Information Design, Layout, and Typography by 13k8351

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									  Information Design,
Layout, and Typography

   TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION
        LEE HONEYCUTT
              Chapter 11 Objectives

 Understand relationship between information design
  and accessibility, readability, and usability.
 Use chunking and labeling to group related
  information.
 Arrange visual and verbal information on a page grid
  (Thursday).
 Appropriate use of typographic and design elements
  such as lists, boxes, and color.
               Information Design

 Defined as the ways in which you organize and
  present information to increase audience
  comprehension.
 Textbook suggests five categories of information
  design elements, but let’s look at an alternative
  model.
   Kostelnick’s Levels of Document Design

 Supra-level - definition of structure for whole
  document.
 Extra-level - pictures, data displays, icons, symbols.
 Inter-level - elements that help readers comprehend
  message (headers).
 Intra-level - local variation of text at the building
  block level.
                    Levels x Modes

            Textual                  Spatial                Graphic

Supra   Page headers, nav      Paper size, thickness,   Paper color, borders,
        bars, section          section dividers         boxes, pictures, etc.
        headers, tabs, etc.

Extra   Labels, call outs,     Data display size,       Line weights,
        captions, number       picture size, spacing    shading, picture
        labels, legends                                 detail, color

Inter   Headings,              Paragraphs, hanging      Bullets, gray scales,
        numbered lists,        indents, line lengths,   org charts, line art
        bullets                leading

Intra   Typeface, type size,   Kerning, word spacing,   Punctuation, symbols,
        case, treatment        superscript              treatment
             Chunking and Labeling

 Remember our reorganization of the book store
  website navigation? That was “chunking.”
 And “labeling” was our providing more user friendly
  labels for those links.
 What we didn’t discuss was the various logical
  associations that are often made when chunking
  information together for specific audiences. (pg.
  382). Often described with acronym LATCH.
                 LATCH

 Location
 Alphanumeric
 Temporal
 Categorical
 Hierarchical
       Role of White Space in Chunking

 At the supra-level of page design, a designer can use
  grid formations to create chunked spaces for related
  content.
 But white space can also be used at the inter-level
  when headers are used to show typographic
  hierarchy of a document and at the intra-level to
  increase reading comprehension through controlled
  line length and spacing.
               Arranging Information

 We’ll talk more about using page grids for arranging
  during class on Thursday.
 Burnett mentions problems with:
    Chartjunk
    Tombstoning
    Header placement
    Widows and orphans
                   Typography 101

 Typefaces
 Capitalization
 Spacing, kerning, and leading
 Justification
 Research on typography
             Serif Typefaces (Body)

 Book Antiqua
 Courier
 New York
 Palatino
 Times
 Times New Roman
           San Serif Typefaces (display)

 Arial
 Comic Sans MS
 Geneva
 Helvetica
 Impact (needs increased spacing)
 Monaco
 Techno
              Capitalization

 Avoid ALL CAPS except for short phrases. More
 difficult to read. Why? Boumas.

  You can easily decipher these words

  but it is much more difficult to read these
           Spacing, Kerning, Leading

 Spacing - amount of negative or positive white space
  between all letters in a body of type.
 Kerning - white space between individual letters.
 Leading - amount of added white space between
  lines of text.
                     Justification

 Left ragged (easiest to read for body type)
 Right ragged (used in display type)
 Centered (display type only)
 Full justified - more difficult to read because readers
 have no visual cue as to their position in the text.
Problems with Full Justification
            Research on Typography

 Readers slow their reading rate when line length is
  too short or too long.
 Italic type can reduce reading speed substantially.
 TEXT SET IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS REDUCES
  READING SPEED 13 TO 23 PERCENT.
 Readers recognize contrast in typographic elements.
        Research on Typography (cont).

 Reversing type draws attention to textual elements
 Avoid reverse headers.
 Blank space around paragraphs and between
  columns increases legibility
 The greater the white space, the greater the attention
 Textual material should occupy no more than 50
  percent of the page

								
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