Glossary of Key Terms in Chapter Twenty-Three
acyl carrier protein (ACP) (23.4) the protein that forms a thioester linkage with fatty acids during fatty
adipocyte (23.1) a fat cell.
adipose tissue (23.1) fatty tissue that stores most of the body lipids.
bile (23.1) micelles of lecithin, cholesterol, bile salts, protein, inorganic ions, and bile pigments that aid in
lipid digestion by emulsifying fat droplets.
chylomicron (23.1) an aggregate of protein and triglycerides that carries triglycerides from the intestine to
all body tissues via the blood stream.
colipase (23.1) a protein that aids in lipid digestion by binding to the surface of lipid droplets and
facilitating binding of pancreatic lipase.
diabetes mellitus (23.3) the appearance of glucose in the urine caused by high blood glucose levels; the
disease frequently results from the inability to produce insulin.
glucagon (23.6) a peptide hormone synthesized by the -cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas
in response to low blood glucose levels.
insulin (23.6) a hormone released from the pancreas in response to high blood glucose levels; insulin
stimulates glycogenesis, fat storage, and cellular uptake and storage of glucose from the blood.
ketoacidosis (23.6) a drop in the pH of the blood caused by elevated ketone levels.
ketone bodies (23.6) acetone, acetoacetone, and -hydroxybutyrate produced from fatty acids in the liver.
ketosis (23.3) an abnormal rise in the level of ketone bodies in the blood.
lipase (23.1) an enzyme that hydrolyzes the ester linkage between glycerol and the fatty acids of
micelle (23.1) an aggregation of molecules having a nonpolar and a polar region; the nonpolar regions of
the molecules aggregate leaving the polar regions facing the surrounding water.
-oxidation (23.2) the biochemical pathway that results in the oxidation of fatty acids and the production
of acetyl CoA.
phosphopantetheine (23.4) the portion of coenzyme A and the acyl carrier protein that is derived from
the vitamin pantothenic acid; it forms a thioester linkage with fatty acids.
triglyceride (23.1) (also called triacylglycerol) a molecule composed of glycerol esterified to three fatty