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Early Man – Early Empires by yaofenji


									            Early Man

The Past
Paleolithic Age
Neolithic Revolution
River Valley Civilizations
World Religions
Evolution of Law
 Early Man – Early Empires

Peopling of the World – Chapter 1
 Human Origins ~ Scientific Discovery
   *Mary Leakey, archaeologist, in Tanzania, found
    footprints of earliest humans

    *Donald Johanson, anthropologist, in Ethiopia,
    found LUCY, the oldest hominid found to date.

                            History – Science Terms
       Early Man

Anthropologists! Anthropologists!
Early Man – Early Empires
    OLD STONE AGE               NEW STONE AGE
1.    Paleolithic Age        1.  Neolithic Age
2.    Prehistoric Age        2.  Neolithic Revolution
3.    Culture                3.  Slash and Burn
                             4.  Agricultural Revolution
4.    Ice Age
                             5.  Farming
5.    Hunter-Gatherer
                             6.  Domestication of Animals
6.    Nomadic People         7.  Artisans
7.    Primitive Tools        8.  Advanced Tools
8.    Primitive/Cave Art     9.  Surplus Crops
9.    Some evidence of       10. Trade
     religious/traditional   11. Scribes
Learning the Terms
 Example.                       Old Stone Age

                                     Simple Tools
 Before written
 records                                  Cave Art


Early Man – Early Empires

• Paleolithic
   • Old Stone Age
   • Prehistoric
   • Hunter-gatherer
   • Nomadic
   • Primitive tools
   • Cave art
   • Family groups – clans
  Early Man


• New Stone Age
• Neolithic (Agricultural) Revolution
• Began 10,000 years ago
• From hunter-gatherer to farming
• Permanent dwellings
• Villages    cities     civilizations
• Irrigation     surplus       trade
• Artisans became part of society
• Need for cooperation among groups
• Social class systems developed
• Religion became organized
  Early Man – Early Empires
                     Chapter 1

      Characteristics of Civilization

1. Advanced Cities of Trade

2. Specialized Workers

3. Complex Institutions

4. Record Keeping

5. Advanced Technology
Early Man – Early Empires
Population Distribution

Migration of Early Man
   • Push Factors
      • Natural Disasters
      • Depletion of Resources
      • Climate
      • Conflict/Conquest
   • Pull Factors
      • Resources
      • Technological Advances
      • Climate
      • Cultural Diffusion
Key Terms – Chapter 1
Explain the significance of the following terms in relationship to Early Man

Homo Habilis
Homo Erectus
Homo Sapien
Neolithic Revolution
  River Valley Civilizations
  Construct the chart on notebook paper. Note
  three important facts under each category.

Civilization Mesopotamia   Nile   Indus   Chinese



Fall of the
        River Valley Civilizations
                                            Chapter 2

                  Mesopotamia                                INDUS
Civilization                                NILE                                CHINA
                  Fertile Crescent          N. Africa/       Northern Indian    Eastern China
Geography                                   Mediterranean
                                                             Indus and          Yellow/Yangtze
                  Tigris/Euphrates                           Ganges Rivers      Rivers
                   Rivers                   Nile River
Characteristics    + Fertile land between   + Desert         + Indus-Ganges     + loess
                  two rivers                + Pyramids       Plain              + massive
                                            + Divided by     + Monsoons         flooding
                                            cataracts        + Planned Cities   + dynastic rule
                  + Silt for crops
                  + First civilization –    + Lower Egypt=   + Indoor           + society based
                  Sumer                     north            Plumbing           on family
                  + Use of irrigation       + Upper Egypt=   + Few Weapons      + religion
                                            south            + Toys             based on
                  + City states             + Divided                           pleasing
                                                             + Undeciphered
                  + Cuneiform Writing       Kingdoms                            ancestors
                  + Polytheistic            +Hieroglyphics   Language           + advanced
                                                             + Polytheistic
                                                             Unknown –
                  Defeated by Sargon        Defeated by                         Warring
Fall              – 1st Empire Builder      the Hyksos       Invasion?          Dynasties
Key Terms – Chapter 2
Fertile Crescent                    Loess
Silt                                Dynastic Cycle
City-state                          Oracle Bones
Dynasty                             Bronze working
Cultural diffusion                  Mandate of Heaven
Polytheism                          Feudalism
Hammurabi’s Code


                     Grid System
   Fertile Crescent – silt = abundant crops
   Sumerians – First Civilization
    –   Irrigation = more crops = surplus = trade
    –   Establishment of city-states
    –   Trade = cultural diffusion
    –   Polytheistic (worship of many gods)
    –   Advanced civilization
         •   Number system
         •   Bricks
         •   Columns
         •   Ramps
         •   Cuneiform writing
    – Sargon
         • Created first empire
         • United the people
         • Lasted about 200 yrs.
    – Hammurabi
         • Babylonian ruler
         • First written code of laws
Nile River Valley
 Est. about 3,000 yrs. Ago
 Along Nile River
 Flooding/silt provided rich soil
 Ruled by pharaohs
 Government = theocracy
 Pyramid builders
 Upper/Lower kingdoms divided
  by cataracts
 Upper and lower kingdoms
  united by Menes
 Hieroglyphic writing
 Social classes not locked
Indus River Valley
   Located on the Indian sub-continent
   Supported by the Indus-Ganges Rivers
   Protected by Hindu Kush & Himalaya Mts.
   Monsoons and river flooding = fertile soil
   Planned cities
   Houses alike indicate lack of social
   Indoor plumbing
   Toys indicate leisure time
   Few weapons – peaceful people
   Written language has not been
Chinese River Valley Civilization
   Belief in the power of ancestors to determine events in life
   Used oracle bones
   Writing system with no connection to spoken language
   Specialized in weapons, jewelry, bronze and silk
   Mandate of Heaven became central to the Chinese view
    of government
   Advances in math
    and technology
          Migration of People and Ideas
                                               Chapter 3
Early People – Migration of People and Ideas

Hittites – occupied Anatolia, developed an empire that dominated SW Asia for 450 years, adopted
          the language, art, legal principles of the Babylonians after conquering them, were warlike
          conquering people who used iron chariots against their enemy.
Aryans – Indo-European invaders. Established foundations for Hinduism,
          divided invaded people by skin color and work performed, and
          counted their wealth in cows.
Phoenicians – seafaring traders who extended their boundaries all along the Mediterranean Sea,
          not a unified country, a group of city-states, specialized in ship building and sailing skills.
          They spread cultural through trade, used coin money, and developed an alphabet that
          would later be the foundation for both the Greek and English languages.
Assyrians – warring tribe that conquered Israel and Judah as well as the surrounding lands. They
          were known to be ruthless killers, showing no mercy for those they conquered and
          required tribute from those they did not attack.
Babylonians – empire of Mesopotamia, centered in Babylon. The Babylonians conquered the
          Assyrian Empire as well as surrounding lands. King Nebuchadnezzar was known
          for building the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and for leaving his name on the bricks used
          during the construction. The Babylonians fell to the stronger Persians.
Hebrews – originally a group of 12 self-governing tribes. The Ten Commandments was the
          foundation of their legal code, the group eventually divided into two separate kingdoms,
          Israel, and Judah. Even after captivity, the Hebrews continued to practice Judaism.

Persians - led by Cyrus the Great conquered the Babylonian Empire and allowed 40
            thousand Jewish exiles to return to Israel to rebuild the Temple.
       Migration of People and Ideas
Indo-European Languages – foundation of modern language today
Indo-European Migrations – scattered language, cultural practices and
   roots of early religion, through out the regions
 •World’s oldest religion, belief in thousands of gods
 •Has no single founder
 • Developed from Aryan beliefs and practices including the Caste System
 •Sacred literature – The Vedas and Upanishads
 •Three main gods – Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva
 •Believe in reincarnation, the soul is continually reborn, enlightenment (moksha) comes for rejecting
 earthly desires, and freedom from earthly desires comes through worship, knowledge, and virtuous acts.
 •Moral Code - Karma
 •Led by gurus and other holy men
        Migration of People and Ideas
                                   Chapter 3

            Buddhism                                 Judaism
   Developed in the same region              Monotheistic – one God
    as Hinduism                               Founder – Abraham
   Founder -Siddhartha Gautama               Based on a covenant
   No personal deity                          between man and God
   No one sacred book                        Early Hebrews – Jews
   Believe – Nirvana, complete               Sacred Text – Hebrew Bible/
    peace and happiness is                     Torah
    reached by eliminating the                Believe – Only one God who
    desire for earthly things, follow          cares for individuals, God
    the Four Noble Truths, and                 loves & protects people and
    follow the Eight Fold Path                 holds them accountable for
   Many division of Buddhist such             sins, and God is served
    as Jainism – believe all living            through study of the Torah
    things have a soul and should              and living by its teachings
    be protected                              Moral Code – 10
   Moral Code – Eightfold Path                Commandments
   Led by Buddhist monks and                 Led by Rabbis
 Key Terms
Caste System
Ten Commandments
Evolution of Law
   First Law
    – Hammurabi’s Code
       • Before
          – City states had individual laws
          – Need for a unified code of law
       • Hammurabi
          – Collected individual laws from the empire
          – Combined to unified code for all people in the empire
       • After
          – Laws engraved on stone and posted throughout the
          – Meant to serve justice and to unify the people of the
    Evolution of Law
   Hammurabi’s Code
*If any one steal the property of a temple or of the court,
he shall be put to death, and also the one who receives
the stolen thing from him shall be put to death.
*If any one take a male or female slave of the court, or a
male or female slave of a freed man, outside the city
gates, he shall be put to death
* If conspirators meet in the house of a tavern-keeper, and
these conspirators are not captured and delivered to the
court, the tavern-keeper shall be put to death
*If a son strike his father, his hands shall be hewn off.

What did the Mesopotamian’s value????
Evolution of Law

• Mosaic Law
  • Delivered to Moses by God, who led the
    Hebrews out of Egyptian captivity.
     • Became the basis for civil and religious law
        for the Hebrew people.

   • Ten Commandments
      • (1) You shall have no other gods before me
      • (6) You shall not commit murder
      • (7) You shall not commit adultery
      • (8) You shall not steal
      • (9) You shall not bear false witness
Evolution of Law
Hammurabi’s Code – Mosaic Law
What values are evident in each
code of laws?

What do the codes have in common?

How are the codes different?

Are today’s values reflected in the
laws? Explain.

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