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					             Testing of the LAMINATE Product




  Influence of BOD greater than 700ppm
    on Laminate Mechanical Properties

                                   Submitted to:

                            US Sewer & Drain, Inc.
                            Langhorne, Pennsylvania

                                   Prepared by:
                 Centre for Advancement of Trenchless Technologies
                           Department of Civil Engineering
                               University of Waterloo
                             Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
                                      N2l 3G1


                                  Dr. M. Knight
                                    C. Amyot

                                  February, 2002




ASTM D543 - LAMINATE Resistance to BOD
Centre for Advancement of Trenchless Technologies
1.0 INTRODUCTION

The Centre for Advancement of Trenchless Technologies (CATT) acting at the request of
Drew Wainright of Composite Technology Polymers Group, Sheboygan WI. USA has
completed BOD chemical resistance testing on laminate plates in accordance with
Procedure II (Mechanical Changes) of ASTM D543 - Standard Test Method for
Resistance of Plastics to Chemical Reagents.

CATT submitted to Composite Technology Polymers Group, Sheboygan WI, USA a
Phase II report “Testing of the LAMINATE Product Chemical Resistance in accordance
with ASTM D543”. This report noted that further testing was required to determine if
Phase II low coupon flexural response was due to immersion in BOD greater than 700
PPM or inherent flaws within the test coupons.

In December 2001 laminate coupons cut from test plates with no known internal flaws
were immersed in BOD greater than 700PPM in accordance to ASTM D543 Practice A
and B (unstrained and 1% bending strained). After seven days of immersion specimens
were removed from the BOD and tested in accordance with ASTM D790 – Three point
bending. The rational of the testing was to determine if BOD greater than 700 PPM
influences the laminate mechanical properties (flexural stress and flexural strain). This
report summaries our findings.

2.0 Test materials and Chemical Reagent

The test material was a fibre-reinforced laminate supplied to CATT by Saint-Gobain
Technical Fabrics of St. Catharines, Ontario in January of 2001. The laminate was
supplied in the form of rectangular plates measuring approximately 200mm (4in) wide,
300mm (10in) long and 5mm (0.2in) deep. JetCut Inc. of Waterloo cut test coupons from
the plates using abrasive water jet technology that is computer controlled. Based on
previous work, CATT found the abrasive water jet cutting technology to be the best
method for cutting the laminate because the process generates very little heat and has a
cutting accuracy of +/-0.125 to 0.250 mm. It is the understanding of CATT that the
laminate product will be used as a Cured in Place Pipe (CIPP) liner product.

Based on Phase II testing test coupons cut from laminate plates 17 and 20 showed a
consistent mechanical response. To ensure that specimens contained limited internal
flaws all test coupons for this report were cut from Plates 17 and 20.

The mechanical properties of all test coupons were determined in accordance with ASTM
D790 flexural testing using a three-point test fixture. The load was applied at a constant
rate of deformation using a universal test machine manufactured by Wykenham Farrance
Engineering Ltd. of Slough England. The test machine uses a gear that drives the test
platform upwards or downwards at a constant rate. Load readings were monitored using
a 4448 N (1000lbf) load cell. Extension readings were monitored using a 25 mm


Testing of the LAMINATE Product                                              Page 1 of 11
Centre for Advancement of Trenchless Technologies
displacement transducer, APEC model HS25. A Sciemetric 200 system was utilized for
all data acquisition. Loading noses had a radius of 4.9 mm.

To verify that test plate uniformity two non-exposed control coupons from Plates 17 and
20 were test in accordance with ASTM D790.

Control Specimens were labelled using the following scheme.
17_C1 = Plate # (17)_C (control), Specimen 1
20_C2 = Plate #(20)_ C (control), Specimen 2

Figure 1 shows Plate 17 and 20 control coupons flexural stresses and strain response
along with Phase II control specimen maximum and minimum test results. Based on
Figure 1 Plate 17 and 20 control coupons appear to have a consistent stress-strain
response when compared with Phase II control coupons. It should be noted that coupon
17-C4 showed a significantly lower stress-strain response that the other coupons. Thus,
coupons cut from plate 17 appears to more test variability than Plate 20. Due to the
limited number of test coupons available further control coupon testing was not
completed.


                         250
                                     Phase II minimum
                         225         Phase II maximum     Phase II maximum
                                     20-C1
                                     20-C2
                         200         17-C3
                                     17-C4
                         175
 Flexural Stress (MPa)




                         150

                         125
                                                                                     Phase II minimum
                         100

                          75

                          50

                          25

                           0
                           0.0%   0.5%           1.0%   1.5%           2.0%   2.5%              3.0%           3.5%
                                                          Flexural Strain



Figure 1 Plate 17 and 20 control coupon along with Phase II control coupon maximum
and minimum response.

Control coupons yield and ultimate flexural strength and ate flexural strain test results are
summarized in Table 1.




Testing of the LAMINATE Product                                                                         Page 2 of 11
Centre for Advancement of Trenchless Technologies
Table 1 Summary of Plate 17 and 20 control coupon yield and ultimate ASTM D790 test
results.
                                                      Yield                                                Ultimate
 Sample                                                       Flexural   Flexural                                 Flexural          Flexural
 ID                              Load      Displacement        Stress     Strain        Load       Displacement    Stress            Strain
                                 (N)           (mm)            (Mpa)       (%)           (N)           (mm)        (Mpa)              (%)
 20_C1                           843.8         5.43            122.6         2.92       843.8          5.43            122.6         2.92
 20_C2                           720.5         4.68            110.0         2.46       720.5          4.68            110.0         2.46
 Average                         782.2          5.1            116.3         2.7        782.2           5.1            116.3         2.7
 Std Dev                         87.2           0.5             8.9           0.3       87.2            0.5             8.9           0.3
 17_C3                           679.7         4.20            95.7          2.31       706.8          4.79            99.5          2.63
 17_C4                           490.4         4.09            69.0          2.25       495.9          4.55            69.8          2.50
 Average                         585.1          4.1            82.4           2.3       601.4           4.7            84.7           2.6
 Std Dev                         133.9          0.1            18.9           0.0       149.1           0.2            21.0           0.1

The higher standard deviation for Plate 17 than Plate 20 reported in Table 1 indicates that
Plate 17 has more test variation than Plate 20.

Figure 2 illustrates of yield and ultimate flexural stress (load) and strain definition. The
flexural yield stress is the first sudden deviation from the initial linear portion of the
stress-strain curve and the ultimate flexural stress is the peak stress. Yield and ultimate
flexural strains correspond to the yield and ultimate stress. It should be noted the location
of the yield stress is not always a distinct point on the stress-strain curve. Thus, the
location of yield point definition can be subjective on some stress-strain plots. In this
report all attempts were made to ensure consistent yield stress determination.

                                                                          Deflection (mm)
                                       0      1        2          3        4       5      6              7         8           9
                                 250
                                                                             Yield stress (load)      Ultimate stress (load)       1000
         Flexural Stress (MPa)




                                 200
                                                                                                                                   800   Load (N)
                                 150
                                                                                                                                   600

                                 100
                                                                                                                                   400

                                 50                                                                      Ultimate strain           200
                                                                             Yield strain


                                   0                                                                                          0
                                   0.0%       0.5%      1.0%          1.5%      2.0%        2.5%      3.0%      3.5%       4.0%

                                                                         Flexural Strain

Figure 2 Yield and ultimate flexural stress and strain.



Testing of the LAMINATE Product                                                                                            Page 3 of 11
Centre for Advancement of Trenchless Technologies
The BOD solution was a synthetic version made from Dextrose. To ensure that the BOD
synthetic version maintained a concentration greater than 700 PPM, ASTM 5220 COD
(Chemical Oxygen Demand), Method C Closed Reflux, Titrimetric test was completed
on the BOD reagents approximately every two days while the laminate coupons were
immersed. The results from the COD test can be found in Appendix on the CD attached
to the report.

3.0 ASTM D543 Practice A – IMMERSION TEST
Procedure II: Mechanical Property Changes

3.1 Test Specifications and Procedure

Seven laminate coupons (five from plate 17 and two from plate 20) were placed in a
plastic container then immersed in BOD. BOD levels in the containers were maintained
so that the coupons were fully submerged over the seven-day soaking period. All
laminate coupons were mounted on small stainless steel discs (3 mm in diameter and
depth of 1 mm) to ensure that most of the specimen surface area was exposed to BOD.
Immediately following the seven-day immersion period each coupon was visually
evaluated and mechanically tested in accordance with ASTM D790 “three Point
bending”.

Laminate coupons measured approximately 100 mm in length by 25 mm in width and 5
mm in depth. Dimension measurements were measured using a digital calliper accurate to
±0.005 mm. While measuring the laminate coupons, it was noted that the specimen edges
were at a slight angle with respect to the depth of the material. This slight angle resulted
in laminate coupons being moderately wider on one face (top compared to bottom). This
slight angle is a characteristic of the JetCut process.

The laminate coupons were labelled using the following scheme.

17_A1 = Plate # (17)_A (Practice A), Specimen 1
20_A2 = Plate # (20)_ A (Practice A), Specimen 2




Testing of the LAMINATE Product                                                Page 4 of 11
Centre for Advancement of Trenchless Technologies
3.2    Test Results

Yield and ultimate flexural stress and strain test result for the exposed coupons are
presented in Table 2.

Table 2 Summary of Plate 17 and 20 ASTM D543 Practice A three-point bending yield
and ultimate test results.
                                                                                    Yield                                                   Ultimate
 Sample                                                                                       Flexural      Flexural                               Flexural     Flexural
 ID             Load                                                    Displacement           Stress        Strain       Load    Displacement      Stress       Strain
                (N)                                                         (mm)               (Mpa)          (%)          (N)        (mm)          (Mpa)         (%)
 17_A1          600                                                          4.68              128.1          2.08         657         5.26           95.6        2.83
 17_A2          446.6                                                        5.36               68.1          2.82        446.6        5.36          68.1         2.82
 17_A3          821.9                                                        5.85              115.7          3.21        821.9        5.85          115.7        3.21
 17_A4          739.7                                                        4.93              141.0          2.32        739.7        4.93          141.0        2.32
 17_A5          561.6                                                        4.60              116.7          2.07        591.8        5.06          123.0        2.30
 Average        634.0                                                         5.1              113.9          2.5         651.4         5.3          108.7        2.7
 Std Dev        148.3                                                         0.5               27.6           0.5        143.5         0.4          27.9          0.4
 20_A6          739.7                                                        4.72              153.5          2.13        739.7        4.72          153.5        2.13
 20_A7          706.8                                                        5.14              148.8          2.30        728.7        5.66          105.9        3.04
 Average        723.3                                                         4.9              151.2          2.2         734.2         5.2          129.7        2.6
 Std Dev        23.3                                                          0.3                3.3           0.1         7.8          0.7           33.7         0.6

The data sheets and data plots for each test are located in the CD attached to this report.

Figure 3 shows the normalized flexural yield stress and yield strain for laminate coupons
exposed to BOD greater than 700 PPM.
                                                                  1.8

                                                                                  Flexural Yield Stress
                                                                  1.6
                                                                                  Flexural Yield Strain
           (Exposed reading/Average non-exposed reading from
             Normalized Flexural Yield Stress a nd Yield Strain




                                                                  1.4


                                                                  1.2
                           corresponding plate)




                                                                  1.0


                                                                  0.8


                                                                  0.6


                                                                  0.4


                                                                  0.2


                                                                  0.0
                                                                          17_A1           17_A2           17_A3        17_A4      17_A5     20_A6       20_A7
                                                                                                                  Test Coupon

Figure 3 Normalized flexural yield stress and strained test results for coupons exposed to
BOD greater than 700 PPM in unstrained condition. Data was normalized with respect to
the average non-exposed control coupons yield flexural stress and strain taken from the
same test plate.

Testing of the LAMINATE Product                                                                                                                         Page 5 of 11
Centre for Advancement of Trenchless Technologies
Figure 3 and Table 2 indicate that six of the seven BOD exposed test coupons have
flexural yield stresses equal to or greater than the average of the control specimen cut
from the same test plate (normalized values greater than 1.0). Coupon 17_A2 showed
flexural yield stress less than the average of the control specimen cut from the same test
plate (normalized value of 0.83). Normalized flexural yield strain results indicate that
three-test coupons (17_A2, 17_A3 and 17_A4) were stiffer than or equal to the average
of the control specimens (normalized values of 1.2, 1.4 and 1.0 respectively). The four
remaining coupons indicate a slightly softer stress strain response than the control
coupons (normalized values between 0.79 and 0.92).

Since test result variation appears to be within the material variation shown in Figure 1
and Table 2, immersion of the coupons in BOD greater than 700 PPM for seven days in
an unstrained condition appears to have no significant influence on the laminate
mechanical properties.

4.0 ASTM D543 Practice B – MECHANICAL STRESS & REAGENT EXPOSURE

4.1 Test Specification and Procedures

Practice B consists of exposing the laminate coupons to BOD reagent while being held at
1% strain in a fixture device. At the completion of the seven-day exposure period each
coupon was visually evaluated and mechanically tested in accordance with ASTM D790
to determine if the stressed chemically exposed laminates mechanical properties changed.
Test results were compared with the average response of control coupons cut from the
same test plate (Table 1).

4.2    Test Laminate coupons

Seven laminate coupons were tested: five from Plate 17 and two from Plate 20. All test
coupons measured approximately 100 mm in length by 25 mm in width and 5 mm in
depth. Dimension measurements were measured using a digital calliper accurate to
±0.005 mm. While measuring the laminate coupons it was noted that the specimen edges
were at a slight angle with respect to the depth of the material. This slight angle resulted
in laminate coupons being moderately wider on one face (top compared to bottom). This
slight angle is a characteristic of the JetCut process.

Coupons were labelled using the following scheme.

17_B1 = Plate # (17)_A (Practice B), Specimen 1
20_B2 = Plate # (20)_ A (Practice B), Specimen 2

4.3 Test Equipment

Each laminate coupon was placed in a strain fixture device and strained to 1% in bending.
The strain fixtures and laminate coupons were placed in Plastic containers filled with



Testing of the LAMINATE Product                                                Page 6 of 11
Centre for Advancement of Trenchless Technologies
BOD greater than 700 PPM. BOD levels in the containers were maintained so that the
coupons were fully submerged over the seven-day soaking period.

The strain fixture device was designed so the laminate coupon specimen would maintain
1% bending strain condition during immersion. The device uses a three point bending
design with coupon contact dimensions similar to those used in the D790 test. Figure 4
shows a schematic of the strain device in a three-dimensional view while Figure 5 shows
the device in a side and front view.

A stainless steal screw was used in conjunction with a quarter inch diameter pin to apply
1% strain across the mid-section of the coupon. Prior to ASTM D543 testing specimen
coupons were tested in the device using a strain gauge bonded to the bottom of the
specimen coupon. This was done to determine how many rotations of the screw were
required to achieve 1% bending strain in the coupon outer fibre. It was found that two
and half rotations produced the desired strain and that the strain level remained constant
over a seven-day period.

The strain fixture device was constructed using a Cast Acrylic plastic (“Plexiglas”) and
the joints were bonded with Methylene Chloride solvent glue.




Figure 4 Strain fixture device used for ASTM D543 – Practice B testing.




Testing of the LAMINATE Product                                              Page 7 of 11
Centre for Advancement of Trenchless Technologies
Figure 5 Side view and front view of the strain fixture device with dimensions
labelled in cm.

ASTM D790 flexural testing portion of the ASTM D543 Method B test was performed
using the test procedure describe in Section 2 of this report.

4.4 Test Results

Yield and ultimate flexural stress and strain test result for the exposed coupons under 1%
bending strain are presented in Table 3.

Table 3 Summary of Plate 17 and 20 ASTM D543 Practice B three-point bending yield
and ultimate test results.
                              Yield                                           Ultimate
 Sample                               Flexural   Flexural                            Flexural   Flexural
 ID        Load    Displacement        Stress     Strain     Load    Displacement      Stress    Strain
           (N)         (mm)            (Mpa)       (%)        (N)        (mm)         (Mpa)       (%)
 17_B1     556.1         7.9           121.0       3.50     556.1         7.94         117.0      2.10
 17_B2     421.9        3.31            81.9       1.55     627.4       10.50           95.7      5.52
 17_B3     901.4        4.68           174.9       2.19     912.3         4.96         128.4      2.72
 17_B4     575.3        5.24           116.0       2.40     575.3         5.24          83.6      2.82
 17_B5     997.3        5.04           199.4       2.32     1153.4        6.54         176.0      3.44
 Average   690.4       5.2             138.6        2.4     764.9        7.0          120.1        3.3
 Std Dev   246.0       1.7              47.6        0.7     260.3        2.3           35.8        1.3
 20_B6     690.4       4.5             139.2       2.09     745.2        5.08         104.9       2.79
 20_B7     536.9       4.65            107.3       2.14      663         9.44          93.3       5.18
 Average   613.7       4.6             123.3        2.1     704.1        7.3           99.1        4.0
 Std Dev   108.5       0.1              22.6        0.0     58.1         3.1           8.2         1.7


The data sheets and data plots for each test are located in the CD attached to this report.




Testing of the LAMINATE Product                                                           Page 8 of 11
Centre for Advancement of Trenchless Technologies
Figure 6 shows the normalized flexural yield stress and yield strain for laminate coupons
exposed to BOD greater than 700 PPM. Test data was normalized with respect to the
average non-exposed control coupons yield flexural stress and strain taken from the same
test plate (Table 1).
                                                         2.5


                                                               Flexural Yield Stress
                                                               Flexural Yield Strain
  (Exposed reading/Average non-exposed reading from
    Normalized Flexural Yield Stress a nd Yield Strain




                                                         2.0
                  corresponding plate)




                                                         1.5




                                                         1.0




                                                         0.5




                                                         0.0
                                                               17_B1           17_B2   17_B3       17_B4     17_B5   20_B6   20_B7
                                                                                               Test Coupon

Figure 6 Normalized flexural yield stress and strained test coupons exposed to BOD
greater than 700 PPM while under 1% bending strain. Data was normalized with respect
to the average non-exposed control coupons yield flexural stress and strain taken from the
same test plate.

Figure 6 and Table 3 indicates that all test coupons after immersion in BOD greater than
700 PPM have flexural yield stress equal to or greater than the control test specimens
(normalized values 0.92 to 2.4). Four of the seven test coupons also indicate that the
flexural yield strain was equal to or greater than the control coupons from the same plate
(normalized values between 0.96 to 1.52). For the remaining three test coupons the
normalized flexural strain results were between 0.68 and 0.79.

Considering that most test coupons showed a flexural yield stress and strain response
similar to or exceeding the control coupons it can be concluded that BOD greater than
700 PPM does not have a detrimental influence on laminate while under 1% bending
strain.




Testing of the LAMINATE Product                                                                                               Page 9 of 11
Centre for Advancement of Trenchless Technologies
4.0     SUMMARY

Table 4 summarizes average and standard deviations test values and for the non-exposed
control coupons and BOD greater than 700 PPM exposed unstrained and 1% strained
coupons test.

Table 4 Comparison of control and test coupons average and standard deviations for
Plates 17 and 20.
                  Flexural Yield Strength (MPa)               Flexural Yield Strain (%)
               Control      Practice A     Practice B   Control      Practice A      Practice B
Plate 17
    Average     82.4          113.9          138.6        2.3            2.5            2.4
     Std Dev    18.9          27.6           47.6         0.0            0.5            0.7
Plate 20
    Average     116.3         151.2          123.3        2.7            2.2            2.1
     Std Dev     8.9           3.3           22.6         0.3            0.1            0.0

Table 4 highlights the following.
   • Immersion of Plate 17 coupons in BOD greater than 700 PPM under strained and
       unstrained conditions appears to have no significant influence on the laminated
       yield stress or strain.
   • Immersion of Plate 20 coupons in BOD greater than 700 PPM under unstrained
       condition appears to result in an increase in the flexural yield stress with no
       significant change in flexural yield strain.
   • Immersion of the Plate 20 coupons in BOD greater than 700 PPM under 1%
       bending strain condition appears to have no influence on the laminate flexural
       yield stress or strain.
   • Plate 17 has more test variation (higher standard deviation) than plate 20.

5.0 CONCLUSIONS

Based Table 4 and the normalized plots (Figures 3 and 6) immersion of the test coupon in
BOD greater than 700 PPM under ASTMD543 Practice A and B conditions appears to
have no detrimental influence on the laminate mechanical properties.

Test data from this report also suggests that the low laminate flexural strength and strain
results reported in the Phase II report were most likely due to internal flaws within the
laminate test plates and not due to immersion in the chemical reagents.




Testing of the LAMINATE Product                                                 Page 10 of 11
Centre for Advancement of Trenchless Technologies
REFERENCES

1.    American Society for Testing and Materials Committee D-20 on plastics (1999).
      ASTM D543 – 99: Standard Test Methods for Evaluating the Resistance of
      Plastics to Chemical Reagents. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: American Society
      for Testing and Materials.

2.    American Society for Testing and Materials Committee D-20 on plastics (1999).
      ASTM D790 – 99: Standard Test Methods for Flexural Properties of
      Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials.
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: American Society for Testing and Materials.

3.    American Standard Method for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 19th
      Edition (1999). ASTM 5220 – 99: Closed Reflux, Titrimetric Method.
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: American Society for Testing and Materials.




Testing of the LAMINATE Product                                        Page 11 of 11
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