protected natural environments                                       Environment     Conservation
Environment Conservation Act 73 of 1989                littering                                                             Second amendment Act 115 of
                                                       special Nature Reserves                                               1992
                                                       waste management                                                     Environment     Conservation
                                                       limited development areas                                             amendment Act 94 of 1993
                                                       regulations on noise, vibration and shock                            Environment     Conservation
                                                       EIA                                                                   Second amendment Act 52 of



                                                                                                                                                   Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 20
                                                                                                                            1994
                                                                                                                          Proclamation R27 of 1995
                                                                                                                          Proclamation R43 of 1996
                                                                                                                          National Environment Act 107
                                                                                                                            of 1998
                                               To provide for enhancing the quality of ambient air for the sake of                                                 Promulgated to give effect to section 24(b)
National Environmental Management:       Air
                                               securing an environment which is not harmful to the health and well-                                                of the Constitution.
Quality Act 39 of 2004
                                               being of the people                                                                                                 South African Air Quality Information
                                                                                                                                                                   System (SAAQIS) is a web-based system
                                                                                                                                                                   which provides information on the quality
                                                                                                                                                                   of ambient air across the country
                                               To consolidate and amend the laws relating to the prevention of cruelty   Animal Matters Amendment Act 42
Animal Protection Act, 71 of 1962
                                               to animals                                                                of 1993
                                               Regulates the ownership and protection of game                                                                      Faunal Management Plan to be developed
Game Theft Act 105 of 1991
                                                                                                                                                                   according to the act.
National Heritage Resources Act 25 of 1999     Provides for the protection of heritage resources                                                                   N/A
World Heritage Conservation Act 49 of 1999     Incorporates the World Heritage Convention into South African law                                                   N/A
Problem Animal Control Ordinance 26 of         Regulates problem animals                                                                                           Administered under the Western Cape
1957                                                                                                                                                               Nature Conservation Board Act 15 of 1998
                                                                                                                         Whole repealed 01 April 2010 in
Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act 45 of                                                                               favour       of      the       National
1965                                                                                                                     Environmental Management: Air
                                                                                                                         Quality Act 39 of 2004
Provincial Legislation
                                                                                                                                                                   Although it might not have a direct
                                                                                                                                                                   application in the management of Nature
                                                                                                                          Assented to 22 November 1985            Reserves, it does affect the surrounding
                                               The purpose of the ordinance is to regulate land use and to provide for    Western         Cape     Land    Use    properties and could possibly be used to
Land Use Planning Ordinance, No 15 of 1985
                                               incidental matters related to land use.                                      Planning       Ordinance,      1985,   control activities / developments around
                                                                                                                            Amendment Act, 2004                    the Nature Reserves to minimize negative
                                                                                                                                                                   effects on the Nature Reserves – for
                                                                                                                                                                   example in applying zoning restrictions.



                                                                                                                                                        Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 21
                                                                                                                                                                    Administered under the Western Cape
Cape      Nature        and      Environmental   The purpose of this ordinance is to regulate wild animals and plants          Publication   date   1   September   Nature Conservation Board Act 15 of 1998
Conservation Ordinance, no 19 of 1974            and the establishment of Nature Reserves.                                     1975


Western Cape Nature Conservation Board                                                                                                                              Biodiversity Agreements are signed under
Act 15 of 1998                                                                                                                                                      this act
Municipal Legislation
Integrated Metropolitan Environmental Policy     Envisages a set of City-wide aligned strategies dealing with all aspects                                           Influences the Biodiversity Strategy 2003
(IMEP) 2001                                      of the environment.
                                                 To be a City that leads by example in the protection and enhancement           Draft amendment for 2009-          Influenced the development of IRMP
The Biodiversity Strategy 2003
                                                 of biodiversity.                                                                 2019
                                                 To provide for the regulation of stormwater management in the area of          Publication date 23 September      Communication Strategy and Action Plan
CCT    By-Law      Relating   To   Stormwater
                                                 the CCT, and to regulate activities which may have a detrimental effect          2005                              will take effect into addressing the issues
Management , LA 31420
                                                 on the development, operation or maintenance of the stormwater                                                     with the relevant department.
                                                 system


                                                 The purpose of this by-law is:
                                                                                                                                Publication date 4 February
                                                 to give effect to the right contained in section 24 of the Constitution of
CCT: Air Pollution Control By-Law; LA 12649                                                                                       2003
                                                 the Republic of South Africa Act, 1996 (Act 108 of 1996) by controlling
                                                 air pollution within the area of the Council’s jurisdiction; to ensure that
                                                 air pollution is avoided, or where it cannot be altogether avoided, is
                                                 minimized and remedied.
                                                 The purpose and scope of the By-law is:                                                                            A fire Management Plan to be designed.
                                                                                                                                Publication   date28    February
By-Law Relating to Community Fire Safety;        to promote the achievement of a fire-safe environment for the benefit
                                                                                                                                  2002
Province of the Western Cape; LA 11257           of all persons within the area of jurisdiction of the Municipality; to
                                                 provide for procedures, methods and practices to regulate fire safety
                                                 within the area of jurisdiction of the Municipality.


                                                 The purpose of this By-law is:
                                                 To formulate a new single by-law including 10 different municipal dog
CCT Draft Animal By-Law, 2009                                                                                                   Draft, 2009
                                                 by-laws and the Animal Protection Act of 1962.
                                                 This includes chapters on dogs, cats, poultry and working equines.




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HUMAN RESOURCES/ADMINISTRATION LEGISLATION
National Legislation
                                             To provide for the health and safety of persons at work and for the
                                             health and safety of persons in connection with the use of plant and
                                             machinery; the protection of persons other than persons at work
                                                                                                                        Occupational Health and Safety   The Safety and Security Plan will be
Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1993     against hazards to health and safety arising out of or in connection
                                                                                                                        Amendment Act , No 181 of 1993   developed as required.
                                             with the activities of persons at work; to establish an advisory council
                                             for occupational health and safety; and to provide for matters
                                             connected therewith.
                                             Provides for control measures pertaining to employment                                                      Standard Operational Procedures Manual
Basic Conditions of Employment Act 3 of
                                                                                                                         Amendment Act 11 of 2002
1997

                                             The labour relations act aims to promote economic development,              Amendment Labour Relations
                                             social justice, labour peace and democracy in the work place.                Act , 42 of 1996
                                                                                                                         Amendment Afrikaans Labour
                                                                                                                          Relations Act 1998
Labour Relations Amendment Act, 66 of 1995                                                                               Amendment Labour Relations
                                                                                                                          Act , 127 of 1998
                                                                                                                         Amendment Labour Relations
                                                                                                                          Act 2000
                                                                                                                         Amendment Act 12 of 2002
Local Government Municipal Systems Act 32    Establishes core principles, process and mechanisms relating to local
of 2000                                      government
Promotion of Equality/Prevention of Unfair   Provides for the prevention of discrimination and other related matters
Discrimination Act 4 of 2000
Criminals Procedures Act
Fire Arm Act
Civil Aviation Act 13 of 2009
Fencing Act 31 of 1963                       Regulates all matters relating to fencing
                                             Controls substances which may cause injury or ill health to, or death
Hazardous Substances Act 15 of 1973
                                             of, human beings by reason of their toxic nature
Land Survey Act 8 of 1997                    Regulates land surveying, beacons and other related matters



                                                                                                                                                Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 23
Promotion of Access to Information Act 2 of     Promotes access to information
2000
Promotion of Administrative Justice Act 3 of    Provides for the promotion of administrative justice
                                                                                                                             Amendment Act 53 of 2002
2000
Regional Services Council Act 109 of 1985       Regulates and controls land, land usage and other related matters
Skills Development Act 97 of 1998               Promotes the development of skills
State Land Disposal Act 48 of 1961              Regulates the disposal of state owned land
Subdivision of Agricultural Land Act 70 of      Regulates the subdivision of agricultural land
1970
                                                Provides for the promotion of tourism and regulates the tourism                                                 A Tourism Strategy is envisaged.
Tourism Act 72 of 1993
                                                industry
Public Resort Ordinance 20 of 1971              Regulates nuisance and pollution control
Municipal Ordinance 20 of 1974                  Regulates pollution and waste management
South African National Road Agency Limited
(SANRAL) and National Road Act 7 of 1998
                                                Provides for the control, regulation and encouragement of aviation           Repealed in favour of the Civil
Aviation Act 74 of 1962
                                                activities in the Republic of South Africa                                    Aviation Act 13 of 2009
Provincial Legislation
Western Cape Constitution Act 1 of 1998         Introduces a constitutional framework for the province
Western Cape Land Administration Act 6 of       Regulates land and land usage
1998
Western cape Planning and Development Act       Regulates planning and development within the province
7 of 1999
Municipal Legislation
                                                The Purpose of the By-law is to regulate and facilitate filming in the       Provincial Gazette 6277, 24
CCT By-Law relating to Filming
                                                CCT                                                                           June 2005
By-law relating to Streets, Public Places and   The purpose of the by-law is to regulate activities in streets and public    Promulgated    28   September
the prevention of noise nuisances 2007          places and prevent excessive noise nuisance                                   2007, PG 6469; LA 44559




                                                                                                                                                        Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 24
4.2     Administrative Framework
The Harmony Flats Nature Reserve is managed by the BMB which forms part of the CCT’s
Environmental Resource Management Department under the Strategy and Planning
Directorate. The Harmony Flats Nature Reserve is located within the Eastern Region and is
under the management of a Reserve Manager who reports to the Area Manager. The Nature
Reserve is in a serious need for an additional staff member particularly a People and
Conservation Officer. Over the years the Nature Reserve has seen a need to increase its
Environmental Education and Awareness programmes as a response to various social
pressures on the environment. This has therefore created a need to have an additional person
to run these programmes as they are difficult for the Reserve Manager to plan and implement
them.


4.2.1 Staffing complement
Table 2: Staffing Complement

 Designation                 Workdays                      Hours



 Reserve Manager             Monday -Friday                40 hours



 Student (annual contract)   Monday - Sunday               40 hours




                                                      Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 25
5. PROTECTED AREA POLICY FRAMEWORK & GUIDING MANAGEMENT                                                               PRINCIPLES
5.1    Management Objectives
Table 3: Management Objectives
High level objective                      Objective                 Sub-objective                               Initiative                                                  Low level plan

CONSERVATION                        OF                              Consolidation     and     expansion    of
                                                                                                                (1)    Identification     of    under        represented
REPRESENTATIVE,                                                     land                               areas:
                                          Representative                                                        habitats/ecosystems.
FUNCTIONAL                                                          Consolidation     of   protected   areas
                                          ecosystems:                                                           (2) Consolidate Nature Reserve boundaries.                  Nature Reserve expansion plan
ECOSYSTEMS:                                                         focusing     on   under    representative
                                          To incorporate a                                                      (3)     Incorporate        untransformed         fynbos.
To conserve a representative                                        ecosystems, functional linkages and
                                          spectrum of viable
sample        of      the       regions                             processes.
                                          terrestrial
ecosystems          in      a    linked
                                          ecosystems                Fire management:
landscape,               and        the
                                          characteristic       of                                               (1)   Implement    a fire management            plan   in
maintenance or restoration of
                                          the Harmony Flats         Apply appropriate fire regime in fynbos     accordance     with      objectives     of    conserving
environmental processes to                                                                                                                                                  Fire management plan
                                          Nature        Reserve,    areas (frequency, season, intensity,        biodiversity       and         threatened         biota.
enable natural spatial and
                                          and to re-introduce       size).                                      (2) Monitor impact of fire management regime.
temporal            variation        in
                                          missing elements
structural,        functional      and
                                          where         possible.   Threatened biota:
compositional components of
biodiversity.                                                                                                   (1) Maintain viable populations of rare/threatened
                                                                    Maintain     viable     populations    of
                                                                                                                plant and animal species (identify, locate &                Monitoring Plan
                                                                    threatened species in order to meet
                                                                                                                monitor populations of priority species)
                                                                    obligations in terms of international
                                                                    agreements and conventions.
                                                                    Monitoring Plan:
                                                                    Implement and maintain an approved          (1) Implement and maintain a biological monitoring
                                                                                                                                                                            Monitoring Plan
                                                                    Monitoring Plan for the Nature Reserve      programme for the Nature Reserve.




                                                                                                                                                         Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 32
                                      Rehabilitation:
                                                                          Vegetation:
                                      Rehabilitate          degraded
                                                                          Re-establishment of physical, chemical
                                      areas, including the re-                                                         (1)   Rehabilitate all old degraded sites.                 Vegetation Rehabilitation plan
                                                                          and biological processes in degraded
                                      establishment      of     natural
                                                                          vegetation areas.
                                      biodiversity patterns, and
                                      the     restoration     of   key
                                      processes which support
                                      the long term persistence
                                                                                                                       (1) Establish the distribution and density of
                                      of biodiversity.                    Alien plants and other alien biota:
                                                                                                                       invasive                                       species.
                                                                          Control and where possible eliminate                                                                    Invasive alien plant management
                                                                                                                       (2) Prioritise areas for alien removal focusing on
                                                                          alien biota to facilitate re-establishment                                                              plan ; Alien biota management
                                                                                                                       biodiversity                                restoration.
                                                                          of natural biodiversity pattern and                                                                     plan
                                                                                                                       (3)   Implement removal programs for priority
                                                                          process in invaded areas.
                                                                                                                       species and areas.
                                      Reconciling biodiversity            Internal                   developments:
MITIGATE     INTERNAL         and     with       other          Nature    Minimise the impacts associated with
EXTERNAL            PRESSURES:        Reserve            objectives:      the development of visitor and Nature
To    reduce        threats   and     To      ensure     that      non-   Reserve management infrastructure,           (1)          Nature          Reserve          zonation
pressures           and       limit   biodiversity     management         and ensure that such developments do         (2)     Develop        and       implement        CDF.
environmental             impacts     aspects of Nature Reserve           not        compromise         biodiversity   (3) Developments in accordance with EIA process
resulting from non-biodiversity       operations              (revenue    objectives.                                  (NEMA)           and         corporate         policies.   CDF
management          aspects   and     generation including visitor,       Internal                       activities:   (4)        Establish   visitor   carrying   capacities.
operations     on     surrounding     resource                     use,   Minimise the impacts associated with         (5) Implement green standards and environmental
land and resource use.                developments,                       visitor       and   Nature       Reserve     best practice based on corporate policy
                                      management            activities,   management activities, and ensure
                                      etc.)   are    informed      and    that such activities do not compromise
                                      constrained by biodiversity         biodiversity objectives.




                                                                                                                                                                Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 33
conservation       objectives,   Extractive           resource              use:
and that the impacts of          Minimise the impacts of extractive                (1) Quantify current extractive resource activities.
these      activities      on    resource use, and ensure that such                (2) Define opportunities and constraints in line with
biodiversity are minimised.      activities are aligned with corporate             corporate                                            guidelines.   Research to take place.
                                 guidelines; are within management                 (3) Regulate resource use, according to adaptive
                                 capacity   constraints,       and     do    not   management process
                                 compromise biodiversity objectives.
                                                                                   (1) Engage with regional land management
                                                                                   authorities, incl. IDP’s and SDF’s at local &
Reconciling biodiversity         External                   developments:          regional                                                  level.
with    external     threats:    Minimise the impacts associated with              (2) Alignment with bioregional planning, including
To reduce external threats       inappropriate      developments        outside    explicitly identified areas for the maintenance of
and pressures, and limit         the Nature Reserve                                importance for biodiversity pattern and processes
impacts    of   surrounding                                                        with       appropriate         land      use         guidelines.   Communication     Strategy   and
land & resource use on                                                             (3) Provide input into planning and decision                       Action Plan
biodiversity    conservation                                                       making process for external development that may
within the Nature Reserve.                                                         compromise Nature Reserve and Biodiversity
                                                                                   Network                                              objectives.
                                                                                   (4)    Negotiate         to     ensure        that     external
                                                                                   developments are not visually obtrusive or out of
                                                                                   character with the park.
                                                                                   (1)    Negotiate    to        mitigate   or    improve      the
                                 External                            activities:   management of external potentially detrimental
                                 Negotiate to ensure that external                 impacts.                                                           Education Strategy and Action
                                 resource     and    land      use     do    not   (2) Encourage eco-friendly resource use and land                   Plan
                                 detrimentally        affect         ecological    management practices on adjacent properties.
                                 processes within the Nature Reserve.              (3) Mitigate the impacts of oil and other pollution
                                                                                   events, through appropriate contingency planning




                                                                                                                                  Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 34
                                                                   Hydrological and water chemistry                  (1) Lobby for appropriate Catchment categorization
                                                                   changes:                                          (currently General Authorization).
                                                                   Participate     in    activities     for    the   (2) Encourage enforcement of legislation applicable
                                                                                                                                                                               Education Strategy and Action
                                                                   maintenance of river flow regimes and             to the management and protection of aquatic
                                                                                                                                                                               Plan
                                                                   water chemistry within limits for the             resources.
                                                                   maintenance of ecosystem processes                (4) Facilitate regular assessments of River Health.
                                                                   in    aquatic   ecosystems         within   the   (5) Address the issue of sewage and other point
                                                                   Nature Reserve.                                   source pollution into aquatic systems

                                                                   Illegal   harvesting        of     resources:
                                                                                                                     (1) Public liaison                                        Safety and Security Plan
                                                                   Prevent the illegal collection, removal
                                                                                                                     (2) Law enforcement                                       Security Operational Manual
                                                                   and     destruction    of    physical       and
                                                                                                                     (3) Audit every five years
                                                                   biological resources.
WILDNESS / REMOTENESS:
                                    Range of experiences:                                                                                                                      (1) CDF
To   maintain     and     restore                                                                                    (1)          Nature          Reserve          zonation
                                    Provide a range of visitor                                                                                                                 (2) Nature Reserve expansion
uniqueness/tranquillity in the                                                                                       (2) Develop CDF and sensitivity-value analysis.
                                    experiences.                                                                                                                               plan
Harmony       Flats       Nature
                                                                                                                                                                               (3) Invasive plant management
Reserve such that the spiritual
                                                                                                                     (1)        Implement         &       update       CDF     plan
and experiential qualities of       Sense       of       place:
uniqueness are maintained,                                                                                           (2) Establish and apply appropriate visitor carrying
                                    Maintain       or    restore
enhanced,         or      where                                                                                      capacity
                                    appropriate sense of place.
necessary restored                                                                                                   (3) Negotiate to ensure that external developments
                                                                                                                     are not visually obtrusive or out of character with the
                                                                                                                     Nature Reserve.

                                                                                                                     (1) Develop a database of all tangible and intangible
                                                                                                                     cultural assets which include and inventory, maps
CULTURAL               HERITAGE                                                                                      and relevant documentation.
MANAGEMENT:                         Conserve and        manage                                                       (2) Develop site Management Plans for each
                                                                   N/A                                                                                                         N/A
To investigate and manage all       cultural heritage assets                                                         Cultural Heritage site with monitoring systems in
cultural assets                                                                                                      place for management priorities and prescriptions.
                                                                                                                     (3) Facilitate appropriate Interpretation of cultural
                                                                                                                     heritage associated with the Nature Reserve




                                                                                                                                                            Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 35
5.2      SWOT analysis

Table 4: SWOT analysis
            Strengths                                                     Weaknesses



  The Nature Reserve has a full time manager who oversees the               Lack of capacity in terms of Human resources to maintain some important tasks such as baseline data collection,
     management of the Nature Reserve.                                        environmental education and monitoring. The tasks are currently run by a student but there is no continuity.


  The Nature Reserve proclaimed which gives a legal status for the          The Nature Reserve has no fences on its boundaries therefore the access is not controlled which leads to a
     Biodiversity Management Branch to fully control the site.                difficulty to manage effectively.


  The Nature Reserve has a good relationship with local organisations.




 Opportunities                                                            Threats

     There is a possibility to link the Nature Reserve with the             Illegal activities- the thoroughfare through the Nature Reserve has a number of bad consequences such as too
            neighbouring private properties to form ecological corridor              frequent fires, illegal dumping (household and rubble), sand removal that lead to soil erosion, restio and bulb
            through the Stewardship programme.                                       harvesting.
                                                                             Stray dogs that have a bad impact on nesting birds, small mammals and tortoises.
  To establish a Friends group that will assist the Nature Reserve on
     variety of activities particularly environmental awareness.             Invasive alien plants- mostly Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu), Acacia saligna (Port Jackson) and many
                                                                              herbaceous weeds that occur in the Nature Reserve.
  To develop very effective and important monitoring systems.
                                                                             Nature Reserve isolation- the Nature Reserve is very isolated therefore may become a major threat in the future in
                                                                              terms of viability.


                                                                             Indiscriminate development- Bloubos road development/ extension could have serious impacts on the Nature
                                                                              Reserve as it will break the species distribution and connection


                                                                             to the rest of the corridor. At the same time affect the hydrology in the system.




                                                                                                                                                 Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 36
5.3   Protected Area management policy framework and Guiding Principles
5.3.1 Community Participation
The Harmony Flats Nature Reserve will strive to nurture productive and mutually beneficial
partnerships that result in economic and/or biodiversity equity. This will be achieved through
the creation of job opportunities in support of Expanded Public Works and Poverty Relief
Programmes. Through the support of community based Social Development Initiatives the
Nature Reserve will strive to enhance socio-economic benefits to local communities.


The Nature Reserve has in the past ran projects through Working for Wetlands and internally
funded projects that have proved to be successful in terms of temporary job creation. However
these projects are never sustainable as they only last for a few weeks or months. However the
Nature Reserve management is meeting with various organisations with the aim to try and
explore possibilities of raising funds and subsequently running more sustainable projects that
will benefit the Nature Reserve and the communities around it. The Nature Reserve staff is
also in the process of establishing a Friends Group for the Nature Reserve. It is intended that
this group will assist with environmental awareness and education programmes. On the other
side the HFWG and TAG Changers of Cassablanca and Sercor Park communities run and
assist in eight environmental education programmes that take place over a year period. These
organisations help mobilise the kids and youth from the community who come to assist in
invasive plant clearing among other things.

5.3.2 Environmental Education
The Nature Reserve hosts quite a number of environmental activities that are aimed at the
different age levels of the surrounding communities, these activities are run annually and they
include the following:




                                                        Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 37
5.3.2.1 Environmental Education Programmes
Table 6: Environmental Education Programmes


 Activity                          Date                       Target group

 Waste Week                        March / April              Local schools

 Biodiversity / Bird Week          May                        Local schools

 Holiday Programme                 June/July                  Younger children

 Arbor Week                        September                  Local schools

 Spring Walks                      September/ October         Public members

 SEEP Hike                         October                    Youth

 Careers in Conservation           As per request             Schools

 Weedbuster Week                   October                    Youth

 Holiday Programme                 December                   Younger children




Additionally the Nature Reserve also hosts random walks and talks for different organisations
and groups such as interns, international students and visitors. All these activities are held in
conjunction with HFWG and Tag Changers. However in the absence of an EE officer this area
is not optimised as it could be.


5.3.3 Security and safety
A safety and security audit still needs to be carried out in the Nature Reserve. Harmony Flats
Nature Reserve is not entirely fenced off except in the North West and East boundaries
therefore access is uncontrolled. There are no buildings at this stage except for the container
that is being utilised for meetings when required. This container has security gates and
burglars on windows and doors to prevent attempts to break in. The fence posts have in the
past been stolen and the perpetrators were never discovered. The other form of theft that
takes place is illegal plant harvesting, mostly the bulbous plants such as Incwadi (Boophane
disticha), Thamnochortus fruticosus. At this stage it is difficult to know who is responsible for
these wrong doings at the same time the quantities taken out are also not known. However
security measures will be introduced after the office buildings have been developed.


5.3.4 Cultural historical, archaeological, paleontological management
No cultural historical information is known and available to the Nature Reserve at this stage
however some research is being conducted. The only cultural history that is known to occur is
that of the Lwandle area which is in close proximity to the Nature Reserve however not
relevant to the management of Harmony Flats Nature Reserve.

                                                         Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 38
5.3.5 Tourism development and management
Tourism is one of the country’s main sources of income as it contributes tremendously to the
Gross Domestic Product through different segments. The eco-tourism segment alone plays a
very important role in showcasing the protected natural areas in South Africa and Cape Town
is no exception. This segment does not only bring benefit to protected areas financially but
also help to create job opportunities for the local people.


In terms of scenic beauty particularly in spring Harmony Flats Nature Reserve demonstrates a
wide variety of wild flowers that can only be seen at a specific time and only in this part of the
world. As a result of the conservation status (Critically Endangered) of the LAF, the Nature
Reserve has some of the rarest plants on earth which should therefore make it one of the
tourist destinations within the Cape Town area. Although the important status is there, the
Nature Reserve does not get the marketing and recognition that it deserves.


As a result of this the management together with the local organisations and possibly with the
Friends Group in the future will try to explore some funding opportunities that will help unleash
the specialised botanical tourism potential in this area. There are intentions of linking the
Nature Reserve on the tourism route, develop a partnership with the Lwandle Museum and
international organisations such as African Conservation Experience which is a United
Kingdom based organisation. There are opportunities for township tourism whereby the local
talent is show cased to visitors by a various cultural performances that the communities
around possess. Some of these initiatives have already started but are not sustained due to a
number of factors that included a lack of staff capacity and budget. The opportunities have
been identified and tourism packages still need to be developed.


5.3.6 Infrastructure management
Harmony Flats Nature Reserve does not have any building infrastructure except for the
container that is used when needed. Other than that the Nature Reserve has a fence on two of
its borders that receive maintenance when needed. The Nature Reserve is currently in the
process of constructing its new building offices that will comprise of two offices, a reception
and exhibition area, a kitchen and a lecture room. Accompanying this building a potting shed
will also be constructed for the purposes of a nursery. The construction period is envisaged to
take up to six months. An infrastructural maintenance plan will be developed once the project
has been completed.




                                                          Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 39
5.3.7 Biodiversity conservation management
5.3.7.1 Community based natural resource management
The harvesting of natural resources within the Harmony Flats Nature Reserve is currently not
allowed. Research on the amount of harvesting and the species harvested across the city is
currently underway. Some investigations as to the types and extent of harvesting in the Nature
Reserve has been started but to date there is no detailed or conclusive data, that determines
where current harvesting is sustainable, and or what potential threats are foreseen should
these activities persist.


5.3.7.2 Fire management
Fire plays an essential ecological role in the life-cycle of fynbos species. Fire is crucial to the
long term conservation of species within the Harmony Flats Nature Reserve and is therefore
considered an important component of Nature Reserve management.                Fire management
involves varying the season, frequency and intensity of fires, and reconciling ecological and
practical requirements. Too frequent fires, or fires which burn out of phase of the natural
burning regime, present a threat to slower-growing species, which can be eliminated. If fire is
excluded from the area, forest species can invade resulting in fynbos species being lost.
Conversely if vegetation is allowed to burn too frequently, the area becomes degraded and
alien species, especially grasses. Grasses maintain a shorter fire cycle and permanently
change the vegetation structure and biodiversity value.


Although fire plays a crucial role in the management of fynbos ecosystems this is to be done
with extra caution in Harmony Flats Nature Reserve. Over the past 24 years since the Nature
Reserve was officially opened and proclaimed it has been inundated by frequent fires. On
average at least three fires are recorded per year in different sections of the Nature Reserve.
This has been an occurrence since proclamation and it is exacerbated by the fact that the
Nature Reserve is not entirely fenced off and therefore people still use it as a thoroughfare
which makes it difficult to know if most fires are arson or accidental.


As a result of this some plants particularly the Proteaceae species only occur on one section
although this provides some heterogeneity in the veld but the main reason is because some
sections burn more than one occasion in two fire seasons which lead to the grass dominance.
It is therefore the responsibility of the Nature Reserve Manager to develop a proper fire
management plan that will encompass all different factors at the same time taking into
consideration the legislation such as the Veld and Fire Act and other legislation that one has to
abide to.   The fire management plan will take into consideration the fact that there are
residential areas that are surrounding the Nature Reserve therefore the fire frequency of eight
to ten years will be applied.
                                                          Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 40
5.3.7.3 Soil erosion and control
A draft rehabilitation plan has been developed for the Nature Reserve; this plan has attempted
to address various challenges that occur within the reserve that include soil erosion, rubble,
light scale sand mining, and invasive species. The plan will address how these challenges will
be dealt with and prevented as well as the interventions to be applied e.g. a formal footpath
such as a boardwalk.


5.3.7.4 Invasive species management
The management of invasive species is a priority within the Harmony Flats Nature Reserve.
The main plant species that occur in the Nature Reserve include Acacia saligna (Port
Jackson), Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu) and more than 11 other herbaceous weeds
species. Animal species include mainly the domestic dogs that are recorded in packs on the
Nature Reserve. Invasive species management within the Nature Reserve is applied in
accordance with the City’s Invasive Species Strategy and in co-ordination with various
government funded initiatives, including EPWP: WfW and Working for Wetlands. The Nature
Reserve has a draft invasive species plan that addresses all strategies and control measures
needed to be taken into consideration with regards to the management of invasive species.


5.3.7.5 Species introductions
Currently the Nature Reserve does not introduce any species, however in the past this has
happened through Search and Rescue from other sites of similar environmental features as
the Nature Reserve. In the near future another search and rescue will again take place and
the plant species will be identified recorded and this will also be factored into the rehabilitation
plan as they will be planted on the kikuyu patches.



Once the Nature Reserve has been fully secured and all the systems and plans have been
developed and implemented it is intended that re-introductions of geometric tortoise will take
place. This is dependent on results of research projects and approval from the BMB Faunal
Community. All proposed re-introductions need to be approved before implementation.
Recommendations and approvals are required from the Faunal and Floral Management
Committees as well as from CapeNature. The implementation of any re-introduction
programmes will be specified in plan of action and documented accurately.




                                                           Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 41
5.3.7.6 Strategic research
There is no research that currently takes place in the Nature Reserve except for the nature
conservation students from the Cape Peninsula University of Technology. There is however
an opportunity for more strategic research projects on a variety of projects. It is within the
BMB’s intentions in the future to encourage local universities to conduct relevant research on
Nature Reserves including Harmony Flats Nature Reserve.


5.4   Sensitivity Analysis
No Sensitivity Analysis has been conducted on the Nature Reserve at this stage.


5.5   Zonation Plan of the Harmony Flats Nature Reserve
5.5.1 Zoning Informants
This section briefly outlines the values underlying the identification of tourism use zones. It is
important to remember that the landscape/biodiversity analysis is one of the informants
necessary in the zonation process. Although the biodiversity analysis has not been conducted
in the Nature Reserve it is intrinsically a relatively objective scientific process. The zonation
definitions and descriptions have been workshoped with the branch and four categories
decided on such as the Conservation zone, Low intensity leisure zone and high intensity
leisure zone (for more information on the categories, refer to the Zoning table on Appendix 2).
Harmony Flats Nature Reserve as a result of its small size of only nine hectares has only one
zone i.e. Conservation Area, see Zonation map below:




                                                         Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 42
Map 6: Zonation Map for Harmony Flats Nature Reserve




                                                  Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 43
6. DEVELOPMENT PLAN
No significant development is contemplated to take place within the boundaries of Harmony
Flats Nature Reserve. However a footpath will be developed on a less sensitive location, the
main aim being to encourage the visitors to only walk on a demarcated area thereby
preventing trampling on vegetation. Additionally the new reserve offices will be constructed on
an adjacent site on Erf: 13815 which is managed by the Department of Sport and Recreation
(CCT). The official permission for this agreement is in Appendix 5.


The building will comprise an exhibition centre, and reception, two offices, a kitchen, toilet
facilities and a classroom that will be utilised for the purposes of Environmental Education and
Green Futures lectures (Green Futures will be responsible for a one year learnership that is
aimed at capacitating the local youth interested in basic horticultural skills). A nursery with the
potting shed will be developed next to the building and it will also be utilised for the purposes
of the skills programme. The building project is envisaged to begin in January 2011 and the
project completion in July 2011. The Nature Reserve also aims to fence off its southern
section in 2011 however a thorough public participation process will take place whereby the
communities using the Nature Reserve will be interviewed about this possibility.




                                                          Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 44
7. COSTING PLAN
Table 7: Costing Plan

Management Action               Funding Source      2011-2012      2012-2013      2013-2014         2014-2015       2015-2016

1. Invasive Alien Plants
Management                      Grant


1.1 Rehabilitation                                  R211, 000.00


2. Environmental Education      Operating           R5, 135.85     R5, 418.32     R5, 716.32        R6, 030.00      R6, 364.41


3. Human Resources              Operating           R356, 400.00   R384, 912.00   R415, 704.96      R448, 961.36    R484, 878.27


4. Infrastructure Development   Operating / Capex


4.1 Fencing                     Operating                          R246, 915.36


4.2 Signage


4.2.1 Interpretive Signage      Capex                              R200, 000.00


4.2.3 Directional Signage       Operating           R3, 151.00


4.2.4 Boardwalk development     Capex                                             R90, 000.00


7. Maintenance                  Operating


8. General Expenses             Grant / Operating   R2, 000.00


9. Special Projects


Total                                               R577,686.85    R837,645.68        R511,421.28   R454,991.36     R491,242.68




                                                                                                     Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 45
PART 3
8.    MONITORING & AUDITING
8.1   ANNUAL AUDIT PROCEDURE
A detailed auditing process of the past three years of Harmony Flats Nature Reserve exists.
These include the Protected Areas Review as well as the annual Nature Reserve visits. Every
three years the auditory process includes the METT-SA auditing process (Appendix 13). The
focus of these audits is to assist the management in achieving management objectives and
improving management effectiveness of the protected area.


8.1.1 Management Plan review
This management plan should be reviewed on a 5-yearly basis and adjusted where
necessary. To achieve this, the following questions (and others as needed) should be
addressed:

     Did this Management Plan make a meaningful contribution to the management of the
      Protected Area?
     Were individual management “prescriptions” realistic and achievable? Were they written
      unambiguously or was there room for misunderstanding?
     Were budgets for each management activity realistic? Were the allocated budgets too
      much or too little?
     Were sufficient staff members of the right qualifications allocated to each management
      activity?


There will be some overlap between the review and the audit and they should therefore be
done on the same day, by the same team.

8.2   Biodiversity Monitoring
A number of monitoring programmes have been identified as necessary to assist with the
effective management of the Harmony Flats Nature Reserve. Some programmes have been
well implemented and included into the management of the Nature Reserve. Others require
formalizing and further implementation. The Biodiversity Database also plays a crucial role in
the monitoring of both floral and faunal species which allows one to add sightings as seen on
the Nature Reserve. When a sighting is added one is requested to insert a date, this allows
one   to     measure    the   trends   of   a   certain   species    over   a   certain   period.




                                                          Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 46
8.2.1 Monitoring Requirements

Table 8: Biodiversity Monitoring
 Action
                                                      Responsible Party                      Means of Verification          Frequency
 Vegetation Monitoring
 IS Vegetation                                        Nature Reserve staff                   Weekly Inspections             Weekly
 Actions to be monitored include; the                 Nature Reserve Manager, Student        Final Inspections              Once off – completion of contract
 effectiveness of the operation, the effectiveness                                           Field Verification Sheets      Annually - to determine Management
 of the follow–up, methods used, compliance with                                                                            Unit Clearing Plan
 the alien clearing schedule and environmental
 damage such as herbicide spillage




 Fire mapping                                         Nature Reserve staff                   Veld age map, fire map         Post fire
 The accurate mapping and recording of all veld       Nature Reserve Manager, Students and
 fires must be done to build up a useful record       Interns
 that will assist with veld interpretation. These
 records will take the guesswork out of the effects
 of fire when it occurs on the property. A simple
 map indicating the extent of the burn with the
 date of the fire is the minimum requirement.


 Post Fire Recruitment                                Nature Reserve staff                   Stratified Sampling plots      Post fire
                                                      Nature Reserve Manager, Student                                       6 months
                                                                                                                            12 months
 Abundance, Density & Structure                       Nature Reserve staff                   Fixed point photography        Annually for 3 years
                                                      Nature Reserve Manager, Student        Presence, abundance, density


                                                      Nature Reserve staff
                                                      Nature Reserve Manager, Student        Field Observation Sheet        Annually



                                                                                                                            Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 47
                                 Nature Reserve staff, Nature Reserve                                            Seasonally
Threatened Species               Manager, Student, Custodians of Rare   Line transect
                                 and Endangered Wildflowers (CREW)                                               Annually
Action
                                 Responsible Party                      Means of Verification                    Frequency
Faunal Monitoring


Bird counts and identification   Nature Reserve staff                   Transects and field observation          Monthly
                                 Nature Reserve Manager, Student


                                 Nature Reserve staff
Small mammals                    Nature Reserve Manager, Student        Stratified Random Sherman trap array     Annually


Rehabilitation sites             Nature Reserve staff                   New species recording on rehab. sites.   Monthly
                                 Nature Reserve Manager, Student




                                                                                                                 Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 48
PART 4
9.      REFERENCES
Anon 2010. City of Cape Town, Five-year Plan for Cape Town, Integrated Development Plan
(IDP) 2007 – 2012, 2010 – 2011 Review. Unpublished report, CCT.


Anon 20031. The Integrated Metropolitan Environmental Policy. Unpublished report, City Of Cape
Town.


Anon 20032. The Biodiversity Strategy. Unpublished report, City Of Cape Town.


Anon 20091. Local Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 2009 – 2019. Unpublished report, City Of
Cape Town.


Anon 20092. CCT Biodiversity Network – Analysis: 2009 Methods and Results. Unpublished
report, City Of Cape Town.


Anon,      (undated).      Cape     Town’s       Unique      Biodiversity    Endemic       Ecosystems.
www.capetown.gov.za/environment


Cape Project Team 2000. Cape Action Plan for the Environment: Strategy. Unpublished report,
WWF (South Africa).


Helme N, Motivation for Extension of Harmony Flats Nature Reserve, Gordon’s Bay. Nick Helme Botanical
Surveys. Scarborough


Holness, S. Skowno, A. 2008. Report on Sensitivity-Value Analysis and Zonation Process for the
Boland Mountain Complex. Cape Nature Conservation Internal report.


Holmes, P. and Dorse, C. (eds) (2008) City of Cape Town Biodiversity Report 2008. City of Cape
Town: Cape Town.


Jarman, M. (ed.). 1986. Conservation priorities in lowland regions of the Fynbos Biome. SA Nat. Sc.Prog.
Report 87. CSIR, Petoria


Lwandle Migrant Labour Museum. http://www.lwandle.com/



                                                               Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 49
Maze K, Rebelo A. 1999. Core Flora Conservation Areas on the Cape Flats. FCC Report 99/1.
Botanical Society of SA, Kirstenbosch.


Myers N, Mittermeyer RACG, Fonseca GA, Kent J 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation
priorities. Nature 403:853-858.


Rebelo AG, Boucher C, Helme NA, Mucina L, Rutherford MC et al. 2006. Fynbos biome. In: Mucina, L,
Rutherford MC (Eds) The Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland: Strelitzia, 19, pp. 52-219.


South African Weather Services. 2010. Cape Town


Wright G, 2004. Management Plan for Harmony Flats Nature Reserve.




                                                                Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 50
PART 5: Appendices
Please refer to list of attached appendices




                                              Integrated Reserve Management Plan | 51

								
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