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					               Appendix C

Interview Summaries with College Personnel
                             College of Arts and Letters

What interdisciplinary programs exist in your college?

Headed by a Chair:
Religious Studies (department with TS lines)

Headed by a Director:
African American and African Studies (graduate degree program, UG specialization)*
African American Research Team (research center)*
American Indian Studies Program (UG specialization)
American Studies (graduate and UG degree programs)*
Bioethics, Humanities, and Society (UG specialization-jointly with CHM and CSS)
Black American and Diasporic Studies (UG specialization)
Center for Language Education and Research (research center)*
Cognitive Science (graduate specialization)*
Critical Studies in Literacy and Pedagogy (graduate degree programs)
Film Studies (UG specialization)
Jewish Studies (program, TS lines appointed in departments)
Museum Studies (undergraduate specialization or graduate certification)
Rhetoric and Writing (UG and graduate degrees)*
Second Language Studies (graduate degree program)
Women's Studies (unit, with one joint assignment, jointly with CSS)

Administered and Serviced by Dean's Office:
Humanities Pre-Law (UG degree)
Interdisciplinary Humanities (UG degree)

Other
Global Literary and Cultural Studies

Which are the best five of these interdisciplinary programs?

American Studies
Rhetoric and Writing
Cognitive Science
American-American-African Studies
American Indian Studies
Second Language Acquisition

How do you determine what constitutes a quality interdisciplinary program?

Quality of nationally renowned faculty
External recognition of research in the form of grants
In demand degree programs, specializations, or courses
Ability to attract students from all over the nation
 Having a designated space
 Financial investment in faculty, graduate students, SS&E
 Faculty identification with program (through joint appointment, joint assignment, small
grants awarded, research assistantships, regular teaching assignments, accomplishments
worthy of listing for annual review or RPT)
Uniqueness of program

How many students are served by the interdisciplinary programs in your unit?

Figures are available for the following programs, which will serve a total of 127 students
in the Fall 2004 Semester. Some of these programs do not have a lot of majors, but
general enrollment in the courses associated with them is strong.

African American and African Studies
African American Research Team
American Indian Studies Program
American Studies
Black American and Diasporic Studies
Critical Studies in Literacy and Pedagogy
Film Studies
Jewish Studies
Museum Studies
Rhetoric and Writing
Second Language Studies
Women's Studies

What research programs or dollars are generated as a result of this collaborative effort?

The standouts are CLEAR and MATRIX, which last year brought in about $375,000. The
Cognitive Science and Rhetoric and Writing programs have also generated funding
dollars and research programs.

What impediments are there to the development and operation of interdisciplinary
programs?

There are no real impediments for start-ups. Faculty interested in starting a new program
are given administrative support by the College. However, there are some things that
would improve both the morale of the faculty and the functioning of the programs. They
are: funding for start-up, travel and supplies; a space to call home; financial commitment
from other colleges when the programs are cross-college; joint appointments or
assignments for participating faculty.

What does liberal arts/sciences mean to members of your discipline?

The answer is inherent in who we are and what we do. We consider the sciences part of
the equation.
What is your view of general education?

General education should consist of various disciplines across several colleges. Its aim
should be helping students to learn problem solving. One way in which general education
could work is to offer coursework in thematic areas across several colleges, so students
can be exposed to major issues of concern to all of us, and how these issues are
approached by those in different disciplines.
               College of Communication Arts & Sciences

Nora Rifon and Jeff Grabill met with Dean Salmon on June 14th for approximately one
hour. Professor Rifon provided the questions to Dean Salmon a few days prior to the
meeting to facilitate the discussion. Dean Salmon came prepared with a two page
response to the majority of the listed questions and that provided a basis for some of the
conversation. The written comments at the end of this report provide a reference for the
conversation that followed.

What interdisciplinary programs exist in your college?

The nature of the Communication discipline is itself interdisciplinary. As a reflection of
this, our faculty members have terminal degrees in such fields as Art, Business,
Computer Science, Economics, Law, Management Information Systems, Psychology,
Social Ecology, as well as several sub-disciplines within Communication Studies broadly
defined.

There are three interdisciplinary programs in which CAS is the lead unit: Mass Media
Ph.D., M.A. in Health Communication, and a Specialization in Public Relations.

The interdepartmental Mass Media Ph.D. program is offered jointly by the Department of
Advertising, the School of Journalism and the Department of Telecommunication,
Information Studies and Media. This program prepares students to become active
scholars, teachers and/or leaders in the communication industry. This program has
approximately 50 students.

Our M.A. Program in Health Communication is co-sponsored by the College of Human
Medicine. This program educates students in both the theory and practice of health
communication and prepares them to design, implement, and evaluate health
communication materials for local, state, or national organizations. This program has
approximately 20 students.

Our Public Relations Specialization is an option to students in the Department of
Advertising, Department of Communication and the School of Journalism, as well as
students studying communication in the College of ANR. This Specialization is
designed to provide a broad understanding of the role of public relations in
contemporary society, as well as knowledge and experience in developing public
relations materials for use in corporate, governmental, and nonprofit organizational
settings. There are discussions regarding ways this program can be expanded to
other units outside of the College. Currently, this program has approximately 150
students.

In addition to these three programs, there are many interdisciplinary academic programs
in which CAS participates. CAS is a co-sponsor in the following programs:

       • Information Technology Specialization (CAS, Engineering, Business)
       •RISE (Residential Initiative on the Study of the Environment) (Agriculture and
       Natural Resources, CAS, Engineering, Natural Science, Social Science)
       •Certificate Program in Business and Communication Skills (Natural Science,
       Business, CAS)
       • Semester Study in DC (CAS, Social Science, James Madison)
       • Doctoral Education in Hospitality Business (Business, CAS)
          Teacher Certification (Education, CAS)
          International Short Course in Food Safety (Food Safety and Toxicology,
             CAS, Human Ecology, Veterinary Medicine)


Question 2:    What are the best five?

Our graduate programs in Advertising and Public Relations have been ranked as ―Top
Ten‖ programs nationally in U.S. News and World Report rankings. Undergraduate
education in advertising is very strong as well. Our doctoral education in
Communication (which includes students from the Communication and Mass Media
programs) is regarded as ―top five‖ quality, according to a recent survey of faculty and
administrators in the field. Further, the faculty of the Department of Communication is
consistently ranked in the top tier for research productivity in studies conducted by the
National Communication Association. The most recent ranking of journalism programs
listed our School of Journalism as a ―top ten‖ undergraduate program. Our programs in
information technology and digital media have not had the benefit of formal rankings, but
are highly regarded for their quality and innovativeness. Graduates of this program are
highly marketable.


Question 3:    How do you determine what constitutes a quality interdisciplinary
               program? Number of students or SCHs produced? Placement of grads?
               Research dollars generated? Publications of participating faculty and
               students?

We use a variety of criteria. In terms of students, we look at placement and listen to
feedback from employers, whether academic or industry. Our doctoral graduates are
highly regarded and recruited in the academic marketplace. Graduates of our
undergraduate programs similarly have great success. In terms of research, we focus on
grant dollars and publications. Our faculty publishes in a variety of journals in and
outside the field of communication, reflecting our inherently interdisciplinary nature as a
field.

Question 4:    How many students (undergraduate and graduate) are served by the
               interdisciplinary programs in your unit?


   (Numbers are approximate)
   MMPhD                                             50 (100% CAS students)
   MA Health Com                                     20 (100% CAS students)
   PR Specialization                                 150 (100% CAS students)
   RISE                                                60 (10% CAS students)
   IT Specialization                                   40 (30% CAS students)

   Semester Study in DC                                10 (3% CAS students)
   Doctoral Education in Hospitality Business          10 (1% CAS students)
   Teacher Certification
   Certificate Program in Business and
   Communication Skills


Question 5:    What research programs or dollars are generated as a result of this
               collaborative effort?

We’ve secured major funding in collaborative research in the area of health
communication, telemedicine, information technology, communication disorders, and
virtual reality.

Question 6:    What is the budget of these interdisciplinary programs? What are their
               sources of funding?

These interdisciplinary programs, by and large, are funded through internal reallocation
of resources. Most have no formal budget and the costs are absorbed by the participating
departments.

Question 7:    What impediments are there to the development and operation of
               interdisciplinary programs in your unit?

With roughly 3,800 students and 65 faculty members, we are at our resource limits.
Therefore, much of our energy goes to teaching our required classes. We have a very
efficient college in terms of the ratio of tuition dollars to general fund support, but we
need additional resources.


Question 8:    What programs/collaborations would you like to see develop at MSU?
               What keeps those programs from developing?

We are excited about a number of collaborative programs that could develop at MSU.
These include a School of Computing and Information, which would involve greater
cooperation between the Department of Computer Science and Engineering and the
Department of Telecommunication, Information Studies, and Media. We are also
conversing with colleagues in other colleges about a possible program in ―Design‖ that
could cross several colleges. Some in our college are working with WRAC to better
integrate teaching and research in digital media across college lines. And we are
establishing several jointly appointed and courtesy faculty positions to promote
interdisciplinary dialogue. What’s needed is an incentive system to reward change and to
encourage units to manage and promote change from within.
Question 9:    What does liberal arts/sciences mean to members of your discipline?

We have a dualistic orientation to the liberal arts and sciences. On the one hand, we offer
professional education in the areas of journalism, audiology and speech sciences,
advertising, public relations, and telecommunication. In these programs, liberal arts and
science education is viewed as something largely outside the curriculum, a basic
education that rounds out the professional training. On the other hand, some of the basic
elements of a liberal education—writing, critical thinking, persuasive speaking—are
central to our mission as a college.


Question 10: How are the Integrative Studies programs in your college working?

Our college has not formally participated in Integrative Studies, though we are interested
in being involved in this education. Many of our courses are already integrative in their
content CAS could and should play a role in integrative studies, but there are resource
constraints here as well.

Question 11: What is your vision of general education?

General education is the foundation on which specialized learning takes place. General
education prepares students with life skills and knowledge, and is broader than liberal arts
and sciences education. The key question to me is what is the 21st century analogue of
the traditional liberal arts education? Digital communication—the marriage of text,
sound and visual imagery as well as the integration of artistic principles and scientific
study—would seem to be one intersection at which general education and liberal arts
education could coincide.
                                      Natural Sciences

What interdisciplinary programs exist in your college?

Doug Estry provided chart summarizing a variety of interdisciplinary programs in CNS.

This chart is not meant to be an official summary, but nevertheless conveys a sense of the

high degree of connectivity both within the college and to other colleges. The programs

listed in the chart include ones that are primarily related to undergraduate or graduate

education, and ones that emphasize research. There is wide variation in the size of these

programs, and in their administrative status.

Doug stressed that the majority of faculty in CNS have academic or research connections

with faculty in other colleges, many have joint appointments in multiple departments.

This interconnectivity is seen as a reflection of the fact that most research in science is

interdisciplinary at least in the sense that it transcends departmental boundaries. Doug

also noted that the connections are strong not only with the other so-called "core

colleges" but also with the Colleges of Education, Engineering, Human Medicine,

Osteopathic Medicine, Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural & Natural Resources, and the

Ag. Experimental Station.

What are the best five of these interdisciplinary programs?

Doug's chart indicates four academic and four research programs that he identified as

particularly strong or important to the mission of CNS.

How do you determine what constitutes a quality interdisciplinary program?

Following are criteria that Doug identified as important indicators of the quality of

programs:
  * National rankings, for example by the NRC, for those programs correspond to fields

that are considered in the rankings

  * Ability to generate funding

  * Faculty publications

  * Ability to attract high quality students

  The number of SCH generated is not considered an important indicator of program

quality.

How many students (undergraduate and graduate) are served by the interdisciplinary

programs in your unit?

The chart provides estimates based on the Student Information Generator (SIG) for

Spring 2004. This system reflects the real time changes that are occurring so many vary

slightly (more or less) from semester to semester and from OPB data. For example, if

SIG is queried for number of majors in the MAT and MS degree programs in General

Science, and Physical and Biological Science it would indicated 0 as very few of this

primarily teacher population enroll in any other semester than summer. Therefore the

numbers associated with these programs were obtained from the OPB data sets.

What research programs or dollars are generated as result of this collaborative effort?

The research funding in the College of Natural Science totals approximately $60-$65

million per year (not including the budget of the cyclotron) and has been growing. Of

this, Doug estimates that $35-40 million per year is attributable to the interdisciplinary

programs (undergraduate, graduate, centers, initiatives, divisions, and core support

facilities) listed.
What is the budget of these interdisciplinary programs? What are their sources of

funding?

Doug stressed that the most valuable resource sustaining many of these interdisciplinary

program is faculty (approximately 93% of the college general fund budget is salaries and

labor). Thus the "budget" of such programs arguably consists in large part of the salaries

of participating faculty and staff. However, it is extremely difficult to determine how

these salaries should be apportioned to interdisciplinary activities as they are associated

with departmental lines and many faculty have ties to more than one interdisciplinary

program.

The SSE budgets of many of the programs are relatively small. Again, this is because the

programs are sustained by the efforts of faculty whose salaries are credited to

departments.

Some programs receive small General Fund contributions to their SSE budgets. In

addition, graduate students in many of these interdisciplinary programs are funded by

departmental TA funds, external training grants and research grants.

What impediments are there to the development and operation of interdisciplinary

programs in your unit?

Following are some potential impediments identified by Doug:

  * When multiple colleges must collaborate in investing in interdisciplinary research

thrusts, it can be difficult to maintain channels of communication about what the

investment priorities should be.

  * Interdisciplinary initiatives are not cost free; and departments may resist allocating

resources to programs outside the department's primary focus. This problem is
exacerbated if departments don't see that they are given credit (and apportioned

resources) by higher administration for making interdisciplinary commitments.

  I would state this differently because the issue is not the "interdisciplinary programs"

the issue is the diversity of student interest or focus, and the sense among the faculty that

1) this makes a differences (either real or perceived) in the type of material they deliver

and 2) because of the varying backgrounds of students coming into a course there is a

concern (again whether real or perceived) that the faculty may have to reduce the course

rigor in order to accommodate the least common denominator. For example, the issue

has been raised whether a MMG faculty teaching a 300 or 400 level course looks at the

content they deliver differently if they realize that a significant portion of the students in

the class are pre-professional students not MMG majors. The other issues usually plays

out as students coming from major X, who are required to take this course, don't have the

same basic science or mathematics background as students coming from major Y

therefore I have to compromise my standards. It is not necessarily simply an issue of

additional faculty. This reflects an easy solution to a more complex problem. (see

comments below on curricular reform)

  * Often new academic programs are proposed without identifying how new programs

are going to be funded, or how sufficient faculty time would be available to run the

program. Importantly, many new programs come on-line without serious thought being

given to overall curricular coherence. Specifically, as we expand our offerings because

we constantly gain new knowledge and disciplines evolve what either do we stop

teaching, do we reconfigure in a different way, or do we decide that as much as the new

topic or issue is important it falls outside of boundaries of what a well educated
undergraduate out to know and be able to do. Knowledge is constantly expanding and we

have trouble coming to grips with what we can stop teaching or doing or with deciding a

new way or context to do it in.

 *The current method of assigning resources and crediting faculty with teaching based on

SCH production may be part of the impediment to encouraging departments to have

significant and meaningful conversations around curricular reform that could lead to

greater interdepartmental and cross-college collaboration around issues of undergraduate

education.

What programs/collaborations would you like to see develop at MSU? What keeps those

programs from developing?

Doug stressed the need to review undergraduate curriculums in science to better assist

students in developing a more integrated view of science. The goal should be to foster

interdisciplinary thinking directly, rather than expecting/relying upon the students to

build interdisciplinary bridges on their own. Students learn in a variety of ways and it is

important to provide them with multiple opportunities to engage with topics/issues that

have multiple interdisciplinary components.

This would require a strong willingness on the part of the faculty to have

interdepartmental and cross-college conversations around curricular change. This may

require resources on the front end, including faculty time, but could likely be a savings in

the future and result in enhanced in student knowledge and understanding. An important

issue is whether these conversations can occur within in the current

departmental/program structure or whether there is a need to restructure around the issue

of, in particular, biological science undergraduate and graduate education. Meaningful
curriculum and course review could lead to some interesting proposals for alternate

means of distributing resources and crediting faculty with teaching. It could also lead to

the elimination unnecessary curricular redundancies and therefore a more productive

utilization of faculty time across the several missions of the institution (research, service

and teaching)

What does liberal arts/sciences mean to members of your discipline?

Doug emphasized the importance of teaching students to develop an integrative

perspective that appreciates the connections among fields of science, and the connections

between the sciences and the arts. Developing the habits of mind associated with an

individual who views education as a continuum and has a sense of inquiry and curiosity.

How are the Integrative Studies programs in your college working?

The perspective of the CNS Dean's office is that the Center for Integrative Studies in

General Science has been greatly enhanced under the directorship of Duncan Sibley.

Duncan has worked to focus the mission of the Center and assess outcomes of student

learning.

Generally speaking, faculty across the College have been very supportive of the goals of

integrative studies in the sciences and willing to contribute their time to teaching.

However, as resources have become tighter it is becoming more challenging to identify

departmental faculty to teach Integrative Studies in lieu of their normal departmental

based instructional load. In order for integrative studies (liberal arts) to be most affective

it has to be thought of as a component of the students total educational experience, not

simple as the responsibility of a limited set of courses labeled as ISS, IAH, ISB or ISP.

There are certain habits of mind and ways of knowing that can permeate discipline based
courses so that they more effectively promote the larger mission of providing students

with a strong "liberal arts" education not a degree that becomes, particularly at the

undergraduate level, too narrowly focused on a subdiscipline or sub subdiscipline.

What is your vision of general education?

Doug endorses the original CRUE vision of general education, which proposed that such

courses should be developed and taught with extensive interdepartmental collaboration to

enable the building of interdisciplinary bridges. I want to be careful here about my

meaning. As described above, there are a defined set of goals that the integrative studies

directors have developed around this issue of an integrated or liberal education. These

goals can be met in a variety of ways. They can be met by students taking a specific

series of courses (as they are now). The risk you run with this model is

compartmentalizing both the students and the faculty thinking about where the integrative

part of integrative studies occurs. Alternatively, the goals could be met by both specific

course work designed to provide a foundation coupled with disciplinary courses that

could reinforce, in very meaningful ways, of one or more of these goals in a clear,

documentable, and assessable way. The last part of this statement is critical because what

hasn't happened to any great degree in the past is any evaluation of whether students have

achieved the goals. We can't improve the system without knowing what might not be

working as well as we planned.
                                        Social Science



Lynne Goldstein and Nancy Marino interviewed the following individuals:

David Campbell, Paula Koppisch, and Pamela Gray



What interdisciplinary programs exist in your college?

There are programs that are formal and/or informal, and there are programs that are

curricular and/or research in nature. It is extremely difficult to track the informal

programs of any type.

   Curricular, formal, undergrad majors:

   IDS: Community Relations

   IDS: Environmental Policy

   IDS: Health Studies

   IDS: Human Aging

   IDS: Human Resources & Society

   IDS: International Studies

   IDS: Law & Society

   IDS: Public Policy Studies

   Curricular, formal. Undergrad specializations:

   Peace & Justice

   African Studies

   Asian Studies

   Canadian Studies
Chicano/Latino Studies

International Development Studies

Latin American Caribbean Studies

Asian Pacific American Studies

Graduate/research programs:

CASID – research and some grad ed

Center for Global Change - research

IPPSR - research

Neuroscience – research and grad ed

MSU Museum – research and outreach, some grad ed

Environmental Science & Policy – research, grad ed

Land Use – research, outreach

FACT – research, outreach

Forensic Sciences – research, grad ed.

Gender, Justice, and Environmental Change – grad ed.

Cognitive Science (IGERT) – research, grad ed.

JSRI – research, outreach

Program in Bioethics, Humanities and Society – grad ed.

Global Community Security Institute (CJ) – research, grad ed.

Child and Family Advocacy Program (SW) – grad ed.

New

School of Design, Planning, & Construction (inter-college – with ANR) – undergrad

& grad
   MATRIX – moves from A&L - research

What are the best five of these interdisciplinary programs?

No one would say because no one had any consistent way to evaluate these programs. In

addition, one might evaluate curricular programs differently than research programs,

undergrad specializations differently than graduate specializations, etc. The feeling of the

people we talked with was that the programs listed above were successful because they

attracted students or faculty to them, they attracted grants if they were research programs,

and they were still around after a period of time. For the most part, these were not

programs into which the University had sunk lots of money.

How do you determine what constitutes a quality interdisciplinary program? number of

students or SCHs produced? placement of grads? research dollars generated?

publications of participating faculty and students?

It depends on the kind of program – no one would answer this question either.

How many students (undergraduate and graduate) are served by the interdisciplinary

programs in your unit?

The short answer is lots. For the IDS majors, in 2003, there were about 1000 majors, the

second largest in the College (after Psychology). The various specializations had from

56-150 students in each. The graduate numbers were a little harder to come by, and

although Paula did supply what she had, she noted that these numbers were not to be

trusted since they did not actually represent the programs we thought they might. We

would have to actually interview each unit to get a true head count in interdisciplinary

graduate programs.
What research programs or dollars are generated as result of this collaborative effort?

This is impossible to determine accurately since most of the programs do not have

separate codes; we would have to search by PIs or by Department or by some

combination.

CASID brings in federal Title VI dollars of around $500,000, the Center for Global

Change brings in several million dollars in NASA monies, the Environmental Science &

Policy Initiative has not yet brought in money as an entity, and the other units have

brought in monies, but not distinctively as interdisciplinary units — the money is not

necessarily seen in the Dean’s office as collaborative money, even though it may be used

as such. This is a function of the structure of the budgeting, not of how the Dean’s office

sees the venture.

What is the budget of these interdisciplinary programs? What are their sources of

funding?

Most of the programs have small budgets. The ones with larger budgets include:

   CASID               $290K - General fund + Title VI grants

   Global Change             $310K – General fund + NASA and other grant & contract

   funds

   Environment         $208K – General fund + $100K more General fund in future

   CIS                 $1.3 mill – General fund      - (includes cost of advisors)

   IPPSR               $640K – General fund + is supposed to also include contracts &

   grants

   JSRI                $484K – General fund + expectation of grant funding

   Urban Initiative    $1 mill – General fund - expected (based on past funding of
   urban)

What impediments are there to the development and operation of interdisciplinary

programs in your unit?

At the undergraduate level, there is often no money for development in something like

IDS, except for advisors. This means that something like a capstone course cannot be

developed. It also means that access to courses becomes a real problem as a major or

specialization becomes popular or successful. This has become particularly true at both

the undergraduate and graduate levels for methodology courses.

Other impediments are structural, including space and organization. The promotion and

tenure system itself can be an impediment because it can hurt in some departments if a

faculty member does too much interdisciplinary work. Another impediment can be

technology and limits or lack thereof.

What programs/collaborations would you like to see develop at MSU? What keeps those

programs from developing?

   • Broader interdisciplinary health research

   • Land use

   • Environmental science

They are in the process of being developed, but they can become silos of their own, and

will be very difficult to break down because they are interdisciplinary.

   Other ideas: The Culture and/or psychology of technology, which would include

   issues such as ethics, philosophy, and careerism, and would be reflective. Not clear if

   anything is keeping this from being developed.

What does liberal arts/sciences mean to members of your discipline?
     Basic humanities, social sciences, physical and natural sciences.

How are the Integrative Studies programs in your college working?

In a sense, they are set up backwards, and students might well be better served by

distribution requirements. How can you have students integrate when they don’t know the

subjects at all yet? Need to broaden their perspectives and move them in particular

directions first. Hey need base in different disciplines, then they can integrate.

What is your vision of general education?

General education should be conceptual and methodological. Students should be prepared

to think.

				
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