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					               QUICK WINS
Overview of Quick Wins implemented by partners
          in the public transport field

                  June 2011




                                                 1
THIS PUBLICATION IS A PRODUCTION OF:


The “TICKET TO KYOTO” project - www.tickettokyoto.eu

The partners of this project are:
       STIB (Brussels, Belgium) as lead partner
       TfGM (Manchester, UK. Formerly GMPTE)
       moBiel (Bielefeld, Germany)
       RATP (Paris, France)
       RET (Rotterdam, The Netherlands).

The Ticket to Kyoto project is co-financed by the INTERREG IVB North West-Europe
Programme.

Under the responsibility of:
       Jean-Luc de Wilde d‟Estmael, manager of the T2K project (STIB)

Written by:
       Kevin Lee (on behalf of moBiel)

Designed by:
       Prophets

Contributors:
       Gregory Rohart (RATP)
       Sandrine Bondeux (RATP)
       Andreas Kruelkord (moBiel)
       Ralf Schoenenberg (moBiel)
       Lionel Thiebault (STIB)
       François-Olivier Devaux (STIB)
       Olaf Lamers (RET)
       Lara Melville (TfGM)




                                                                                   2
Table of contents
Table of contents ........................................................................................................................................ 3

1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 6

2 Quick Wins Overview.............................................................................................................................. 9

3 Maintenance .......................................................................................................................................... 13

   3.1 Train set point temperature (RATP) ................................................................................................. 13

       3.1.1 Description .................................................................................................................................. 13

       3.1.2 Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 14

       3.1.3 Implementation ........................................................................................................................... 14

       3.1.4 Impact ......................................................................................................................................... 15

4 Energy management ............................................................................................................................. 16

   4.1 Gas consumption of buildings (RET)................................................................................................ 16

       4.1.1 Description .................................................................................................................................. 16

       4.1.2 Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 16

       4.1.3 Implementation ........................................................................................................................... 16

       4.1.4 Impact ......................................................................................................................................... 17

   4.2 Automated metering (TfGM) ............................................................................................................. 18

       4.2.1 Description .................................................................................................................................. 18

       4.2.2 Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 19

       4.2.3 Implementation ........................................................................................................................... 19

       4.2.4 Impact ......................................................................................................................................... 24

5 Behavioural change .............................................................................................................................. 26

   5.1 Ecodriving buses (moBiel) ................................................................................................................ 26

       5.1.1 Description .................................................................................................................................. 26

       5.1.2 Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 26

       5.1.3 Implementation ........................................................................................................................... 28

       5.1.4 Impact ......................................................................................................................................... 29




                                                                                                                                                              3
   5.2 Energy week (TfGM) ........................................................................................................................ 30

      5.2.1 Description .................................................................................................................................. 30

      5.2.2 Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 30

      5.2.3 Implementation ........................................................................................................................... 30

      5.2.4 Impact ......................................................................................................................................... 33

   5.3 Energy challenge (STIB) .................................................................................................................. 34

      5.3.1 Description .................................................................................................................................. 34

      5.3.2 Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 34

      5.3.3 Implementation ........................................................................................................................... 34

      5.3.4 Impact ......................................................................................................................................... 40

6 Energy efficient investments ............................................................................................................... 41

   6.1 Buildings regulation (RATP) ............................................................................................................. 41

      6.1.1 Description .................................................................................................................................. 41

      6.1.2 Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 42

      6.1.3 Implementation ........................................................................................................................... 42

      6.1.4 Impact ......................................................................................................................................... 42

   6.2 Relighting (moBiel) ........................................................................................................................... 48

      6.2.1 Description .................................................................................................................................. 48

      6.2.2 Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 48

      6.2.3 Implementation ........................................................................................................................... 48

      6.2.4 Impact ......................................................................................................................................... 49

7 Technical improvements ...................................................................................................................... 50

   7.1 Connect and disconnect of metro vehicles (RET) ............................................................................ 50

      7.1.1 Description .................................................................................................................................. 50

      7.1.2 Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 50

      7.1.3 Implementation ........................................................................................................................... 52

      7.1.4 Impact ......................................................................................................................................... 53




                                                                                                                                                             4
   7.2 Ecodrive metro (STIB) ...................................................................................................................... 54

       7.2.1 Description .................................................................................................................................. 54

       7.2.2 Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 55

       7.2.3 Implementation ........................................................................................................................... 55

       7.2.4 Impact ......................................................................................................................................... 57

   7.3 Automatic doors in the depot (moBiel) ............................................................................................. 58

       7.3.1 Description .................................................................................................................................. 58

       7.3.2 Prerequisites ............................................................................................................................... 58

       7.3.3 Implementation ........................................................................................................................... 58

       7.3.4 Impact ......................................................................................................................................... 59

8 Next Steps .............................................................................................................................................. 60

9 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................. 61

10 Contacts ................................................................................................................................................ 62

11 Glossary ................................................................................................................................................ 64




                                                                                                                                                              5
1 Introduction

Five European public transport companies have joined forces to reduce CO 2 emissions in public
transport. Their actions are centralized through a European project, Ticket to Kyoto (T2K -
www.tickettokyoto.eu) that mobilises public transport companies and their stakeholders to take action
against climate change.

Besides the various investments envisioned at the conception of the T2K project each partner has
contributed new ideas and details of projects that each has implemented or are currently
implementing and which fulfil the criteria of T2K by reducing energy consumption with a short return
on investment.

The Ticket to Kyoto project objective is to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emissions by public
transport companies. To achieve this objective the partners have considered and are implementing
three strategies:

    1. To reduce the energy demand of the company.

    2. To invest in improvements to energy efficiency.

    3. To invest in new technologies and renewable energies.




The first two strategies can be considered to be Quick Wins. They can be achieved by implementing
energy saving and efficiency measures, for example: switching off unnecessary lights automatically,
temperature controls, the automating of energy related systems, introducing new technical solutions,
achieving employee behavioural change and by making changes to rolling stock usage. These
strategies are able to deliver energy and cost savings, full details of which are contained in this report
and an outline of examples is provided later in this Executive Summary.




                                                                                                             6
The third strategy is longer-term and requires more significant investments – details of the projects
undertaken by partners in this area are presented on www.tickettokyoto.eu. While the T2K partner
companies have been considering and implementing their own strategies prior to the T2K project,
these efforts have been stimulated by the collaborative analyses done in the first part of the project.

These early projects are defined as Quick Wins in accordance with the criteria and definition below.



                  Definition - A Quick Win is a project that:

                              will lead to energy reduction
                              has long-lasting effects
                              has a return on investment of
                                  < 1 year (Class A) or
                                  < 5 years (Class B)
                              has an implementation period of less than one year
                              can measure or estimate the levels of energy reduction
                              can be replicated.


The graphic below describes the activities, gains and investment to achieve energy savings.




The various Quick Win projects implemented by partners are detailed in the next section. They are
structured in such a way as to allow other stakeholders to gain the fullest knowledge and
understanding of each project – the prerequisites, implementation and impact. It is intended that by
sharing this knowledge it will enable others to implement similar schemes within their own
organisations, thus delivering further energy reductions and helping to tackle climate change.

The prerequisites section is intended to assist other companies in deciding if the project is suitable for
them. Where possible the prerequisites are shown as essential or desirable. The implementation




                                                                                                             7
section provides details of how the project was implemented including the project launch, project
follow-up, risks and opportunities and costs. Where possible the impact section contains details of
energy reduction, human and environmental impact and an explanation of how the figures were
derived. However, it should be noted that a number of these Quick Win projects are currently being
implemented and so detailed impact assessments may not be readily available at this time. If
possible, estimates have been included.

This is the initial report detailing the Quick Wins projects. The majority of those contained in this
report are currently being implemented and it has therefore not always been possible to include the
most detailed information. It is expected that a second report will be produced through the duration of
the Ticket to Kyoto project, which will provide additional detail and will be able to provide greater
analyses of the impact of the various projects.

It is also anticipated that further Quick Win projects will be identified and implemented throughout the
duration of the T2K programme which will be reported on in due course. Details of the large-scale
investments that are being undertaken by the partners will form separate reports.

The Quick Wins Overview section contains a brief synopsis of each project with full details contained
in the Quick Wins section of this report. The Glossary details various publications and websites
where additional information can be found, structured by partner so that there is a logical relationship
to the different projects contained in this report.




                                                                                                           8
2 Quick Wins Overview

This section provides an overview of the Quick Wins detailed in this publication, which are themed
according to the nature of the individual project. The purpose of theming these projects and providing
information such as the prerequisites and implementation details is to assist readers in assessing
which projects may be most suitable for application by their companies and organisations and to
provide the technical details necessary to allow execution of the appropriate project.

Five themes have been selected: maintenance, energy management, behavioural change, energy
efficient investments and technical improvements.

  The Maintenance theme includes projects that can be implemented through the on-going
  maintenance of vehicles and/or buildings and appliances and which results in improved
  energy loss/reduction, bringing economic benefits as well.

  The Energy management theme details two projects that achieve the reduction of gas and
  electricity consumption in the buildings of the two partner companies. This is achieved
  through effective energy management, monitoring usage to identify waste. Simple steps
  other organisations can take include checking the boiler and chiller temperatures against
  the operational hours of a property to identify if they are set appropriately.

  The Behavioural change theme includes projects designed to change the way employees
  in the partner companies behave and includes office based staff and vehicle drivers. It is
  commonly accepted that most organisations could save at least 10% of their energy use
  simply by getting their staff to alter their behaviour in small ways to reduce overall energy
  use.

  The Energy efficient investments theme project relates the actions taken to meet
  governmental regulation that required specified reductions in energy consumption within
  buildings and other investments to achieve energy efficiency.

  Finally, the Technical improvements theme incorporates projects that achieve energy
  reductions by technical changes to vehicles and their usage. These projects require
  investment in new, more efficient equipment to deliver energy savings.


Many of the Quick Win projects are already showing cost and energy savings.              Examples are
provided with the outline project descriptions shown below.

Maintenance
The Maintenance themed project is from RATP. This project involved replacing defective temperature
sensors in the train rolling stock and reducing the set point temperature for the winter period from 18
degrees Celsius to 15 degrees Celsius.              By ensuring temperature consistency across all
cars/carriages in the three different types of rolling stock and thus being able to reduce the set point
temperature requirement, significant energy and cost savings were achieved.

   The estimated energy savings for each of the three different types of rolling stock is shown in
   the figure below:




                                                                                                           9
                                        Estimated energy savings


                    45%
                                                    42%

                    40%

                    35%

                    30%

                    25%         23%

                    20%
                                                                      15%
                    15%

                    10%

                     5%

                     0%
                               MS 61                MI 79             MI 84




Energy management
The first Quick Win in this section is from RET and relates to gas heated buildings. The objective was
to monitor and then reduce gas consumption across the seven RET buildings. The project involved
monitoring gas consumption and a staff awareness campaign, moving towards reducing the gas
heating to working hours only on days when the temperature was below 15 degrees Celsius.

   This project aimed to deliver a 25% saving of gas consumption, a saving of 0.625 m3 gas
   (5,831,250 kWh) from a total of 2.5 m3 (23,325,000 kWh). The project has achieved a
   reduction of 0.5 m3 (4,665,000 kWh) in year one with a cost reduction for the company of
   200,000 Euro.
                                 3                                                               3
   Note: the conversion from m gas to kWh uses the Brussels standard calorific value for 1m
   of gas equalling 9.33kWh energy use measured at 0 degrees and 1 bar of atmospheric
   pressure.

The second Quick Win in this theme is by TfGM and concerns automated metering for electricity
consumption. TfGM identified which electricity meters across its sites needed to be replaced by
„smart‟ meters – „smart‟ meters are able to provide half-hourly usage readings which can be
downloaded for monitoring and analysis. The smart meters were used to provide statistical data of
electricity usage across the TfGM estate to help identify where savings could be made by reducing
the energy usage.

Behavioural change
The first project under this theme is from moBiel and involved the training of bus drivers. The drivers
received on-the-job-training in how to drive more economically and environmentally efficiently. New
equipment was installed in the buses that enables the bus drivers to measure their driving efficiency
and allows the company to monitor the effects and outputs. The training included a theoretical
section as well as the practical driving session.




                                                                                                          10
   It is anticipated that this Quick Win, through training and behavioural change will result in
   10% savings (3,528 Euro per vehicle per annum) due to improved and more efficient and
   economic driving, this will also deliver a CO2 reduction of some 660 tons per annum.

The second project on Behavioural change is by TfGM. As part of a package of staff energy
awareness, TfGM held an Energy Week. Information pack were provided to staff providing them
details of energy usage, tips on how to save energy (such as turning computer monitors off at the end
of the day rather than leaving them on standby) and details of how to report energy wastage. Posters
were displayed throughout the estate buildings and information seminars held. Prizes and a company
„thank you‟ were used as incentives to motivate and encourage staff.

The third Quick Win in this section is from STIB who delivered an „Energy Challenge‟ project. It is
important to have an energy accounting system so that measurements can be made and benchmarks
established to assess the impact that different actions have on energy reduction. Various
communications methods are used to inform and involve the employees about the energy challenge
and prizes are offered as motivators.

Energy efficient investments
The one Quick Win project in this section is from RATP. The company committed to meeting the
energy policy targets set out in „Grenelle de l‟environnement‟ to reduce energy consumption by at
least 40% and greenhouse gas emissions of at least 50%. RATP identified the RATP Headquarter
building as being the highest energy consumer site and the first actions were therefore taken in this
building. A number of steps were taken including improvement of the ventilation system regulation,
replacement of more than 1,000 ventilators, staff training, LED relighting and presence sensors
installed and more efficient temperature regulation. These changes resulted in substantial energy
and cost savings, markedly above expectations.

   The initial investment for the temperature regulation element of the project was 597,000
   Euro and estimates of potential savings were made, being: 1,200,000 kWh, 98 teq CO 2
   and around 80,000 Euro per annum.

   The achieved savings, over 20 months were: 6,750,000 kWh, 598 teq CO 2 and a cost
   saving of 483,000 Euro. This demonstrates a huge saving in energy, emissions and costs
   and the measured return on the investment is two years.

The second project under this theme is by moBiel and delivered substantial cost and emissions
savings by replacing existing lighting in an underground station with more efficient fluorescent lighting
units. The replacement installations were undertaken during regular maintenance work and the new
lights expanded the maintenance period from two to four years.

   Through an initial investment of some 25,500 Euro (not including on-going materials and
   maintenance costs) it is estimated that this investment will be recouped within 5-6 years
   and will achieve cost savings in the region of 5,300 Euro per annum and a reduction in
   CO2 of 11.06 tons per year.

Technical improvements
The first Technical improvement Quick Win is from RET. This project reduced the number of metro
cars forming each vehicle during off-peak periods. An analysis of passenger numbers using the
metro at different periods was conducted and identification of the number of cars required during the




                                                                                                            11
peak and off-peak periods established. This enabled the number of cars forming each vehicle during
off-peak periods to be reduced from four to one, thus delivering fewer metro kilometres, lower
maintenance costs and reducing the energy traction consumption.

The second project in this section is from STIB. This project involved reducing the maximum
authorised speed of metro vehicles from 72 km/h (high speed) to 60 km/h and 50 km/h instead of 60
km/h. It is possible to override these limits if delays are occurring on the network and an additional
metro was also able to be added to the system to compensate for the slight delay by the metros
travelling slower. This action has resulted in improved regularity of the metros and an energy
reduction of 15% of the traction power required.

   This project had an investment budget of 35,000 Euro for the training and technical
   measuring equipment and has achieved substantial CO 2 reduction, energy and cost
   savings totalling:
                             2
            3,900 tons of CO per year saved
            14 GWh per year of energy saved
            1,777,000 Euro per year saved.

The final Quick Win in this section is from moBiel and details a project for replacing manually closing
bus garage and bus depot doors with an automated door opening and closing system. The benefits
from automating the doors are that time is saved by not requiring a manual opening and closing, the
time taken to open and close the doors is significantly reduced which then results in a reduction in air
exchange. By lessening the air exchange energy savings are made by reducing the need to re-heat
or re-cool air during winter and summer.




                                                                                                           12
3 Maintenance


3.1 Train set point temperature (RATP)

3.1.1 Description
This Quick Win concerns the heating of trains in winter. In RATP regional trains, the temperature was
originally set at 18 degrees Celsius. The set point temperature of all different kinds of rolling stocks
running on those regional lines during the winter period was lowered from 18 degrees Celsius to 15
degrees Celsius.

This operation gave the opportunity to examine all equipment and to replace the defective
temperature sensors at this time.

Rolling stocks concerned by the Quick Win:




              MS61                                                      MI79 (renewed)




                                                 MI84




                                                                                                           13
For the 3 kinds of rolling stock, the estimated energy savings gains are shown on the following graph:




                                         Estimated energy savings


                      45%
                                                     42%

                      40%

                      35%

                      30%

                      25%        23%

                      20%
                                                                       15%
                      15%

                      10%

                       5%

                       0%
                                MS 61                MI 79            MI 84




3.1.2 Prerequisites
This Quick Win applies to rolling stock with a heating system that has a heating control to vary the
temperature.

3.1.3 Implementation
          Number of people affected: all the passengers
          Staff needed: depending on the number of trains, for RATP RER, 4 persons worked during
          1 month.
          Implementation methodology used and implementation phases: publicity campaign
          supported by measurements and evidence; feasibility study with a good estimation of
          constraints and the choice of a set point temperature according to thermal comfort rules
          and equipment possibilities, implementation of the new set point temperature in each cars
          of every train, measurement of temperature and monitoring of energy consumption for each
          kind of train.
          Timing of implementation of the different phases: a few months.
          Budget: Negligible (including in the maintenance operations).
Risks
        Too many defective sensors so that the replacement costs for the equipment are prohibitive.
        Complaints from passengers.



Opportunities




                                                                                                         14
          Energy savings and the opportunity to ensure standard specification on equipment
Difficulties
          Measurement of the energy saved in operation.

3.1.4 Impact
Measurements were done during operating times that allowed estimating the potential of energy
savings for a rolling stock model. The results of the measurements depend on the external
temperature and hence on the climate conditions during the measuring period. The duration of the
measurement was about one month. These two reasons could explain the difference between
estimation and measurement.




                                          Measured energy savings


                       35%
                                                      32%

                       30%


                       25%

                                   20%
                       20%


                       15%


                       10%
                                                                       6%

                        5%


                        0%
                                  MS 61               MI 79            MI 84




The energy savings and emissions reductions are:

               o   GHG emissions savings: an average of 1,720 kg eq per train carriage and per year

               o   Energy emissions savings: an average of 40,000 kWh per train element and per year.

The costs savings achieved: an average of 2,400 Euro per train element and per year (depending on
energy cost at the time of the calculation).




                                                                                                        15
4 Energy management

4.1 Gas consumption of buildings (RET)

4.1.1 Description
Gas consumption and heating in RET buildings is continuously monitored, although the heating
installation only operates during normal working hours on days with temperatures below 15 degrees
Celsius. The project aimed to gather the gas consumption figures for the years 2006/2007/2008 and
to use these data to inform the adjustment to the heating installation. The figures were gathered and
analysed and a plan was developed showing how to reduce the gas consumption in the seven RET
buildings (with gas heating).




4.1.2 Prerequisites
This Quick Win project is suitable for all other public transport companies with gas heating in their
buildings.

4.1.3 Implementation
This section presents how the Quick Win project was implemented. The goal of this Quick Win
                                                                                3
project was to achieve a 25% saving of gas consumption (from total 2.5 million m (23,325,000 kWh)
                       3
that is 0.625 million m gas (5,831,250 kWh)).

To reach this goal the following actions were taken:

             The monitoring of gas use is a recurring action every month.
             This action affected around +/- 600 people.




                                                                                                        16
             To monitor this recurring action in the 7 RET buildings 10 people are involved.
             Implemented actions: Monitor of monthly gas consumption, billing information and reports
              from the 10 key building people. The gas/heating installations were adjusted for optimal
              operation. Consider gas reduction ideas from the key building persons and/or other staff.
              Through the 10 key building people to raise environmental awareness amongst staff.
             To conduct a monthly analysis of the consumption figures and to report and discuss the
              outcomes with key personnel.


No budget was required for this project, because during regular maintenance work the gas/heating
installations were adjusted to working hours only.


The main difficulties encountered were related to the adjustment of employee behaviour, especially
those not in the same department or who had budget concerns. This is a recurring action and needs
to be continually monitored/checked (if not, people will easily return to their old habits).

4.1.4 Impact
The results of this Quick Win project in one year was:
                                                                 3
                         Reduction in 2006 of 0.5 million m gas (4,665,000 kWh)

                         Reduction of cost: 200,000 Euro

                         More environmental awareness between staff

                         More gas consumption awareness between staff.



                                             Gas consumption with logarithmic trend line



             2.500.000        2.420.910



                                                                                   2.063.333
                                                                                               1.992.033
             2.000.000                              1.897.730




             1.500.000
        m3




             1.000.000




              500.000




                    0
                                2006                  2007                           2008        2009




Note: Gas consumption went up in 2008 and 2009 because of longer and colder winter periods than
2007 and 2006, but the overall direction is a downward line.




                                                                                                           17
4.2 Automated metering (TfGM)

4.2.1 Description
This Quick Win project involved the replacement of existing main electricity meters with “smart”
meters which provide half-hourly energy usage data. The data can then be downloaded and
analysed to identify areas of energy waste. This enables better understanding of energy consumption
and enables the introduction of monitoring and targeting of sites‟ energy usage.

The phrase, “you can’t manage what you can’t measure” is often used to describe the significance of
                                                              1
automated meter readers (AMR). TfGM had four “half-hourly” electricity meters at the start of this
project. The majority of sites only had energy data from sporadic meter readings taken directly by
staff, often just every few months. This level of data did not enable the identification of areas of
energy waste, nor to understand and manage the usage at the sites. Upon the introduction of the role
of Energy Officer, it was determined that improving the data available was a key priority for energy
management. This project, to replace existing electricity meters with “smart” meters, was the first
step in that process.
                                                                                  2 Piccadilly Place


                                                                                              0



           2164035115                                                 1   1   1     1     1       1   1   1     1    1   2   2   2   2   2
                              1   2   3     4     5   6   7   8   9   0   1   2     3     4       5   6   7     8    9   0   1   2   3   4
           01/05/2011 Sun                                                                                                                    Maximum      185 kWh
           02/05/2011 Mon                                                                                                                    Minimim        0 kWh
           03/05/2011 Tue                                                                                                                    Block Size    18 kWh
           04/05/2011 Wed
           05/05/2011 Thu                                                                                                                                  18   kWh
           06/05/2011 Fri                                                                     M                                                            36   kWh
           07/05/2011 Sat                                                                                                                                  54   kWh
           08/05/2011 Sun                                                                                                                                  72   kWh
           09/05/2011 Mon                                                                                                                                  90   kWh
           10/05/2011 Tue                                                                                                                                 108   kWh
           11/05/2011 Wed                                                                                                                                 126   kWh
           12/05/2011 Thu                                                                                                                                 144   kWh
           13/05/2011 Fri                                                                                                                                 162   kWh
           14/05/2011 Sat                                                                                                                                 180   kWh
           15/05/2011 Sun
           16/05/2011 Mon
           17/05/2011 Tue
           18/05/2011 Wed
           19/05/2011 Thu
           20/05/2011 Fri
           21/05/2011 Sat
           22/05/2011 Sun
           23/05/2011 Mon
           24/05/2011 Tue
           25/05/2011 Wed
           26/05/2011 Thu
           27/05/2011 Fri
           28/05/2011 Sat
           29/05/2011 Sun   m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m
           30/05/2011 Mon
           31/05/2011 Tue
                                                                      1 1     1     1      1 1        1   1     1    1   2   2 2 2       2
                              1   2   3      4    5   6   7   8   9 0 1       2     3      4 5        6   7     8    9   0   1 2 3       4
                                          Night                   Morning               Afternoon             Peak           Evening




The grid above shows electricity use at our Head Office over a month. The data is downloaded from
our smart meter supplier and then inputted into our energy management system. This is very
straightforward process, and the data can then be analysed in a number of ways to ensure exceptions
are spotted and acted on.

This project has enabled TfGM to develop energy reduction targets for each site and to introduce
monitoring and targeting of energy use. This has led to energy waste being identified and in the first
year following installation, TfGM has seen a 6% reduction in metered electricity usage.


1
 Meters which take readings on a half-hourly basis are required by law in the UK for profile class 5 metering,
where usage is above a certain threshold.




                                                                                                                                                                      18
4.2.2 Prerequisites
Replacement of electricity meters with AMR is applicable and beneficial to all organisations that utilise
energy for their operations. The following are key issues to consider in advance:

          Do you have a comprehensive list of all your operational meters?

          Do you have data on the usage and cost (actual or estimated) of energy consumed through
           your meters?

          Which utility (gas/electricity/water etc) accounts for the majority of your operational usage
           and/or cost?

          What do you consider an appropriate threshold for energy usage or cost before the
           installation of AMR becomes worthwhile to your organisation?

          What are your minimum product and data requirements?

          Do you have the resources required to analyse the data from AMR?

4.2.3 Implementation
TfGM did not have an asset register of meters at the start of this process, which became the first step
in identifying where meters should be replaced. The second step was to establish the estimated
annual usage and cost associated with each meter. Again, TfGM did not have centralized records on
this at the start of the process, but this was quickly rectified. There is little benefit in analysing
detailed energy use data from sites with very limited consumption, so a threshold level of usage was
determined, above which AMR would be installed.

There is no agreed level above which installation of AMR becomes financially beneficial, although
there is a significant amount of guidance available from a range of sources. When this project was
being developed in 2008/2009, the UK Government recommended that an annual energy spend over
6,877 Euro justified the installation of AMR to a specific supply. However, the UK had also introduced
                                                                               2
a new mandatory carbon emissions trading scheme, known as the CRC , which gave credit to
companies for the degree of AMR across their estate. As TfGM was looking to improve its
performance in the scheme, a target of 95% of all energy use being measured through AMR was
introduced. In practice, this meant that any metered site with an annual electricity spend over 2,292
     3
Euro has had a smart meter installed.


2
  The CRC (Carbon Reduction Commitment) originally included a revenue recycling element, where carbon
reduction performance was measured and revenue raised from the sale of carbon allowances was distributed
back to participants, based on their overall emissions, and their energy management. Energy management was
measured through the percentage of relevant meters being AMR, and the achievement of certain certified
standards, such as ISO 16001. The revenue recycling element of the scheme has now been removed, and there
are no longer any financial benefits to AMR from the CRC; however there continue to be reputational benefits
from the CRC league table. For more information on the CRC and how the presence of AMR affects
performance within the scheme, please contact the TfGM Energy Officer; contact details are included in the
Contacts section of this report.
3
    Approximate annual energy use of 20000 Kwh or ablve




                                                                                                               19
TfGM prioritised electricity meters for the first phase of the meter replacement programme as
electricity usage accounts for approximately 70% of total energy use across our estate and was
known to offer the greatest potential for energy efficiency.


                                                    2 Piccadilly Place




                    180,000

                    160,000

                    140,000

                    120,000

                    100,000
               k
               W
               h     80,000

                     60,000

                     40,000

                     20,000

                         0
                              Jun   Jul   Aug   Sep     Oct    Nov        Dec     Jan   Feb   Mar   Apr     May

                                                              2010-2011




                                                        Electricity
                                                       2164035115



                         Month       2010-2011        2009-2010                 Change        % Change
                                       kWh              kWh                      kWh
                           Jun            163,458          160,337                   3,121                  2
                           Jul            156,065          163,167                  -7,102                 -4
                          Aug             150,186          150,826                    -640                  0
                          Sep             147,062          149,613                  -2,552                 -2
                           Oct            149,312          148,748                     564                  0
                          Nov             141,289          143,730                  -2,441                 -2
                          Dec             140,989          144,679                  -3,689                 -3
                           Jan            140,257          153,062                 -12,805                 -8
                          Feb             134,783          152,339                 -17,555                -12
                          Mar             153,755          170,554                 -16,799                -10
                           Apr            145,234          163,319                 -18,085                -11
                          May             135,070          166,607                 -31,538                -19
                          Total         1,757,460        1,866,981                -109,521                 -6




This above charts show a simple 2 year comparison enabling the energy use at our Head Office to be
quickly analysed and reported against both historical figures and targets.

Following the initial stages, a comprehensive list of the meters that were to be replaced was
developed and this was used to evaluate the different procurement options available to TfGM.

4.2.3.1 Project launch

Consultation - TfGM initially consulted with different suppliers and other public sector bodies who had
already undertaken a meter replacement project, in order to identify suitable product and procurement
options.




                                                                                                                  20
Procurement - TfGM had no additional funding agreed for the meter replacement project and it was
determined that the most cost effective way to install AMR was through our energy supplier. This was
due to the fact that they would meet the majority of the costs because there were advantages for
them of improved data quality and the reduction of risk. When TfGM re-tendered its electricity
contracts, it also invited suppliers to price for the meter replacement project. The offers received were
evaluated in line with TfGM and OJEU procurement requirements and the contracts were awarded to
SWALEC for both the energy supply and the installation of AMR.

Installation - TfGM agreed a meter replacement project with SWALEC‟s supplier, BeGlobal who
identified potential dates and times for the replacement of each meter. Significant liaison with site
based staff was required in order to identify suitable times and work that had to be done outside of
operational hours in order to minimise service disruption. Once a programme had been agreed, the
works then progressed according to the timetable. This involved reviewing the risk assessment and
method statements, providing detailed asbestos registers to the contractors to enable them to identify
any potential hazards, and each meter replacement appointment was arranged with a TfGM staff
member present to ensure all final readings were collated and to minimise any potential problems.
Each appointment took up to 45 minutes and once the meters are installed, there are no further
actions required beyond setting up the data access arrangements online.

Resources - The total annual cost to TfGM from AMR is 1,300 Euro, which is added to our electricity
bills by our energy supplier. Staff resources involved up to 45 minutes for each meter replacement
appointment, not including any time spent travelling. Wherever possible, staff based at the relevant
site were utilised, in order to minimise the staff resources required. The Energy Officer led the
programme arrangements and consulted with stakeholders in advance. This was time consuming,
but worthwhile as all potential issues were resolved in advance of installation and no problems
occurred once the contractors were on site. This consultation brings further benefits in ensuring
stakeholders, such as tenants are aware that your organisation is acting to reduce energy waste and
monitor usage.

Impacts - Whilst this programme did result in power being shut off to many sites for up to 45 minutes,
arranging the work outside of operational hours minimised any disruption to services or staff. The
programme itself was completed during May 2009 and took less than three weeks. We found that the
benefits were not fully realised until after a full years worth of data was recorded. This was due to the
fact that TfGM had very limited historic usage data, so it was difficult to set targets for energy use. In
addition, there were some difficulties with staff resources available to analyse the data. Once these
issues were resolved and targets were in place, the benefits from AMR have become clear.

4.2.3.2 Project follow-up and conclusions

Project programme - arranging the installation programme was the most time consuming element of
this task. Not all meters require the power to be turned off in order to safely replace them, so
identification of the meter type was required initially. Once this was known, it was necessary to
arrange the works at times which would minimise disruption to services, often outside of operational
hours. This required property management staff to attend non-staffed properties to arrange access.
Appointments were therefore arranged to coincide with additional work outside of operational hours,
which removed the need for this project to fund any overtime.

In addition, consideration had to be given to issues such as IT, CCTV, alarms and any problems that
could arise from the power outage. Finally, there was a large amount of consultation and
communication to ensure that all necessary parties were aware of the works, including tenants and
local authorities who relied on our CCTV footage, for example. This work was easy but time
consuming. It was however worthwhile, as TfGM found consultation enabled any potential issues to




                                                                                                             21
be identified and resolved in advance and ensured that there were no problems at all once the
installations began.

The level of investment required was minimal, due to the procurement route followed by TfGM.
Capital costs would be higher if the meters were purchased directly, rather than through TfGM‟s
energy supplier. TfGM had BGlobal meters installed, through our energy supplier SWALEC, which is
part of the Scottish and Southern energy group.

This was a single event, and once the meters were installed, no further action was required relating to
the AMR. However, the analysis of data and monitoring of the information provided by the meters is
an ongoing action, requiring a commitment to resources. TfGM has evaluated the resources required
for energy management and data analysis now takes one member of staff several hours a week as a
minimum.

The analysis of data enabled TfGM to spot that the HVAC system settings were not operating
correctly so the air conditioning and heating were coming on too early each weekday. The following
two charts show how this can be detected from analysis of the electricity and gas usage data.



         2 Piccadilly Place                                                                                                                         Friday                Saturday               Sunday               Monday                      Tuesday                 Wednesday                    Thursday

         Profile Half Hourly Report                            Month               April-11                                            400
                                                                                                                                       350
                                                                                                            Electrical Demand, kW




         Code                  0                                                                                                       300
         Address               2 Picadilly Place                                                                                       250
                               Manchester                                                                                              200
                                                                                                                                       150
         Post Code             M13BG
                                                                                                                                       100
         Account Details                                                                                                                50
                                                                                                                                         0
         Utility                                               Electricity                                                              1-Apr-11             2-Apr-11                3-Apr-11             4-Apr-11               5-Apr-11                      6-Apr-11                    7-Apr-11
         Supplier                                              Scottish and Southern
                                                                                                                                       400
         Account Ref                                           2164035115
                                                                                                                                       350
         MPAN                                                  0
                                                                                                            Electrical Demand, kW




                                                                                                                                       300
         Electricity Demand Analysis                                                                                                   250
                                                                                                                                       200
         Total Day Consumption                                       115,791 kWh                                                       150
         Total Night Consumption                                      29,443 kWh                                                       100
         Total Units                                                 145,234 kWh                                                        50
                                                                                                                                         0
                                                                                                                                        8-Apr-11             9-Apr-11                10-Apr-11            11-Apr-11              12-Apr-11                    13-Apr-11                    14-Apr-11
         Carbon Dioxide Emissions                                     62,451 Kg
                                                                                                                                        400
         Maximum Peak Information
                                                                                                                                        350
                                                                                                               Electrical Demand, kW




         Max Demand                                                    377.4 kW                                                         300
         Date of MD                                                20-Apr-11                                                            250
         Time of MD                                                 3:00 PM                                                             200
                                                                                                                                        150
                                                                                                                                        100
         Load Factor                                                       53%
                                                                                                                                         50
                                                                                                                                         0
                                                                                                                                        15-Apr-11            16-Apr-11               17-Apr-11            18-Apr-11              19-Apr-11                    20-Apr-11                    21-Apr-11


                                                                                                                                        350
         Peak Maxmium Demand Profile
                                                                                                                                        300
                                                                                                               Electrical Demand, kW




         Date                  Wednesday                           20-Apr-11                                                            250
                                                                                                                                        200
        400
                                                                                                                                        150
        350                                                                                                                             100
                                                                                                                                         50
        300
                                                                                                                                         0
                                                                                                                                        22-Apr-11             23-Apr-11              24-Apr-11            25-Apr-11              26-Apr-11                    27-Apr-11                    28-Apr-11
        250

                                                                                                                                       250
        200                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Day Night Consumption Split
                                                                                                 Electrical Demand, kW




                                                                                                                                       200
        150
                                                                                                                                       150                                                                                          Total Night
        100                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Consumption
                                                                                                                                       100                                                                                             20%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Total Day
         50                                                                                                                             50                                                                                                                                            Consumption
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         80%
          0                                                                                                                             0
              00:30    03:30        06:30      09:30   12:30       15:30         18:30   21:30                                         29-Apr-11             30-Apr-11               1-May-11



                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Tel                                  Email




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  22
The gas monthly footprint report below also shows the impact of the actions taken to resolve the
incorrect time settings




Project programme - there were delays in arranging the programme with the supplier that impacted on
the project completion dates. As TfGM was not the client of the meter installer, our ability to influence
this was limited. This is a consequence of having the energy supplier install the meters, which they
then subcontracted out. Whilst this reduced costs to TfGM, it limited our options in terms of product
and contractors. For TfGM, this was an acceptable risk as it enabled the immediate installation and
improvement of energy management without having to wait for a prolonged period until a budget
became available. If funding is not an issue, organisations should consider direct purchase of AMR in
order to minimise the issues outlined above. Direct purchase would also enable clients to select the
AMR product considered most suitable, whilst TfGM had limited influence on the AMR product
selected, beyond confirming that it met minimum requirements. It is also important to note that there
may be external funding sources to meet the initial costs of installing AMR.

Post Implementation - AMR brings no benefits unless you actually utilise the data. In order to make
AMR installation worthwhile, it is critical that the data is monitored and that targets are set. This is
referred to as automated monitoring and targeting (AM&T). It can be done manually using
spreadsheets, or a significant amount of work can be automated. At TfGM, an energy management
information system, “Systems Link”, was procured, which we use to monitor all energy data and to set
individual site based targets. This enables automatic exception reporting and reduces the staff
resources required for data analysis. We report progress on a monthly basis to the Executive Group;
however weekly reporting takes place within the energy management team.

TfGM‟s energy supplier provides access to the data from the AMR, through its general website. TfGM
pays for “day plus one”, which gives us access to data 24 hours after usage. This is particularly
useful for TfGM as there are many properties across our estate that are not staffed, so detection of
energy waste through data is often the first way issues are identified. This costs slightly more and
there are a range of data availability options which should be considered before selection. If the




                                                                                                            23
resources are not available to analyse data very regularly, there is no value to be gained from paying
for data to be available earlier.

Further Information – Firstly, your energy supplier is a good place to start to learn about the metering
options available. Secondly, check whether they are planning to replace any of your meters already;
there are legal requirements for suppliers in the UK to replace meters and cascade the installation of
AMR to all properties in the future. Thirdly, check the relevant government departments for any policy
decisions that could influence your actions. TfGM would also recommend looking at carbon or energy
reduction advice bodies. In the UK, the Carbon Trust offers a variety of support and a wide range of
publications for guidance on these types of issues, including AMR installation. Finally, TfGM would
recommend contacting suppliers, looking into a range of products as well as viewing the data you
would receive from each. There are a wide variety of formats, which may have implications for your
systems and you will need to consider how everything works together. For example, if you have an IT
based monitoring system, does the data need to be in a specified format to allow automated input? If
you do not have experience of AMR or energy management, then it is strongly recommended meeting
with an organisation that does, in advance of making any decisions. Learning from the expertise and
experience of others is critical to ensuring best practice is implemented. Further useful resources are
listed in the Glossary section of this report.

4.2.4 Impact
Whilst the benefits from AMR cannot be quantified immediately, if the data they provide is effectively
managed, it is common for energy savings of at least 10% to be realised. After the first full year of
AMR, TfGM‟s metered electricity use reduced by over 6%, however this figure included energy use at
newly acquired property assets as well. This equated to a 9% reduction in CO 2 emissions from
metered electricity use, 263 TCO2 less than the previous financial year. These savings cannot be
attributed solely to the installation of AMR; however they would not have been achieved without it. It
is envisaged that metered electricity use will see significant further reductions in 2010/2011 as a result
of the combination of the installation of AMR and introduction of monitoring and targeting systems.

.

                                                                                                     2 Piccadilly Place


                                                                                                                      0



            451343323                                                            1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1     2       2     2   2    2
                               1   2   3     4     5   6   7       8     9       0       1       2       3       4       5       6       7       8       9     0       1     2   3    4
            01/04/2011 Fri   m m m m m m m                                                                               m m         m           m m                                      Maximum      13 kWh
            02/04/2011 Sat   m m m m m m m m m                                       m m m m m                           m m m           m m m m                   m m m m m m m m        Minimim       0 kWh
            03/04/2011 Sun   m m m m m m m m m                                                                                   m                                 m m m m m m m m        Block Size    1 kWh
            04/04/2011 Mon   m m m m m m m                                                                                                                                 m m m m m m
            05/04/2011 Tue   m m m m m m m                                               m       m           m           m       m       m m             m m M             m m m m m m                  1   kWh
            06/04/2011 Wed   m m m m m m m                                       m       m       m       m           m       m       m       m m         m     m       m m m m m m m                    2   kWh
            07/04/2011 Thu   m m m m m m m m m                                                       m               m       m       m m         m       m                 m m m m m m                  3   kWh
            08/04/2011 Fri   m m m m m m m m m m                                                     m           m       m       m m         m           m     m                                        4   kWh
            09/04/2011 Sat   m m m m m m m m m m                                     m m m m             m m m m m               m m m m             m m m m m m m m m m m m                            5   kWh
            10/04/2011 Sun   m m m m m m m m m                                               m m m m             m m m m m               m m m m             m m m m m m m m m m                        6   kWh
            11/04/2011 Mon   m m m m m m m m m                               m       m       m                                   m       m       m                         m m m m m m                  7   kWh
            12/04/2011 Tue   m m m m m m m m m                                                                                                   m                         m m m m m m                  8   kWh
            13/04/2011 Wed   m m m m m m m m m                                                                                                                             m m m m m m                  9   kWh
            14/04/2011 Thu   m m m m m m m m m                                                   m           m       m           m       m m                               m m m m m m                 10   kWh
            15/04/2011 Fri   m m m m m m m m m                                           m       m       m       m       m m         m           m
            16/04/2011 Sat   m m m m m m m m m m                                             m m m           m m m m m               m m m m m               m m m m m m m m m m
            17/04/2011 Sun   m m m m m m m m m                                                   m m         m m m m m m                 m m m           m m m m m m m m m m m
            18/04/2011 Mon   m m m m m m m m m                               m       m       m       m           m       m       m       m m             m m       m m m m m m m m
            19/04/2011 Tue   m m m m m m m m m                                       m       m       m           m       m m         m       m m         m m m m m m m m m m m
            20/04/2011 Wed   m m m m m m m m m m                                     m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m
            21/04/2011 Thu   m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m                         m       m       m m             m m         m       m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m
            22/04/2011 Fri   m m m m m m m m m m                             m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m
            23/04/2011 Sat   m m m m m m m m m m                   m m m         m m m m             m m m m             m m m m             m m m m           m m m m m m m m m
            24/04/2011 Sun   m m m m m m m m m m                                     m m         m m m m m               m m m m             m m m m m
            25/04/2011 Mon   m m m m m m m m m m                                             m m m m m               m m m m m               m m m m m             m       m m m m m m
            26/04/2011 Tue   m m m m m m m m m m                                 m       m m                 m m         m m         m       m m         m     m m m m m m m m m
            27/04/2011 Wed   m m m m m m m m m m m m       m m               m m         m       m m             m m         m m         m m         m       m m m         m m m m m m
            28/04/2011 Thu   m m m m m m m m m m m m       m       m    m        m m                     m       m m         m m             m m         m     m m         m m m m m m
            29/04/2011 Fri   m m m m m m m m m m m m m         m       m m m m m m               m m m m             m m         m m m m             m m m m m m            m m m m
            30/04/2011 Sat   m m m m m m m m m m m m m         m m      m m m m m m                  m m m m             m m m m             m m m m m             m m m m m m m m


                                                                             1 1                 1       1      1 1              1       1     1         1     2       2 2 2          2
                               1   2   3      4    5   6   7       8     9 0 1                   2       3      4 5              6       7     8         9     0       1 2 3          4
                                           Night                         Morning                             Afternoon                       Peak                      Evening




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  24
The real benefit of AMR is that it allows significantly improved energy management, through
enhanced understanding of energy usage. Reputational benefits may also be achieved through the
CRC league table, and through stakeholders such as tenants understanding the actions that TfGM is
taking to reduce energy use and carbon emissions. TfGM is currently installing gas AMR at all sites,
and will then move onto a water meter replacement programme. This reflects the value AMR have
brought to the organisation.




                                                                                                       25
5 Behavioural change

5.1 Ecodriving buses (moBiel)

5.1.1 Description
The project aim was to make the driving of the buses more economic, both environmentally and
financially and to optimise the safety of the road traffic by the professional education/training of
employees. The project aimed to give the 298 bus drivers at moBiel the opportunity to optimise their
driving in an economic way. Since 2006 on-the-job-training for one day has been organised for each
driver. Two buses are prepared with special technical equipment to detect and collect the
measurements of the individual driving the bus.

The aim of the eco-training sessions is to ensure that the bus drivers are able:

        i.    to analyse and explain different specific consumption curves of motors

        ii.   to know the meaning of after-treatment of exhaust gases and the most important
              systems of this after-treatment

       iii.   to achieve economic relations between speed and the transmission of the gear
              mechanism

       iv.    to know the physical laws and limits of the vehicle

        v.    to optimise the fuel consumption of the vehicle.

As part of the training courses there is a theoretical section that prepares the driver for the practical
driving session. This is then followed by another theoretical section, which examines the economic
driving style achieved. This is then followed by a second practical driving session, which aims to take
into account the new learned knowledge.

The benefit obtained from the enhanced driving style is the potential reduction of diesel consumption.

5.1.2 Prerequisites
Prerequisites                       essential optional
Media fitted room                   X
Teacher                             X
Buses with technical equipment
and tools for measurement           X




                                                                                                            26
The tools used to take the measurements in the buses are shown below:




Photo: SiemensVDO (EDM 1404, Elektronisches Dieselverbrauchsmesssystem)




Photo: SiemensVDO (EDM Eco Elektronisches Dieselverbrauchsmesssystem).




                                                                          27
5.1.3 Implementation
5.1.3.1. Project launch

An external company was commissioned to prepare a PowerPoint presentation for the training and it‟s
objectives. This presentation is used during the training events, which always take place on Mondays
in the “training year”. The details of implementation are as follows:

         the training is an on-going action and is repeated every fifth year
         the number of people affected: 298 bus drivers
         staff needed: an external or internal trainer, an internal organiser
         timing of implementation: the training is held in groups of five or six drivers.


Opportunities
       This project could be used in any public transport company which has buses or other vehicles
         using fuel
         Potential improvements: an improvement could be to fit more buses with the metering
         equipment to make the user able to optimise the individual driving
         The approximate costs are about 1,800 Euro per course.

5.1.3.2. Project follow-up

     Repeating the training measures and keeping an eye on the Diesel consumption in respect with
     the number of lines and driven km/year is a planned project follow-up.


     Difficulties:


         It is not possible to check the individual driving style of the bus drivers after the training if
         not all buses are equipped with the needed equipment
         If the bus is driven on different lines, the direct comparison of the real fuel reduction is not
         given
         Working with the yearly mileage of all buses and the yearly fuel consumption on the
         network, for new development the following has to be taken into consideration:
                1. New lines could - due to topographic and traffic - need either more or less energy
                     then the average.
                2. Also rail replacement bus services due to road or tram works have their own
                     results.




                                                                                                             28
5.1.4 Impact
The impact of the training and the newly skilled drivers‟ more efficient driving styles had the following
results:

      Average driving performance per year                       circa. 70,000 km/annum/bus

      Fleet performance per year                                     5,250,000 km/annum

                                                              “normal” Bus: 36-38 litres/100 km
      Average consumption                                    articulated Bus: 49-53 litres/100 km
                                                            fleet average: circa. 48 litres/100 km

      Annual fleet consumption                                      2,520,000 litres/annum
      (75 buses, average fuel price 1.05 Euro/litre)           per vehicle: 33,600 litres/annum

      10% savings due to economic driving                    252,000 litres/annum => 3.528 Euro
      expected                                                       per vehicle/annum

      Annual result of CO2 reduction                                     660 tons/CO2



As can be seen from the table above the impact of the driver training has had a major impact on both
reducing CO2 emissions and also on the cost savings for fuel resulting from more efficient and
economic driving styles.




                                                                                                            29
5.2 Energy week (TfGM)

5.2.1 Description

As part of a wider package of staff energy awareness, TfGM held an "Energy Week" in November
2009 to drive behavioural change in staff and see if measurable results could be achieved during a
short period. The objective was to ensure all staff members understood that they had a role to play in
reducing TfGM‟s energy use and to encourage them to take small measures towards improving the
energy efficiency at their place of work. In addition, raising staff awareness of TfGM‟s energy strategy
and objectives and how staff could report energy waste were secondary objectives of the process.

We provided site energy information packs to all staffed sites including information on their energy
usage and tips to save energy and report energy waste. Posters and stickers were put up at all
staffed sites before the Energy Week started to give them background information on energy use and
tips to help reduce waste. The Energy Week was promoted in advance, daily energy saving tips were
emailed to all staff, as well as further e-bulletins and internal communications with information on
energy saving. All staffed operational properties were put in a week-long competition to see who
could reduce their electricity use the most and the winning site received both team and individual
prizes. We also monitored the number of PCs, monitors and laptops left on at our head office both
immediately before and at the end of the week. Those who had turned both off were left a chocolate
bar and a note thanking them for their efforts. We delivered a lunchtime seminar to staff on energy
efficiency providing detailed information on our usage and plans to save energy.

5.2.2 Prerequisites

This Quick Win is applicable to all organisations or sites where human behaviour has an impact on
their energy usage. If a property had entirely automated controls of heating, lighting and small power
and no local control over energy consumption, than it would not necessarily be worthwhile. However,
this action is not only about saving energy but also about raising the awareness of employees about
the issues involved and how their behaviour can impact on energy use at any location. It would
therefore still bring benefits even when they might not be realised through change in a particular site‟s
energy usage.

5.2.3 Implementation

This was the first time TfGM had held a week-long promotion to raise awareness and reduce energy
use. It therefore required significantly more staff resources to establish initially that it would if it were
an on-going repeated activity. Initially, we planned the week as part of a wider annual package of
staff awareness and behavioural change activities, and sought high-level approval for the initiative. A
small budget was agreed for communication purposes and prizes, and the preparations began
approximately three months before the event.

The first thing to be decided upon is the date of the promotion, and it can be worthwhile trying to tie it
in with a national or international event. For example, in the UK, many organisations‟ plan to tie their
                                                                             st    th
2011 promotional weeks to events such as “Climate Week” held from 21 to 27 March. This can
enable organisations to reduce their costs, by taking advantage of promotional material and resources
pre-prepared and can add to the impact of the week by highlighting the wider national and
international context. However, there can be disadvantages to tying in with existing promotion as




                                                                                                                30
well, such as a loss of focus on the key messages, potentially confusing people and also reducing the
legitimacy of the event at times. For example, many UK based national carbon related promotions,
including Climate Week, have corporate sponsors whose activities may not always seem in line with
the initiative.

Following the selection of a date, TfGM drafted an initial set of activities, planned and developed a
draft action plan outlining key events, action owners and the work required to deliver them. This
document also formed the basis of our initial discussions with our communications department and
the development of a communications plan. It is important to note that whilst preparations took
around three months, engagement with the communications team began earlier, to ensure they had
time to plan their workload and ensure sufficient staff resources were available.

At this stage, it is important to be clear what the aim of the week is, who the audience is, what the key
messages are, and how they should be communicated. For TfGM, the aim was to encourage staff
behavioural change, raise awareness of the organisations‟ new energy strategy and targets, and to
increase employee understanding of their site‟s energy use. There was no focus on the general
public, or on employees energy use outside of the office, although staff were directed to further
resources on their domestic energy use and efficiency.

This was a single event intended to be an annually recurring action. TfGM did not hold another
Energy Week in November 2010 due to an internal reorganization. TfGM intends to hold another
Energy Week in Spring 2011 and again in January 2012.

All staff members, temporary or agency staff, consultants and tenants were affected or engaged
during the “Energy Week” - over 700 people. It was decided that anyone who could influence TfGM‟s
energy use should be engaged during the week.

This type of event takes a considerable amount of staff time and planning. In particular, TfGM‟s
communications department spent several days developing and delivering the communications plan
and promotional materials in conjunction with the Energy Officer. The Energy Officer prepared site
energy information packs for each staffed site in addition to arranging the events during the week and
delivering actions such as a seminar to staff and monitoring of IT equipment left on overnight. The
amount of staff time spent could possibly be reduced in a number of ways, particularly if certain
systems such as providing sites‟ with energy usage information had already been established.

The activities TfGM planned included the following:

             Posters displayed at all operational sites encouraging energy efficiency (some free from
             the Carbon Trust, others designed by our communications department)

             Stickers provided for all manual light switches to encourage staff to turn them off (all
             provided free of charge by the Carbon Trust)

             Each site received an energy information pack with detailed guidance on the property‟s
             energy usage and potential ways for staff to help reduce it

             Set up a week long competition between operational properties with prizes for the site
             with the most reduced electricity consumption

             Arranged a group visit to an example Eco-House

             Adding significant amounts of information to the internal intranet




                                                                                                            31
             Emailing daily energy saving tips to all staff, tailored to their place of work (head office
             and operational staff each received slightly different tips)

             Communications in the form of emails, e-bulletins, internal newsletters, directors
             briefings, managers briefings and more

             A lunchtime seminar to provide staff with an overview of TfGM‟s energy efficiency targets
             and priority actions

             PC monitoring exercise to measure the difference in hardware turned off overnight as a
             result of the Energy Week activities (this was measured both immediately before and
             after the week and those who had turned all equipment off were left a chocolate and a
             thank you note)

             Efficient driving training for TfGM fleet drivers.

In total, TfGM estimate that the event took approximately 5 days staff time each from 4 staff
members. This involved meetings and development work, but also time during the week to deliver
activities. The budget available was initially 229 Euro for prizes and printing, although this did not
include any staff resource costs.

Part of the benefits of the activity for TfGM was the lessons learned as to how similar activities could
be improved in the future. It is important that such activities are seen as part of a wider, ongoing
process to inform and encourage change in staff behaviour. TfGM recommend developing an
ongoing annual communications plan, for wider energy and carbon related promotions, is completed
to ensure the momentum from a single promotional week is not lost.

TfGM also found that many people find issues of energy and carbon confusing and actually wanted
basic information that explained the key concepts and how the different issues were interlinked. We
assumed that people already knew what climate change was, for example, but found many staff
wanted more information on the issue to understand what it meant.

The most successful aspects of the week in terms of impact, both involved prizes of some sort; the
operational sites‟ energy use competition had the biggest overall impact during the week, and the
competitive element seemed to be a key motivating factor. Prizes were a 11 Euro gift voucher for
each member of staff at the winning site, and a food hamper to be shared between them. For office
based staff, the prize available was a chocolate bar, which we actually found motivated people
considerably, and continues to be a key factor for people turning off their equipment today. This
exercise is an ongoing action for TfGM, and we monitor energy using equipment left on every three
months, providing the same prize and thank you note. This has been very popular and has had a
measurable impact.

It is very useful to have some methods to measure the success of activities, not only for follow up
communications, but also to ensure the business case for future promotional work can be supported
with a strong financial argument. It is helpful to have some control sites‟ excluded from the campaign
for this purpose, to highlight the difference between sites that were targeted and those that weren‟t;
this also enables quantification of the activity.

It is also important to note that in properties where staff have a limited ability to influence energy use,
such as those with significant automatic controls, a campaign of this type may not be beneficial in the
same way. TfGM‟s head office staff could only influence energy use by turning off small power




                                                                                                              32
equipment at their work station so this was the main action that we focused on promoting for these
staff members.

Finally, TfGM found that site based staff preferred very different methods of communication to office
based staff. In the future, TfGM intends to send a member of staff to each site during the next Energy
Week, in order to provide more detailed and specific guidance to site staff. For TfGM‟s operations,
these are the key staff to influence, and the communication methods used, such as emails, were
probably not the most appropriate for this purpose

Another activity that TfGM intends to add to any future Energy Week will be a staff survey of attitudes
and awareness both in advance and following the week of activity. What we couldn‟t measure was
how much the activities had succeeded in raising awareness and knowledge, and so an electronic
staff survey has been developed for future use.

5.2.4 Impact

The impact of the week was quantified in two ways. Firstly, we calculated the number of PC‟s, hard
drives, monitors, scanners etc. left on overnight prior to the Energy Week to establish a baseline
measure. Following the Energy Week, we conducted the exercise again to measure whether the
activity had any impact on staff energy behaviour in our head office. The results were extremely
positive, with a 50% reduction in the number of hard drives left on following the Energy Week and a
15% reduction in the number of monitors left on.

Across TfGM‟s operational properties, the electricity use during the week was compared to the same
period the preceding year in order to gauge the impact of the promotion. There was an average
reduction of over 2% of TfGM‟s total energy use during the week compared to historic data, and a
saving of 3,819 kWh electricity during the week itself. If this level of reduction were maintained
consistently, TfGM would save 198,588 kWh each year, equating to 107,346 kg CO2. It should be
noted that some sites performed significantly better than others and these reductions were largely
made up of sites‟ which reduced their usage considerably and sites which had no noticeable change.

The key factor that influenced the success at a particular site was the site manager themselves, and
their enthusiasm or interest in the week. Some managers made it a key priority; others did not
mention it to their staff. These individuals will be the key to improved performance in TfGM‟s future
promotions.

It is also important to communicate the impact of the promotion, and let people know what the results
of their efforts were. TfGM followed up the week with a summary of the results and a thank you to
staff using the same range of internal communication methods, such as emails, internal publications
and intranet and meetings with senior managers.




                                                                                                          33
5.3 Energy challenge (STIB)

5.3.1 Description
The Energy challenge project aims at improving the behaviour of employees in relation to the
environmental impact of their activities through the promotion of good practices, whilst keeping a low
project cost. The concept of this competition has helped to improve accountability within the sites and
has highlighted the influence of behaviour on energy consumption.

This project, which started at STIB in 2008 has been inspired by a European initiative, the Energy
Trophy (http://www.energytrophy.org/). Since this project focuses on behaviours, it does not require
any significant investment, but does call for the long-term involvement of one person with
responsibility for the project and the support from the company hierarchy to ensure the full
cooperation of all participants.

In terms of benefits, STIB has observed energy reductions of around 15% (ranging from 7% to 20%)
for various workshops and stores. This value mainly depends on the initial potential of improvements
and the awareness as well as the motivation of the participants.

5.3.2 Prerequisites

Essential Prerequisites

            An energy accounting system with historical energy consumption data
            Functional installation, without any significant dysfunction. The risk is high that if a facility
            is defective, the dynamics of the project will be impacted.

Optional prerequisites

            Benchmarking of energy consumptions and comparison with similar buildings (in kWh²/m²
            or kWh/m²)
            Tele (Smart)-metering.

5.3.3 Implementation
As explained above, the project focuses on employee behaviour using energy challenges organised
inside the various locations of STIB such as stores, workshops etc. Each year, during the heating
season, new challenges are organized in 2 to 4 locations within the company. For the locations that
have already benefited from energy challenges, the actions taken during these previous challenges
are re-stated and highlighted to ensure their continuation. An important aspect of the challenge is the
ability to be able to conduct rigorous energy accounting so as to ensure that a good follow-up is
possible and that efforts will be recognised.




                                                                                                                34
Main figures


 Single event/on going action                     Recurring action

                                                  500 persons in 2010. Targeting the entire
 Number of people affected
                                                  company in the future.
                                                  1 with main project responsibility, maintenance
 Staff needed                                     staff and local staff
                                                  50 working days per year.
                                                  50 working days * prix + 6,000 Euro for internal
 Budget
                                                  communication


Phasing of the project

The project is organized into two phases: the project launch for new locations, and the project follow-
up for locations where energy challenges have already taken place.

First challenge in a location (project launch)

The following activities are carried out in this first phase to launch an energy challenge in a new
location:

        Identify potential best practices to be implemented (defined internally and inspired by other
        actions)
        Call for nominations for the position of energy watchers, which are local workers which are
        interested in becoming contact persons for environmental activities.
        Organise a field visit with the entity maintenance manager and ensure that the facilities are in
        good condition. Achieve the required repairs.
        Ensure managerial support: Go to the site manager, present the project and request their
        validation and support. They will be requested to follow-up the meter readings, free some
        time for energy watchers and to help motivate the staff.
        Perform the energy accounting monitoring (kWh performance, historical consumption to
        ensure comparability of results).
        Build up your communication plan (see examples on the following pages)
             o Build awareness tools with members of the communication entity
                      Awareness poster
                      Consumption poster with the tip of the week
             o Start a media coverage of the project
                      Intranet: Post articles and flashes
                      Company magazine.
        Start the energy challenge
        During the whole heating season (from October to May) provide a weekly support for the
        energy watcher on site. Meet with the energy watchers; discuss weekly analysis and display
        consumptions, advices, support, analysis etc.
        Organise the closing event which takes place in the workshop. Invite the company hierarchy
        and foresee a media coverage. Prizes can be distributed during that closing event to
        recognise success, but the most important are the acknowledgements to the teams
        participating to the project.




                                                                                                           35
  Energy challenge results       Energy consumption figures




Illustration for energy saving   Illustration for energy saving




                                                                  36
Why save energy ?                                  Energy Tips




   Example of internal publication related to energy challenges




                                                                  37
Best Practices

Heating

   1.    Turn off the heating of unoccupied rooms.
   2.    Reduce the heating when leaving your workplace.
   3.    Do not open the window when you get too warm, but turn down the heating.
   4.    Never cover your radiators. By covering your radiator or placing a piece of furniture in front of
         it, you reduce the heating surface and limit its efficiency by 10%.
   5.    Caulk up, as far as possible, pathways for the cold air.
   6.    Wear a sweater instead of increasing the heating (reducing the degree of t ° = 7% savings.
         Reducing from 22 ° C to 19 ° C can save 20% on fuel consumption).
   7.    Close the doors between heated and unheated rooms, hallways.
   8.    Close the radiator valves located in premises used very little (eg local storage.).
   9.    Avoid using an electric heater because the extra kWh of electricity costs around three times
         the price per kWh in heating!
   10.   If you absolutely need an electric heater, pay attention to waste: Do not overheat and shut it
         down before leaving.
   11.   Do not heat the hallways.
   12.   Before you leave make sure no window is left open and close the door of the room to keep it
         warm for the next morning.
   13.   If the bottom of the radiator is hot and the top is cool, drain the radiator to remove air pockets
         that prevent the emission of heat. (Start with the lower radiators and remember to add water
         into the system).
   14.   Dust traps heat, dust regularly your radiators.
   15.   Report any malfunction by calling 3006 and to the energy team.


         Correctly set your thermostat valves

                      Numbering on the valve              Temperature in the room

                                    *                                 7°C

                                    1                                 12°C

                                    2                                 16°C

                                    3                                 20°C

                                    4                                 24°C

                                    5                                 25°C



   It is not because the valve is on position 5 that it will warm the room faster! The valves will only
   stop heating once the desired temperature is reached.




                                                                                                              38
Electricity

        1.    Turn off the lights when you leave a room more than 10 minutes.
        2.    When there is nobody in a room, turn off systematically.
        3.    Turn on the light only when necessary.
        4.    Turn off the lights when daylight is sufficient.
        5.    Prefer focused lighting rather than lighting an entire room.
        6.    Whenever possible, locate your desk near a window.
        7.    After a meeting turn off the light in the room.
        8.    At the end of the day: Do not "let the lights on for the last one" because you may be the
              last!
        9.    Turn off the screen of your computer whenever you are away.
        10.   Verify that the standby function copiers, printers, fax is scheduled.
        11.   Avoid printing or prefer a duplex mode or even the 4-1 mode.
        12.   Turn off coffee machines and keep the coffee in a thermos.
        13.   Report any malfunction by calling 3006 and to the energy team.

Water

        1.    Do not leave taps running uselessly.
        2.    When you leave a room, make sure the taps are closed.
        3.    When you shower, turn off the tap while soaping.
        4.    Report any malfunction by calling 3006 and to the energy team (water leaking sink,
              shower, toilet) a water leak in the toilet correspond to 240 litres of water per day.




Monitoring phase

        Monitor monthly consumption, analyse and display this information
        Continue to support the energy watcher as described in the first phase, but only once a month
        during this phase
        Continue to secure the link with the maintenance services to ensure constant and smooth
        operation of facilities

Potential improvements

The project can be improved by adding a tele-metering module with real-time display of the different
energy consumptions. This would be a great way for the participants to view in real-time the impact of
their actions.

However, keep in mind that these technical improvements will never be as important as the human
contact with the workers.

Risks

It is important to ensure that the infrastructures and facilities are functional during the challenge. Any
technical issues that prevent the users reaching their goals will discourage people.




                                                                                                             39
Difficulties

        The main difficulty is to change employee behaviour. It is hardest at the beginning of the
        project but as soon as results become visible, the situation is much more favourable for
        change.

        When the energy challenges end, it can be hard to keep people motivated and aware of need
        for them to maintain their efforts to keep low energy consumption.

5.3.4 Impact
The following impact figures are an average on the last 2.5 years of the project - this value will
increase as the project extends to other locations. They have been accounted by reading meters with
a weekly evaluation during the first phase of the challenges and a monthly evaluation afterwards.


               Actual amount of CO2 saved                     484 Tons/year


               Actual amount of energy saved                 2,139 MWh/year

                                                            78,333 Euro/year
                                                   Note that this value increases with the
               Actual amount of money saved
                                                    experience and the number of sites
                                                                participating.


In terms of human impact, some participants have shared that behavioural change which has also led
them to change their attitudes to energy consumption in their own homes. This project also improves
the links between the maintenance team and the participants of the project, achieving a long-term
impact.




                                                                                                      40
6 Energy efficient investments

6.1 Buildings regulation (RATP)

6.1.1 Description
In its energy policy, RATP made a commitment to respect and to implement the commitments of law
“Grenelle de l‟environnement”: to reduce energy consumption by at least 40 % and the emissions of
greenhouse gases by at least 50 % for the tertiary buildings.

Therefore the department in charge of RATP holdings proposed actions in order to reach those
objectives. Actions were agreed according to the following criteria: water-savings and energy-savings
actions with a return on investment lower than 4 years are systematically deployed in tertiary sites
(the total surface is of about 220 000 m²). The objective was to cover 80% of the RATP site surface
before the end of 2010.

The RATP headquarters, with a 56,000 m² surface
and 2,600 persons working there, was the highest
energy-consumer site of RATP.         Therefore, the
first actions started on this building: improvement
of the ventilation system regulation, the
replacement of more than one thousand
ventilators, training of the system management
team, relighting with LED in circulations passages,
installing presence sensors, installing sanitary
without water etc.

The primary Quick Win here includes all of the
changes relating to the temperature regulation (in
winter and in summer). The estimated savings
were of 1,200,000 kWh, 98 teq CO2 and about
80,000 Euro per year.

The savings actually realised were widely over the
expectations with 6,750,000 kWh, 598 teq CO2 and
483,000 Euro saved in 20 months. These gains
were much better than anticipated because the
initial estimates were calculated including the on-
going maintenance practices. The action was
completed with the training of the maintenance
team.

The measured return on investment is 2 years.




                                                                                                        41
6.1.2 Prerequisites
This Quick Win project requires the transport company to own the buildings in which the
transformation is done.

All the work on the optimisation of the system, especially with the training of maintenance teams,
needs good collaboration with the company managing the installation.

It is essential that detailed, monthly energy consumptions measurements are made to ensure the best
results possible. The use of telemeters is the best way to collect values.

6.1.3 Implementation
           Single event
           Number of people affected : 2,600 people working in the building
           Staff needed : the facility management team - about 7 persons for a building of this size
            (RATP Headquarters - 56,000 m²).
           Implementation methodology used (requires meetings, campaigns, measurements and
            monitoring) and implementation phases : feasibility study with a good estimation of needs
            and the choice of a set point temperature according to occupational constraints, installation
            of electricity meters, analysis every month of the consumption, taking into account the
            climate conditions.
           Timing of implementation of the different phases: 2 years
           Budget : 597,000 Euro for the part of the project relating to temperature control
Risks:
           No return on investment in the foreseen timing but this risk is controlled with a good
            assessment of needs, thermal discomfort of buildings occupants.
Opportunities:
           In each big tertiary building with an ageing installation.
Difficulties:
           Investment and operating costs are not paid by the same department.

6.1.4 Impact
The building consumes 3 kinds of energy: electricity, steam from a local heating network (CPCU:
Compagnie Parisienne de Chauffage Urbain) and cool water (for air conditioning).

The following six graphs present the different energy consumptions and associated GHG emissions of
the building (2010 end year is not yet known for air conditioning and was estimated to be equal to the
previous year). It is based on the monthly collected consumptions and emissions for each year.

The conclusion is that results are very good and still better thanks to the project being well managed.

The first decreases were observed in 2008.

The heating consumptions and the GHG emissions decrease of 50% between 2008 and 2010.




                                                                                                            42
The electricity consumptions decreased by 23% between 2008 and 2010. The GHG emissions due to
the electricity consumptions decreased by only 19% taking into account an increasing emission factor
for electricity.




                                                                                                       43
The air conditioning consumptions and the GHG emissions decreased by 41% between 2008 and
2010. (The RATP also has air conditioning energy consumption in winter because of IT equipment).




No complaints were received due to thermal discomfort.

The results were converted to allow an evaluation in the French Energetic Performance Diagnosis.
The building was at the H level (580kWhep/m²/year) and is now at the D level (250kWhep/m²/year).




                                                                                                   44
DPE 2007 :                                        DPE 2010 :



The Technical Management of the building uses the global consumptions follow-up. This program
allows the integration of all the parameters: comfort temperatures for occupants, the demanded power
etc.

The following pictures present the software used for this project:

The 3 buildings are monitored floor by floor (including underground floors):




                                                                                                       45
46
Example of the temperature monitoring for an air treatment module:




Electrical consumptions in real time:




                                                                     47
6.2 Relighting (moBiel)

6.2.1 Description
The periodic maintenance of the former existing lighting installation at the underground station
Hauptbahnhof (main station) is extremely intensive. The Plexiglas‟s body with screws and bolts has
to be opened to do the maintenance or to be repaired. The inner lamp unit must be loosened from its
screwed position and turned around. After that, the five lamps can be changed or repaired. Each
lamp unit (Philipps special lamp) consists of 3 Dulux L 36W and 2 Dulux D 26W (= 160W). The
station is fitted with 55 lamp units like this.

The idea was to change the mentioned five
lamps per unit to NORKA lamps consisting of
two HQ T5 54W (= 108W) fluorescent lamps per
unit. In doing so, there are two positive effects:
firstly, the maintenance rate is extended from 2
to 4 years and secondly there is a better light
efficiency, which leads to a reduction of energy
costs.

6.2.2 Prerequisites
Prerequisites                           essential    optional
2 motivated employees                   X
Methods engineer for lamps                           X

6.2.3 Implementation
6.2.3.1 Project launch

moBiel created a prototype of the new light which was presented to the city of Bielefeld, who is the
owner of the underground infrastructure. Whilst the first prototype was not accepted, a second
prototype was and the order for the new lights was placed.

The replacement of the lamps took place without interrupting the business operation of the station.

In detail:

             Number of people affected: none; replacement of the lights was undertaken during normal
             business operation and through usual maintenance work.
             Staff needed: 2 motivated employees
             Implementation methodology used / implementation phases: initial idea, calculation of costs
             and potential savings, prototypes produced, acceptance of the project, changing of the
             lamps during regular maintenance period.
             Budget
             55 lamps at 464 Euro = 25,500 Euro
             Material: circa. 500 Euro every other year




                                                                                                           48
           Maintenance: circa. 400 Euro (could in fact be reduced in combining the usual changing
           dates with the implementation of the new lamps).
Risks
        1. A risk could be to take the wrong lamps that would be needed for emergency cases. The
           emergency lighting needs to be maintained.
        2. Consideration needs to be given to the local conditions and whether the installation of new
           lighting is cost effective.
        3. It is possible that the lamps could fail during the extended four year maintenance period,
           resulting in costs not initially foreseen.
Opportunities
           It can also be used in other types of light-bands.

6.2.3.2 Project follow-up

The advantage of the lamps in the main station was the form of the fitting. Because of the form of a
fitting the replacement could be achieved easier than in other underground stations where the lamps
are directly in the ceiling. But nevertheless, as an ongoing action, it is planned to carry out the
relighting in other substations e.g. “Wittekindstraße”. In this underground station there are 58W-
lamps (1.55m length) which generate an energy consumption of 58,429 kWh/year. After having
replaced the lighting by 48W-lamps (1.53m length) with an annual consumption of 50,221 kWh, the
energy saving rate would be 8,208 kWh/year.

In planning the new lighting installations in the main station, consideration has been given to leaving
some of the existing lamps which may help light efficiency and to setting the lamps a greater distance
apart.

6.2.4 Impact
The impact assessment of the new lighting installations can be seen in the grid below. It can be seen
that significant CO2 reductions are made as well as a reduction in energy consumption.

                  lamps                                 Consumption in kWh per year
                   (old) 5-lamps-unit                   64,240

                  (new) 2-lamps-unit                    43,362

                   Difference / reduction               20,878

                                                        tons CO2 per year
                  Reduction CO2 (t/a)                   11.06


The reduction in costs, shown below, bring further economic benefits from the project and secure a
return on investment of circa 5-6 years.

Less energy costs.                  circa. 3,132 Euro
Less often maintenance:             circa. 2,000 Euro
Less material                       circa. 250 Euro




                                                                                                          49
That means:                       circa. 5,300 Euro annual savings.


7 Technical improvements

7.1 Connect and disconnect of metro vehicles (RET)

7.1.1 Description
This project aims at driving with fewer metro cars by disconnecting the cars forming the metro
vehicles (long trains 4 cars to 1 car) during off-peak periods. In a brief investigation into the
passenger load during off-peak hours it was established that the train vehicle length in these off-peak
hours could be reduced and therefore cost savings realised. In addition, the project considered how
the changes would impact on the existing subway timetables. The project delivered the following
results.

        Fewer train kilometres.

        Lower maintenance costs.

        Less energy traction consumption.

        Greater security awareness.




7.1.2 Prerequisites
This Quick Win project is suitable for any other public transport company whose train/metro cars can
connect and disconnect to form longer or shorter vehicles.




                                                                                                          50
Analysis of off-peak hours

Average passenger load when deployed SG3 single set (or 2x Type B)

                                                    Schedule 2010
                   Line                              ABC          D          E
                   Monday to Friday from 10-15       78%        118%        p.m.
                                                                (84%)
                   Saturday                          52%         70%        p.m.
                                                                (50%)
                   Sunday                            64%         70%        p.m.
                                                                (50%)
                   Evenings after 20                 50%         54%        p.m.
                                                                (38%)
                   Late opening                      71%         99%        p.m.
                                                                (71%)

The busiest point, peak time, peak direction, measured in June 2010.

Off-peak daytime working

The average occupancy during the day is 130 to 160 lines per round on the A B C lines and from 199
to 241 on line D. Please note, these are averages, the trains have a different rhythm by train, tram
and bus stopovers, schools, etc.

When using metro‟s of 1x42m on ABC and on D a 2x30m metro at an occupancy of 65-78% and 70-
85% of the standard capacity. That means that per trip more than 55 (ABC) to 100 (D) passengers
need to stand. Occupancy of over 75% is denoted as "quite busy", and can lead to delays, passenger
complaints and ultimately failure and loss of earnings. On weekdays it is too busy and impossible to
separate daytime metro vehicles on lines 2x30m ABC and D line to deploy.

Evening
In the evening (20-23), the occupancy of the metro lines is much lower. This is up from 102 to 109 on
average per car. This is approximately 50% of the capacity of a standard metro, in other words: all
seats filled. Use of a single set seems quite acceptable, both lines ABC and line D.

Saturday
On Saturday, the average occupancy on lines ABC at 105 to 92 passengers per trip, and on line D
129 to 143 passengers per trip. This is sufficient to travellers with a single set of lines SG3 ABC
respectively; two sets 30m D-line coaches to transport. The use of some set SG3 line D between 11
and 18h can be discouraging.

Sunday
On Sunday, the average occupancy on lines ABC at 121 to 130 passengers per trip, and on line D
109 to 144 passengers per trip. This is sufficient to travellers with a single set of lines SG3 ABC
respectively; two sets 30m D-line coaches in transport.




                                                                                                        51
 Proposal to reduce train length

                                 Schedule 2010                           Proposal
Line                               ABC        D                E           ABC       D                E
Monday to Friday from 10-15      2xSG3     3xB              2xRSG3       2xSG3    3xB              2xRSG3
                                 2-3xT     2xRSG3                        3xB      2xRSG3
                                 3xB                                     (3xT)
Saturday                         2xT       3xB              1xRSG3       1xSG3    2xB              1xRSG3
                                 2xSG3     2xRSG3
Sunday                           2xT       3xB              1xRSG3       1xSG3      2xB            1xRSG3
                                 2xSG3     2xRSG3
Evenings after 20                1-2xT     3xB              1xRSG3       1xSG3      1xSG3          1xRSG3
                                 1xSG3     2xRSG3
Late opening                     2xT       3xB              1xRSG3       1xSG3      2xB            1xRSG3
                                 1xSG3     2xRSG3
 T         = type 5200 with 30 meter length
 B         = type 5300-5400 with 30 meter length
 RSG3      = type 5500 with 42 meter length
 SG3       = type 5600 with 42 meter length

 Deployment Plan: The proposed reductions in train length will create extra handling steps in the
 operation (disconnect/connect of trains).

 Saturday and Sunday.

 It is proposed that all vehicles on Saturday and Sunday service at lines ABC with 1x42 metro and line
 D a 2x30 metro. Since there is not an option to disconnect during the day, this means that from the
 start of operation in the morning shorter metros need to be available. This will result in extra shunting
 activity on Friday evening and Sunday evening.

 Monday through Friday.

 These extra shunting activities are also needed on weekdays during the evening.

 7.1.3 Implementation
 The goal of this Quick Win project was to reduce the operational costs during off-peak periods.

 To reach this goal the following actions were taken:

           Investigation into the passenger load during off-peak hours, (when and how much
           passenger numbers is greatest).
           On going action
           Almost all departments are included (schedule adjustments).
           Requires approximately 3.5 FTE additional shunters.
           Implementation methodology: adjustments in the timetable and vehicle operation planning.
           Timing of implementation is done with the new timetable (December 2010).




                                                                                                             52
          No extra budget needed, because expenses are covered by the reduction in operational
          costs.



7.1.4 Impact
On Saturdays, we observe an annual savings of more than 740,000km and on Sundays about
570,000km. This provides for (budgeted 0.50 Euro per km) 650,000 Euro in total savings, excluding
any necessary additional staffing. Achieved at a level of 0.72 Euro per km delivers even at 940,000
Euro.

Saturday                  km
ABC                       581,648
D                         164,121
Saturday total            745,769 savings per year.

Sunday                    km
ABC                       434,328
D                         135,223
Sunday total              569,551 savings per year.


The savings from shortening during the evening are smaller. Depending on the rate 260,000 Euro to
370,000 Euro could be saved, but require additional personnel costs for the exchange and retrieval of
the coaches connected.

Week                      Km
ABC                       399,840
D                         124,950
Week total                524,790 savings per year.

The total savings is less vehicle km's 890,000 Euro to 1.3 million Euro per year.

For disconnecting, connecting, swapping back and riding metros to different locations must have
additional staff (drivers). It is estimates that this will require at least 3.5 FTE.

Reduction in kWh‟s

                   Estimation is 7% of 80 mln. kWh is 5.6 mln. kWh.




                                                                                                        53
7.2 Ecodrive metro (STIB)

7.2.1 Description
The Ecodrive project limits the maximum authorized speed of metro vehicles. The maximum speeds
are set to 60 km/h instead of 72 km/h (high speed) and 50 km/h instead of 60 km/h. This limitation is
active in regular situations and deactivated when a delay is observed on the metro network. An
additional metro vehicle has been added to the network in order to compensate for the slight delay
that is added to the network as a result of the slower speeds and to increase the robustness of the
network in case of any vehicle/technical failure.




This project started at STIB in 2008 and consisted mainly of training, technical activities (tuning of
metro network analysis tools) and in the deployment of signalling.

In terms of benefits, STIB has observed an energy reduction of 15% of the traction power required
and is the project is considered as a very profitable Quick Win. This project also improved the metro
regularity at the cost of a slightly longer time to transit (three minutes for the entire line).



                  The project has had the following positive impacts:

                      1. Reduced energy consumption (with environmental and economic
                         motivations)
                      2. Improved driver comfort by decreasing stress
                      3. Improved client comfort by smoother driving
                      4. Improved metro network regulation
                      5. Decreased wear of metro material.



                                                                                                         54
7.2.2 Prerequisites

                          A metro regulation system over which you have control and that you can tune to add new
                          constraints.
                          A sufficient number of metros that will ensure that you will be able to continue to offer a
                          sufficient quality of service in terms of metro frequency to compensate for the small
                          reduction in metro speeds.

7.2.3 Implementation
As explained above, the Metro Ecodrive project consists of reducing the maximum authorised speed
of metros to reduce energy consumption. This reduced speed mode is called “Eco Mode”. The Eco
Mode is disabled when delays are observed on the metro network, enabling the drivers to catch up
the delay by driving faster.

The regulation system is able to divide the network into subparts, each with a different speed mode
(Ecodrive or standard mode), based upon the congestion observed in this subpart. During a metro
journey, the driver can transit through different regulation modes. The Eco Mode is indicated by a
simple “Eco” signal in the tunnels:




As shown in the figure below, at the maximum speed (handle position 5), instead of driving at 72
km/h, the driver must reduce speed to 60 km/h in Eco Mode. When the driver drives at 60 km/h at
normal speed, in Eco Mode, the speed is reduced to 50 km/h.


                  5
Handle position




                  4

                                                                                                                        Setpoint Speed
                  3
                                                                                                                        Ecodrive Speed

                  2

                  1

                      0      10          20         30          40         50         60          70         80
                                                          Speed (km/h)



                                                                                                                          55
This Ecodrive project is different from usual Ecodrive experiences, which focus mainly on the training
of drivers to make their driving economically and environmentally friendlier.

Main figures

                                    Single action consisting of modifying the infrastructure and
                                    signalling. Once these modifications and an initial driver training
 Single action/on going action
                                    is complete, no further action is required since the system works
                                    by itself.
 Number of people affected          300 metro drivers.

                                    50 working days (1 hour of training for each driver + organisation
 Staff needed
                                    of the project).

                                    35,000 Euro = Training + TI Racks for measurements on metro
 Budget
                                    (10,000 Euro per metro * 3 metros).



Phasing of the project

The project is organised into two phases: technical preparation and driver training.

Technical preparation

The following activities are carried out in this first phase to adapt the existing infrastructure to the
Ecodrive project:

        Simulations
            o Investigate the consumption of your metros at various speeds.
            o Simulate the delays on the metro network caused by the Eco Mode.
            o The two previous steps will help decide what are the Eco Mode speeds that reduce
                  your energy consumption while keeping a sufficient quality of service.
        Adapt metro regulation software to integrate the ability to set parts of the network in Ecodrive
        mode and the rest in normal mode.
        Install “Eco Mode” signals in tunnels.
        Prepare training phase.

Training phase

Once the infrastructures are adapted, the metro drivers have to be trained to understand how to adapt
their speed when seeing the “Eco Mode” signal in the tunnel. This very short training is integrated
into the metro drivers‟ annual training.




                                                                                                           56
7.2.4 Impact
The Ecodrive project has led to an impressive reduction of 15% of the metro traction energy.

The following table details this impact, which has been accounted based on the total metro traction
electrical network.




                Actual amount of CO2 saved                   3,900 Tons/year


                Actual amount of energy saved                  14 GWh/year


                Actual amount of money saved               1,777,000 Euro/year



This project also has a positive impact for the drivers, who are under less stress since they can
recover their delay when the Eco Mode is disabled. Hence, there is globally less delay on the
network, and the metro regularity is improved.

The passengers also feel more comfortable since the maximum speed is reduced, avoiding the
vibrations associated with high speeds.

The material also lasts longer since avoiding high speeds and vibrations reduces the wear.




                                                                                                      57
7.3 Automatic doors in the depot (moBiel)

7.3.1 Description
moBiel has a bus garage of 6,412m² and a bus depot of 6,438 m². In the garages there are 29 doors
and in the depot there are 8 large doors. The large doors have a breadth of three tracks each.

Every day buses have to be driven from the depot several times and after each bus leaves the hall
the doors stay open until they are closed manually. The aim of this project therefore was to reduce
the heating and cooling costs by minimising the loss of warm air (in winter) and cold air (in summer)
escaping out of the depot. The doors had to be fitted with an automatic system to enable a fast
closing of the doors, minimising the warm/cool air loss and avoiding additional manual work.

Dual benefits are obtained by saving the time taken for the manual opening and closing of the doors,
plus the economic benefit in preventing a substantial air exchange requiring subsequent re-
warming/cooling of the air.

7.3.2 Prerequisites
An essential prerequisite for implementing this project is to have a compressed-air supply.

7.3.3 Implementation
7.3.3.1 Project launch

The doors are folding gates driven by
compressed air. To begin, moBiel
began a test with a door in the
maintenance hall (1,125 m²). The
background to the project is that there
is a constant and permanent driving in
and out the hall and the average
temperature in the hall is not high
anyway, resulting in a significant loss
of temperature and energy as a result
of opening the doors. During the
summer the doors are left permanently
open.

The opening/closing of the doors is achieved by the following method: a sensor detects metal in front
of the door and opens. After driving in/out of the hall a second sensor on the ceiling measures the
length of the vehicle and closes the doors directly after the end of the bus.

The advantage of this new fast closing door is the short opening and closing time of 5 seconds, in
comparison with the other rolling gates that need 30 seconds. The loss of heat in the (warmer)
maintenance hall is therefore significantly reduced.




                                                                                                        58
Furthermore, the door is fitted with double-glazed windows. In comparison with the other doors the
double-glazed windows provide better insulation. This leads in a full-fitted depot to further insulation
and energy savings.

The installation of the folding gate is more complex than for a rolling gate (sectional door) and in
addition, the folding gates are more expensive; just under 23,000 Euro (twice as much as for sectional
doors). However, the maintenance of the new doors is a fraction of the amount of the maintenance
costs needed for a sectional door. The company producing the folding doors states that they are
maintenance-free.

However, moBiel checks the doors on an annual basis whereas the conventional doors (they are
partially from 1976) required inspection twice each year. In addition, because of the mechanical parts
(rolls, springs, tows etc) the maintenance work for the sectional doors was quite high.

The project requirements were as follows:

          Staff needed: 2 persons for 2 days to remove the old doors (made by moBiel); 2 persons for
          2 days installing the folding door (made by the external company).
          Timing of implementation of the different phases: the door was installed in December 2009.
          Budget: circa. 23,000 Euro.
Risks
          No risk is identified for other companies, although the type of doors (being replacements)
          may be a disadvantage. In addition, as the doors are large, it needs to be considered that
          those doors must be a custom-made product due to the required size.
Opportunities
          There is an opportunity for these types of doors to be used in all halls or depots with direct
          contact to the outside. For inner doors the rapid folding doors are not necessary. This
          goes as well for the depot in which an average temperature of 5-7°C exists (e.g. parking
          halls).

7.3.3.2 Project follow-up

The replacement of the door was a single event and once all the doors are installed no further action
is required. An on-going action will be to analyse the data of the energy savings.

7.3.4 Impact
Regarding the detailed figures of the energy savings, a definite amount cannot be quantified and
defined immediately because of the fact that only one door is currently installed. Detailed and
anticipated, significant figures can be obtained when all the doors are replaced by the automatic
folding doors.




                                                                                                           59
8 Next Steps

The T2K partners are currently evaluating the projects described in this report and are continuing to
monitor performance in reducing energy consumption, CO 2 emissions and achieving cost savings. In
addition, partners are exploring further Quick Wins, often through company best practice but also
through ideas and examples generated by other partners.

A second report on Quick Wins will be produced in 2012, which will include fuller evaluation and
impact details of these projects and examples of any additional projects that have been implemented
and/or explored.

The T2K partners hold an Annual Event which brings together all of the partners, plus other
stakeholders from across the partner countries and the EU to discuss progress, disseminate useful
information and to share best practice and ideas for further reducing energy consumption and CO 2
emissions.

Further details about the Ticket to Kyoto project, of these Quick Wins and other actions being
implemented by the T2K partners can be found at www.tickettokyoto.eu




                                                                                                        60
9 Conclusion

This document aims to present the different Quick Win projects being implemented by the partners in
a manner which encourages others to take similar steps and which outlines the processes required to
implement the Quick Win. The intention is to share best practice, ideas and initiatives so that others
can join to reduce their own energy consumption and CO 2 emissions.

As can be seen from this first report a number of projects have been or are being implemented by
Ticket to Kyoto partners, all aimed at reducing energy consumption and CO 2 emissions and most also
resulting in cost savings for the companies as well.

The projects vary in theme from Maintenance, Energy management, Behavioural change, Energy
efficient investments to Technical improvements. The projects themselves vary from improved
lighting and the automating of systems, to securing employee behavioural change, regulatory
necessity to making technical improvements. All of the projects have demonstrated that they can
secure reductions in energy consumption and CO 2 emissions, as well as delivering cost savings and
project investment payback in a relatively short time period.

Of course, not every Quick Win project will be suitable for every company involved in the public
transport sector. It is important that the most suitable solution is identified for each company, but
whilst the exact detail for each project contained in this report may not fit, the ideas themselves and
the approach taken may provide stimulus for others to take a similar course of action.

It is important also, to recognise that projects of this nature need the support and buy-in from senior
management to allow the initial investment and to enable the projects to progress. Many of the
projects will also require significant buy-in from employees. Changed working practices, additional or
new training may be required and methods of operation updated. It is important to ensure effective
and timely information to maintain support and ensure continued motivation.

However, it is also the case that for many projects of this nature, it is possible to integrate the
changes into the normal working practices of the company thus ensuring continued rather than one-
off, successes in reducing emissions and securing savings.

Many of the ideas considered and implemented have come about through employee engagement and
the development of their ideas, rather than from a top-down approach.

This report clearly demonstrates that Quick Wins can be exactly that. The projects detailed in this
report can be achieved at comparatively low cost, with short implementation timeframes and a return
on investment of between one and five years. These projects deliver energy reductions and cost
savings which have a long-term impact.

The Ticket to Kyoto partners are keen to receive feedback about the Quick Wins detailed in this
Report and about ideas and projects that come from other public transport companies. Feedback can
be provided through the Ticket to Kyoto website at www.tickettokyoto.eu.




                                                                                                          61
10 Contacts

moBiel
Andreas Kruelkord         andreas.kruelkord@mobiel.de

Ralf Schoenenberg         ralf.schoenenberg@mobiel.de

moBiel GmbH
Otto-Brenner-Straße 242
33604 Bielefeld
Germany

+49 521 51 4218

RET
Olaf Lamers               oplamers@ret.nl

Vasteland 80
P.O. Box 112
3000 AC
Rotterdam
Netherlands

+31 10 447 5352

TfGM
Lara Melville             lara.melville@tfgm.com

TfGM
2 Piccadilly Place
Manchester
M1 3BG
UK

+44 161 244 1733

RATP
Gregory Rohart            gregory.rohart@ratp.fr

Sandrine Bondeux          sandrine.bondeux@ratp.fr

RATP 

Lac LB71
54 quai de la Rapée 

75599
Paris Cedex 12
France

+33 1 58 77 16 39




                                                        62
STIB
Lionel Thiébault          thiebaultl@stib.irisnet.be

François-Olivier Devaux   devauxfo@stib.irisnet.be

STIB
Rue Royale 76
1000
Brussels
Belgium


+32 2 563 7089




                                                       63
11 Glossary


TfGM
Office of Government Commerce - Automated Metering Best Practice Guide

        OGC's automated metering best practice guide, a brief introduction to AMR, is no longer
        available on their website, however TfGM have a scanned version which can be made
        available upon request.

        For UK based organisations, there is an Office of Government Commerce (OGC) framework
        agreement for purchase and installation of AMR. More information on this can be found at:

        http://www.ogc.gov.uk/procurement_solutions_automatic_meter_reading.asp

        In addition, OGC's website has numerous case studies and further information resources on
         AMR, which can be found at:

        http://www.ogc.gov.uk/energy_case_studies.asp

The Carbon Trust is another useful resource for anyone looking to learn more about AMR, the link to
their metering webpage is below:

         http://www.carbontrust.co.uk/emerging-technologies/technology-
directory/pages/metering.aspx

        The Carbon Trust - Advanced Metering for SME‟s (document reference- CTC713).
        This can help you to identify the likely savings and benefits from AMR to your organisation.

        The Carbon Trust - Monitoring and Targeting (document reference-                     CTG008).
        This provides advice on how to utilise data for effective energy management.

ECA- Energy Technology List

This will enable UK based organisations to establish if they can claim towards the costs of AMR - not
relevant for the public sector.

The following website, operated by a UK based energy management expert also offers good
introductory information:

        http://vesma.com/

        The same person, Vilnis Vesma, also wrote “Energy Management Principles and Practice: A
        companion to BS EN 16001:2009”

This contains useful for information on AM&T and how to utilise your AMR data effectively.

There is a lot of information on how to deliver successful promotional campaigns available from a
wide range of different bodies available freely on the internet.

In the UK, the Carbon Trust website contains a number of relevant documents all of which can be
downloaded from the webpage below:




                                                                                                        64
        http://www.carbontrust.co.uk/publications/pages/home.aspx

A particularly relevant publication is:

        CTG001- Creating an Awareness Campaign


RATP
The French legislation about buildings‟ energy consumption can be found at:

        http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexteArticle.do;jsessionid=134455584D34493D5F1870C8
        E26355BE.tpdjo06v_2?idArticle=LEGIARTI000020950512&cidTexte=LEGITEXT0000209504
        62&dateTexte=20110506




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