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Key_Terms_Ch_23 Powered By Docstoc
					Denniston, 7e
Glossary of Key Terms in Chapter Twenty-Three
acyl carrier protein (ACP) (23.4) the protein that forms a thioester linkage with fatty acids during fatty
     acid synthesis.
adipocyte (23.1) a fat cell.
adipose tissue (23.1) fatty tissue that stores most of the body lipids.
bile (23.1) micelles of lecithin, cholesterol, bile salts, protein, inorganic ions, and bile pigments that aid in
     lipid digestion by emulsifying fat droplets.
chylomicron (23.1) an aggregate of protein and triglycerides that carries triglycerides from the intestine to
     all body tissues via the blood stream.
colipase (23.1) a protein that aids in lipid digestion by binding to the surface of lipid droplets and
     facilitating binding of pancreatic lipase.
diabetes mellitus (23.3) the appearance of glucose in the urine caused by high blood glucose levels; the
     disease frequently results from the inability to produce insulin.
glucagon (23.6) a peptide hormone synthesized by the -cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas
     in response to low blood glucose levels.
insulin (23.6) a hormone released from the pancreas in response to high blood glucose levels; insulin
     stimulates glycogenesis, fat storage, and cellular uptake and storage of glucose from the blood.
ketoacidosis (23.6) a drop in the pH of the blood caused by elevated ketone levels.
ketone bodies (23.6) acetone, acetoacetone, and  -hydroxybutyrate produced from fatty acids in the liver.
ketosis (23.3) an abnormal rise in the level of ketone bodies in the blood.
lipase (23.1) an enzyme that hydrolyzes the ester linkage between glycerol and the fatty acids of
micelle (23.1) an aggregation of molecules having a nonpolar and a polar region; the nonpolar regions of
     the molecules aggregate leaving the polar regions facing the surrounding water.
-oxidation (23.2) the biochemical pathway that results in the oxidation of fatty acids and the production
     of acetyl CoA.
phosphopantetheine (23.4) the portion of coenzyme A and the acyl carrier protein that is derived from
     the vitamin pantothenic acid; it forms a thioester linkage with fatty acids.
triglyceride (23.1) (also called triacylglycerol) a molecule composed of glycerol esterified to three fatty

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