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					                 ULTI-MUG
Reusable mugs for a Greener Campus: A study for
replacing disposable drink containers with reusable
  mugs at the University of Colorado at Boulder.

             2009 ENVS 3001 Students
       Danny San Filippo, Chris Kerr, Perry Martin,
                     Charles Marx
Introduction
 Sustainable Solutions Consulting- a
 class dedicated to creating a
 cleaner ‘greener’ campus
 In coordination with Dining Services
 at the University of Colorado at
 Boulder
 Working to decrease waste on and
 around campus
Introduction (cont.)- Reasons for
the Shift
 Increased popularity of the Grab-n-
 Go’s
 More paper cups, juice boxes, and
 plastic bottles thrown away every
 day
 Most students aren’t recycling
 CU now looking for alternative
Introduction (cont.)- Our Role
 Find a reusable mug alternative to
 the one-time-use containers
 Get student feedback on the
 preferred mug
 Educate the student body about the
 project
Statement of the Issue (S.I.)
 In 2007, Dining Services at CU
 committed to offering single serving
 drinks only in containers that are
 recyclable
 Dining Services later formulated the
 reusable mug project to solve the
 problem
S.I. (cont.)- The Plan
 Dining Services would like to install
 fountain drink dispensers and triple-
 filtration water stations in all of the
 Grab-N-Go locations on campus
 Students use their mugs for both the
 dining halls and the Grab-n-Go’s
 No one-time-use containers provided
S.I. (cont.)
 S.S.C. working to make the switch as
 successful as possible by:
 Surveying and observing the student
 body
 Comparing our efforts and projects with
 other universities
 Deriving a successful model for
 advocating more sustainable behavior
History of Mugs at CU
 CUPPS program started in early 1990’s
   Gave out mugs
   Inserts in the mugs
   Also for sale
 Housing separates from CUPPS in
 1996
   Continues distributing mugs with UCSU
   Housing drops program
History of Mugs at CU
Continued
 Eco Mug
  UCSU continued to provide mugs but not
  to all incoming residents
  “LiveGreen” pledge
    500 mugs
    $10.00 per mug
Harford Community College
 Sells reusable mugs at cost price
 Offers discount drinks to students using
 reusable mug
Dickinson College
 Distributed reusable mugs to all
 students
 Offers discount drink to students using
 reusable mug
Seton Hill University
 Green contracts for mugs
 Not nearly enough to satisfy entire
 student body
  University of Vermont
“One Less Cup” discount campaign
  Discounts
  Donations
Branched into “Spot a Mug” program
  Coupons given to students using a reusable mug
University of Maryland
Gave away 4,500 reusable mugs to
incoming students
Have free triple-filtered water
Offers discounted refills at on-campus
dining services
What Have We Learned?
 Discounts are essential
 Sell at cost
 Use inserts to explain the program
Marketing New Behavior
Options for the Ulti-Mug Catch Phrase
 “Lug Your Mug”
 “Bring Your Cup We’ll Fill You Up”
 “Think Green Drink Clean”
Posters
  Residence Halls
  Dining Locations
  Benefits Barriers Matrix For the
 Implementation of Reusable Mugs
                     Using a Reusable Mug       Competing Behavior:
                                                disposable cups and
                                                bottles

Perceived Barriers   Clean it yourself          Single use
                     repeatedly
                                                Creates trash and waste
                     Potential health hazards   (non-recyclable)

                     Takes up space             Expensive long term for
                                                the University
                     Required to remember
                     and carry around

                     Upfront Cost

                     Non-Microwaveable

                     May identify/label
                     students as freshmen
  Benefits Barriers Matrix
  Continued
            Using a Reusable Mug Competing behavior:
                                                   disposable cups and
                                                   bottles
Perceived Benefits   Personal attachment,          Convenient: can throw it
                     personalized                  away, nothing to
                                                   remember, nothing to
                     Durable, less chance of       carry around, no washing
                     leaking/spilling
                                                   Free
                     Reduces waste and
                     energy                        Nutritional facts on drink
                                                   (labeled with how much
                     Ability to bring drinks out   sugar, caffeine or other
                     of the dining halls           ingredients are in a drink)
Observations Of Student
Behavior
 We conducted our observations at
 Piazanos and Alley Express
  Each time we observed we kept track
 of three things.
   The number of students leaving with plastic
   bottles
   The number of student who used a
   reusable mug at the water stations
   The total number of students who used the
   water stations
Survey Questions Given to
Students
 Our Survey given out by Environmental
 Center when they launched a Live Green
 pledge drive
 The E-center had gave away 500 mug in for
 signing the Live Green pledge and filling out
 the survey.
 The sample size is approximately 10% of
 the current freshman class.
 We determined the three questions given to
 students based upon previous observations.
 At the same time we also wanted to test our
 theories on student preferences.
Survey Questions Given to
Students
1. If you were given a reusable mug by the school
   would you prefer one with a handle or without?
       With        Without      Doesn’t Matter

2. Would you prefer using a reusable mug made
   of plastic or metal?
       Plastic      Metal     Doesn’t Matter

3. Would you use a reusable mug more for hot or
   cold liquids?
              Hot      Cold      Both
Survey Results
 481 students participated in the study
 but only 455 completed all three
 questions with 26 surveys that were
 returned incomplete.
 Students want their mug to:
   Have a handle
   To be made out of metal
   And be able to hold both hot and cold
   liquids
Mug Design Criteria and Selection

  Developed simple criteria based on original
  survey results

  Found mugs online for testing

  Asked students for their opinion on the mugs

  Formulated our results and chose a mug for
  recommendation
Additional Criteria
 Mugs must be a minimum of 12oz and a
 maximum of 16oz

 Mugs must be at a maximum cost of $10.00
 per individual unit

 Mugs must be available in mass quantities to
 meet demand
Original Mug Criteria
 We then ascertained a basic list
 of criteria for our test mug
 selection.
   Mugs that have a handle
   Mugs that can hold cold and hot liquid
   Mugs that can maintain a water tight
   seal
   Mugs that have a metal liner
   Mugs that do not ‘sweat’ with
   temperature change
Mug A
Mug B
Mug C
Mug Survey
From our first survey we chose three mugs for students to
evaluate.
Students ranked each mug based on visual appeal, lid style,
function (handle), and overall likeness.

   Mug A




   Mug B




   Mug C
Recommendations for Implementation
 Goal is to establish reusable mug use as a
 social norm on campus

 Target the incoming freshman class as the
 ideal population for this effort

 Make the purchasing and use of mugs as
 easy as possible

 ‘Advertise’ our cause and mugs allover
 campus and during orientation.
A ‘social norm’
 Mugs must become a trend in order to
 be effective.

 Students must see other using mugs to
 be encouraged

 With out the support of the students
 mug use will falter, we can not force
 them to participate.
Availability and Use
Mugs must be readily available
  To be sold at or near cost

Availability will encourage students to purchase the
mugs as they become exposed to the concept.
  The easer to buy the easer to use
      Ie. Campus Cash or Munch Money

After purchase students must be able to see when
and where to use their mugs.
   In order to foster participation
Freshman
The incoming freshman class of every year is
our ‘target market’

They are isolated from other classes on
campus, leaving them open to new trends.

They will be willing to accept mug use as a
norm if it is presented correctly.

They must be informed of the mug effort early
and often.
Orientation
 Orientation is the best opportunity to
 introduce students to the reusable mug effort
 on campus

 Students should be given literature on the
 mug effort in their orientation packet
   Include information on mugs available through CU

 Ideally students will have the opportunity to
 purchase the CU mugs through the
 registration process.
   Along with sports tickets, herd membership etc.
Add a reusable mug to Housing’s what to bring page
More Extreme Strategies
 Housing and Dinning remove all disposable drink
 containers from (excluding water) from food venders
    Include fountain drinks in each Grab-n’-Go
    Remove disposable cups from dinning halls altogether


 Place all disposable drink containers in discreet, non-
 refrigerated locations
    Chill or provide ice with all fountain drinks available.

 Offer students discounts or free sides (with mug use)
 regardless of drink selection
Continued Use
 Getting students to continue using mugs
 throughout the year will be the most
 important task.
   Use constant advertising around food venders on
   campus

   Provide advantages for using mugs all year long

   Discourage the use of disposable containers at
   every opportunity.

   Distribute as many free mugs as possible all year
   (the more the better)
           Thank You
We would like to thank Dr. Lisa K.
Barlow, Lauren Heising, and the rest of
Housing and Dinning services for all of
their help and contributions.
We would also like to thank everyone
for coming and showing your support.

				
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posted:11/30/2011
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