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L8 Berlin Blockade Notes

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					The Berlin Blockade
After 1945, Germany was still a problem…

    It had only be split into four temporarily
    Decisions about Germany were meant to be made jointly and
     Germany was to be reunited in the future
    Stalin wanted to keep Germany weak so refused to let his
     zone trade with the others – the other 3 wanted to build
     Germany up…
    the GB and US zones operated as one and became known as Bizonia from 1947
    the French zone also got on well with them – Trizonia
    Berlin had also been divided temporarily – but travel between the zones was easy, e.g.
     you could live in one part and travel to work in another

So, if Germany was to be united, should a reunited Germany…

1.       Be part of the USSR’s or the USA’s ‘sphere of influence’?
2.       Be communist or capitalist?
3.       Receive Marshall Aid?
4.       Allow foreign troops to stay in the country?

1948           GB, USA and France agreed that in Trizonia, there would be a

 German assembly to create a German constitution
 new German currency – the Deutschmark


Stalin was angry as he had not been consulted and he believed that it was the first
steps to creating a permanently divided Germany - and he did not want this as…

1.       Did not want the USA to have more influence over Germany
2.       Did not want Germany to become a power again

He decided to react through Berlin as

1.       West Berlin (the US/GB/French part) was very awkward for the Soviet Union and
         East Germany - people behind the Iron Curtain could see what life was like in the
         West.
2.    Made worse as West Berlin benefited from Marshall Aid – the USA made West
      Berlin look as good as possible to make people in East Germany/Europe jealous
3.    While the Allies were in Berlin, they would be able to see what the Soviets were
      doing behind the Iron Curtain

               Why was Berlin so important at the end of World War II?


             Heart of Nazi power –                        Had been a race for
                Berlin was the                            Berlin at end of war
              symbolic capital of                          – USA vs. USSR.
             Germany and Nazism.
                                      Importance of            Power and
                                                             prestige – both
                                         Berlin              USA and USSR
            Geographical location –
             USA and USSR keen                              wanted influence
             for central European                            in Berlin – and
                 military bases.                            wanted to stop the
                                                                 other.

Jun 1948     Stalin set up a military blockade around West Berlin – closed all road, rail
             and canal routes

Aims:
 To try and drive the allies out of West Berlin so he could have control of it
 To split West Germany from its capital


Truman’s Response:               The Berlin Airlift

 determined the USSR not succeed in forcing the allies out of Berlin – would West
  Germany be next?
 allied (GB/US) planes transported supplies to West Berlin, e.g. food and clothes – would
  Stalin shoot the planes down???
 up to 5000 tonnes a day for 10½ months
 one plane every 90 seconds


Consequences

1.    Stopped the blockade from working – Stalin was forced to give up in May 1949
2.    First military conflict of the Cold War – and raised the possibility of real war in
      Europe
3.    Airlift was peaceful – so made Stalin look aggressive
4.     Increased east-west rivalry
5.     Propaganda success for the USA and failure for the USSR
6.     West Germany (or Federal Republic of Germany (FDR)) was officially created in
       Sept 1949 with capital Bonn – Allied troops to remain there for protection
7.     East Germany (or German Democratic Republic (GCR)) was officially created in
       Oct 1949
8.     And….

NATO (and the Warsaw Pact)

Due to 2. above,

April 1949   NATO, or North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, set up as a military alliance
             between the USA and 13 European countries

             Aims:       1.     Europe: To ‘keep the USA in, and the USSR out’
                         2.     All agreed that if any NATO country was attacked, all
                                members of NATO would come to their defence
                         3.     US troops/aircraft stationed in western Europe to
                                protect them from possible attack

1955         West Germany was allowed to join NATO and, in response…

The USSR created the Warsaw Pact – a military alliance like NATO but of the USSR and
the eastern European countries

It increased the power of the
USSR over the eastern
European countries and led to
Soviet troops being placed in
these countries for their
‘protection’…

The Warsaw Pact had more
soldiers than NATO and was
feared by them – but cost the
USSR vast sums of money to
run…
Other Key Events

1949       The communists under Mao Zedong seized power in China – the USA feared
           that communism might spread across Asia – the Domino Theory, e.g.

1950-5     North Korea (communist, supported by the USSR/China) fought South
           Korea (non-communist, supported by the USA)
The Arms Race
Key features were that both sides had to:
      1.    Maintain a large army, navy and airforce
      2.    Develop increasingly deadly nuclear weapons – more and bigger with better
            range/delivery systems
      (3.   Significant as the development of the bombs prevented a war in Europe, e.g.
            over Germany)

1945        USA developed the first atomic bomb
1949        USSR developed an atomic bomb – so the USA began to develop the
            hydrogen bomb
1952        1st US hydrogen bomb
1953        1st Soviet hydrogen bomb
1955        1st Soviet SLBM (Submarine-launched Ballistic Missile)
1956        USA developed the U-2 spy plane
1957        1st Soviet ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile)
            Soviets also launched the 1st satellite – Sputnik – the USSR could now
            launch nuclear missiles from space
1958        USA’s 1st satellite
1961        1st man in space – USSR’s Yuri Gagarin
            USSR detonated an H-bomb with more power than all the explosives used
            by all the sides in WW2
1966        Soviet ABMs (Anti-Ballistic Missiles) developed
1968        US also developed ABMs… and MIRVs (Multiple Independently Targeted
            Re-entry Missiles)
1969        USA landed a space shuttle on the moon
1979        Soviets developed SS-20s and the US, Cruise Missiles
1983        The USA
            began to
            develop SDI
            (Strategic
            Defence
            Initiative) –
            Star Wars
We’re all MAD!

By 1961       Superpowers had hundreds of                       facing each other.

The              had more but this not important as both could destroy each other
many times over…

The theory…     having lots of weapons made the                     secure.

Why?
Because no one would attack anyone else as they knew they would also be                      .

This became known as                                        .

or MAD (                                                                 ).



Fears

1.    It would only take… one suicidal leader, one bad decision, one mistake to destroy
      the world…

2.    1957 American                                crashed in Norfolk and the fire from
           it nearly set off 2 nuclear bombs.

3.    1962 US missile station thought one of                                         was a
           Soviet missile and was within minutes of starting a nuclear war…

4.    1950s/60s    Many were scared of
                   the world coming to an
                   end. Many hated the
                   cost.

				
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