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Early Man The Past Paleolithic Age Neolithic Revolution River Valley Civilizations World Religions Evolution of Law Early Man – Early Empires Peopling of the World – Chapter 1 Human Origins ~ Scientific Discovery *Mary Leakey, archaeologist, in Tanzania, found footprints of earliest humans *Donald Johanson, anthropologist, in Ethiopia, found LUCY, the oldest hominid found to date. History – Science Terms *archeologists *anthropologists *paleontologists Early Man Anthropologists! Anthropologists! Early Man – Early Empires OLD STONE AGE NEW STONE AGE 1. Paleolithic Age 1. Neolithic Age 2. Prehistoric Age 2. Neolithic Revolution 3. Culture 3. Slash and Burn 4. Agricultural Revolution 4. Ice Age 5. Farming 5. Hunter-Gatherer 6. Domestication of Animals 6. Nomadic People 7. Artisans 7. Primitive Tools 8. Advanced Tools 8. Primitive/Cave Art 9. Surplus Crops 9. Some evidence of 10. Trade religious/traditional 11. Scribes ceremonies Learning the Terms Example. Old Stone Age Prehistoric Simple Tools PALEOLITHIC AGE Before written records Cave Art Hunter-gatherer Nomadic Early Man – Early Empires • Paleolithic • Old Stone Age • Prehistoric • Hunter-gatherer • Nomadic • Primitive tools • Cave art • Family groups – clans Early Man Neolithic • New Stone Age • Neolithic (Agricultural) Revolution • Began 10,000 years ago • From hunter-gatherer to farming • Permanent dwellings • Villages cities civilizations • Irrigation surplus trade • Artisans became part of society • Need for cooperation among groups • Social class systems developed • Religion became organized Early Man – Early Empires Chapter 1 Characteristics of Civilization 1. Advanced Cities of Trade 2. Specialized Workers 3. Complex Institutions 4. Record Keeping 5. Advanced Technology Early Man – Early Empires Population Distribution Migration of Early Man • Push Factors • Natural Disasters • Depletion of Resources • Climate • Conflict/Conquest • Pull Factors • Resources • Technological Advances • Climate • Cultural Diffusion Key Terms – Chapter 1 Explain the significance of the following terms in relationship to Early Man Prehistory Artifacts Culture Archeologists Anthropologists Paleontologists Hominid Homo Habilis Homo Erectus Homo Sapien Neanderthal Cro-Magnon Nomad Hunter-gatherer Neolithic Revolution Slash-and-burn Domestication Civilization Artisan Scribe River Valley Civilizations Construct the chart on notebook paper. Note three important facts under each category. Civilization Mesopotamia Nile Indus Chinese Geography Characteristics Fall of the Civilization River Valley Civilizations Chapter 2 Mesopotamia INDUS Civilization NILE CHINA Fertile Crescent N. Africa/ Northern Indian Eastern China Subcontinent Geography Mediterranean Indus and Yellow/Yangtze Tigris/Euphrates Ganges Rivers Rivers Rivers Nile River Characteristics + Fertile land between + Desert + Indus-Ganges + loess two rivers + Pyramids Plain + massive + Divided by + Monsoons flooding cataracts + Planned Cities + dynastic rule + Silt for crops + First civilization – + Lower Egypt= + Indoor + society based Sumer north Plumbing on family + Use of irrigation + Upper Egypt= + Few Weapons + religion south + Toys based on + City states + Divided pleasing + Undeciphered + Cuneiform Writing Kingdoms ancestors Written + Polytheistic +Hieroglyphics Language + advanced technology + Polytheistic Unknown – Defeated by Sargon Defeated by Warring Fall – 1st Empire Builder the Hyksos Invasion? Dynasties Disease? Key Terms – Chapter 2 Fertile Crescent Loess Silt Dynastic Cycle City-state Oracle Bones Dynasty Bronze working Cultural diffusion Mandate of Heaven Polytheism Feudalism Sumer Sargon Hammurabi’s Code Cataract Delta Menes Pharaohs Monsoons Mohenjo-Daro Grid System Mesopotamia Fertile Crescent – silt = abundant crops Sumerians – First Civilization – Irrigation = more crops = surplus = trade – Establishment of city-states – Trade = cultural diffusion – Polytheistic (worship of many gods) – Advanced civilization • Number system • Bricks • Columns • Ramps • Cuneiform writing – Sargon • Created first empire • United the people • Lasted about 200 yrs. – Hammurabi • Babylonian ruler • First written code of laws Nile River Valley Est. about 3,000 yrs. Ago Along Nile River Flooding/silt provided rich soil Ruled by pharaohs Government = theocracy Pyramid builders Upper/Lower kingdoms divided by cataracts Upper and lower kingdoms united by Menes Hieroglyphic writing Social classes not locked Indus River Valley Located on the Indian sub-continent Supported by the Indus-Ganges Rivers Protected by Hindu Kush & Himalaya Mts. Monsoons and river flooding = fertile soil Planned cities Houses alike indicate lack of social divisions Indoor plumbing Toys indicate leisure time Few weapons – peaceful people Written language has not been decoded Chinese River Valley Civilization Belief in the power of ancestors to determine events in life Used oracle bones Writing system with no connection to spoken language Specialized in weapons, jewelry, bronze and silk Mandate of Heaven became central to the Chinese view of government Advances in math and technology Migration of People and Ideas Chapter 3 Early People – Migration of People and Ideas Hittites – occupied Anatolia, developed an empire that dominated SW Asia for 450 years, adopted the language, art, legal principles of the Babylonians after conquering them, were warlike conquering people who used iron chariots against their enemy. Aryans – Indo-European invaders. Established foundations for Hinduism, divided invaded people by skin color and work performed, and counted their wealth in cows. Phoenicians – seafaring traders who extended their boundaries all along the Mediterranean Sea, not a unified country, a group of city-states, specialized in ship building and sailing skills. They spread cultural through trade, used coin money, and developed an alphabet that would later be the foundation for both the Greek and English languages. Assyrians – warring tribe that conquered Israel and Judah as well as the surrounding lands. They were known to be ruthless killers, showing no mercy for those they conquered and required tribute from those they did not attack. Babylonians – empire of Mesopotamia, centered in Babylon. The Babylonians conquered the Assyrian Empire as well as surrounding lands. King Nebuchadnezzar was known for building the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and for leaving his name on the bricks used during the construction. The Babylonians fell to the stronger Persians. Hebrews – originally a group of 12 self-governing tribes. The Ten Commandments was the foundation of their legal code, the group eventually divided into two separate kingdoms, Israel, and Judah. Even after captivity, the Hebrews continued to practice Judaism. Persians - led by Cyrus the Great conquered the Babylonian Empire and allowed 40 thousand Jewish exiles to return to Israel to rebuild the Temple. Migration of People and Ideas Indo-European Languages – foundation of modern language today Indo-European Migrations – scattered language, cultural practices and roots of early religion, through out the regions Hinduism •World’s oldest religion, belief in thousands of gods •Has no single founder • Developed from Aryan beliefs and practices including the Caste System •Sacred literature – The Vedas and Upanishads •Three main gods – Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva •Believe in reincarnation, the soul is continually reborn, enlightenment (moksha) comes for rejecting earthly desires, and freedom from earthly desires comes through worship, knowledge, and virtuous acts. •Moral Code - Karma •Led by gurus and other holy men Migration of People and Ideas Chapter 3 Buddhism Judaism Developed in the same region Monotheistic – one God as Hinduism Founder – Abraham Founder -Siddhartha Gautama Based on a covenant No personal deity between man and God No one sacred book Early Hebrews – Jews Believe – Nirvana, complete Sacred Text – Hebrew Bible/ peace and happiness is Torah reached by eliminating the Believe – Only one God who desire for earthly things, follow cares for individuals, God the Four Noble Truths, and loves & protects people and follow the Eight Fold Path holds them accountable for Many division of Buddhist such sins, and God is served as Jainism – believe all living through study of the Torah things have a soul and should and living by its teachings be protected Moral Code – 10 Moral Code – Eightfold Path Commandments Led by Buddhist monks and Led by Rabbis priests Key Terms Torah Vedas Caste System Moksha Reincarnation Karma Enlightenment Nirvana Canaan Monotheism Tribute Covenant Ten Commandments Evolution of Law First Law – Hammurabi’s Code • Before – City states had individual laws – Need for a unified code of law • Hammurabi – Collected individual laws from the empire – Combined to unified code for all people in the empire • After – Laws engraved on stone and posted throughout the empire – Meant to serve justice and to unify the people of the empire Evolution of Law Hammurabi’s Code *If any one steal the property of a temple or of the court, he shall be put to death, and also the one who receives the stolen thing from him shall be put to death. *If any one take a male or female slave of the court, or a male or female slave of a freed man, outside the city gates, he shall be put to death * If conspirators meet in the house of a tavern-keeper, and these conspirators are not captured and delivered to the court, the tavern-keeper shall be put to death *If a son strike his father, his hands shall be hewn off. What did the Mesopotamian’s value???? Evolution of Law • Mosaic Law • Delivered to Moses by God, who led the Hebrews out of Egyptian captivity. • Became the basis for civil and religious law for the Hebrew people. • Ten Commandments • (1) You shall have no other gods before me • (6) You shall not commit murder • (7) You shall not commit adultery • (8) You shall not steal • (9) You shall not bear false witness Evolution of Law Hammurabi’s Code – Mosaic Law What values are evident in each code of laws? What do the codes have in common? How are the codes different? Are today’s values reflected in the laws? Explain.
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