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The Berlin Blockade After 1945, Germany was still a problem… It had only be split into four temporarily Decisions about Germany were meant to be made jointly and Germany was to be reunited in the future Stalin wanted to keep Germany weak so refused to let his zone trade with the others – the other 3 wanted to build Germany up… the GB and US zones operated as one and became known as Bizonia from 1947 the French zone also got on well with them – Trizonia Berlin had also been divided temporarily – but travel between the zones was easy, e.g. you could live in one part and travel to work in another So, if Germany was to be united, should a reunited Germany… 1. Be part of the USSR’s or the USA’s ‘sphere of influence’? 2. Be communist or capitalist? 3. Receive Marshall Aid? 4. Allow foreign troops to stay in the country? 1948 GB, USA and France agreed that in Trizonia, there would be a German assembly to create a German constitution new German currency – the Deutschmark Stalin was angry as he had not been consulted and he believed that it was the first steps to creating a permanently divided Germany - and he did not want this as… 1. Did not want the USA to have more influence over Germany 2. Did not want Germany to become a power again He decided to react through Berlin as 1. West Berlin (the US/GB/French part) was very awkward for the Soviet Union and East Germany - people behind the Iron Curtain could see what life was like in the West. 2. Made worse as West Berlin benefited from Marshall Aid – the USA made West Berlin look as good as possible to make people in East Germany/Europe jealous 3. While the Allies were in Berlin, they would be able to see what the Soviets were doing behind the Iron Curtain Why was Berlin so important at the end of World War II? Heart of Nazi power – Had been a race for Berlin was the Berlin at end of war symbolic capital of – USA vs. USSR. Germany and Nazism. Importance of Power and prestige – both Berlin USA and USSR Geographical location – USA and USSR keen wanted influence for central European in Berlin – and military bases. wanted to stop the other. Jun 1948 Stalin set up a military blockade around West Berlin – closed all road, rail and canal routes Aims: To try and drive the allies out of West Berlin so he could have control of it To split West Germany from its capital Truman’s Response: The Berlin Airlift determined the USSR not succeed in forcing the allies out of Berlin – would West Germany be next? allied (GB/US) planes transported supplies to West Berlin, e.g. food and clothes – would Stalin shoot the planes down??? up to 5000 tonnes a day for 10½ months one plane every 90 seconds Consequences 1. Stopped the blockade from working – Stalin was forced to give up in May 1949 2. First military conflict of the Cold War – and raised the possibility of real war in Europe 3. Airlift was peaceful – so made Stalin look aggressive 4. Increased east-west rivalry 5. Propaganda success for the USA and failure for the USSR 6. West Germany (or Federal Republic of Germany (FDR)) was officially created in Sept 1949 with capital Bonn – Allied troops to remain there for protection 7. East Germany (or German Democratic Republic (GCR)) was officially created in Oct 1949 8. And…. NATO (and the Warsaw Pact) Due to 2. above, April 1949 NATO, or North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, set up as a military alliance between the USA and 13 European countries Aims: 1. Europe: To ‘keep the USA in, and the USSR out’ 2. All agreed that if any NATO country was attacked, all members of NATO would come to their defence 3. US troops/aircraft stationed in western Europe to protect them from possible attack 1955 West Germany was allowed to join NATO and, in response… The USSR created the Warsaw Pact – a military alliance like NATO but of the USSR and the eastern European countries It increased the power of the USSR over the eastern European countries and led to Soviet troops being placed in these countries for their ‘protection’… The Warsaw Pact had more soldiers than NATO and was feared by them – but cost the USSR vast sums of money to run… Other Key Events 1949 The communists under Mao Zedong seized power in China – the USA feared that communism might spread across Asia – the Domino Theory, e.g. 1950-5 North Korea (communist, supported by the USSR/China) fought South Korea (non-communist, supported by the USA) The Arms Race Key features were that both sides had to: 1. Maintain a large army, navy and airforce 2. Develop increasingly deadly nuclear weapons – more and bigger with better range/delivery systems (3. Significant as the development of the bombs prevented a war in Europe, e.g. over Germany) 1945 USA developed the first atomic bomb 1949 USSR developed an atomic bomb – so the USA began to develop the hydrogen bomb 1952 1st US hydrogen bomb 1953 1st Soviet hydrogen bomb 1955 1st Soviet SLBM (Submarine-launched Ballistic Missile) 1956 USA developed the U-2 spy plane 1957 1st Soviet ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile) Soviets also launched the 1st satellite – Sputnik – the USSR could now launch nuclear missiles from space 1958 USA’s 1st satellite 1961 1st man in space – USSR’s Yuri Gagarin USSR detonated an H-bomb with more power than all the explosives used by all the sides in WW2 1966 Soviet ABMs (Anti-Ballistic Missiles) developed 1968 US also developed ABMs… and MIRVs (Multiple Independently Targeted Re-entry Missiles) 1969 USA landed a space shuttle on the moon 1979 Soviets developed SS-20s and the US, Cruise Missiles 1983 The USA began to develop SDI (Strategic Defence Initiative) – Star Wars We’re all MAD! By 1961 Superpowers had hundreds of facing each other. The had more but this not important as both could destroy each other many times over… The theory… having lots of weapons made the secure. Why? Because no one would attack anyone else as they knew they would also be . This became known as . or MAD ( ). Fears 1. It would only take… one suicidal leader, one bad decision, one mistake to destroy the world… 2. 1957 American crashed in Norfolk and the fire from it nearly set off 2 nuclear bombs. 3. 1962 US missile station thought one of was a Soviet missile and was within minutes of starting a nuclear war… 4. 1950s/60s Many were scared of the world coming to an end. Many hated the cost.
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