hydrocarbon-deriv-notes by stariya


									Chem 122
Hydrocarbon Derivatives Notes

       The types of hydrocarbon derivatives we will be looking at are: organic halides, alcohols, ketones,
aldehydes, carboxylic acids, amides, and amines. Each of these will differ from each other by what is
added to the hydrocarbon chain. These will need to have different names that will require you to
memorize different endings for each type of compound.

Organic Halides
Organic Halides- Organic compounds that have H atoms replaced by halogen atoms., Halogens- any
atom in group 17 of the periodic table. F, Cl, Br, I, At. We already discussed these in class. To name
them you need to place the prefix for the halide in front of the chain’s name, as well as it’s location.
Ex: Name the following:

Alcohols are hydrocarbon chains that have a hydroxl (OH) group added to them. Short chain alcohols
dissolve extremely well in water, longer chain alcohols do not.
These are named after the parent chain that the (OH) is attached to, but the ending is changed to -ol. (We
abbreviate the original chain as R. So in general an alcohol is written as R-OH, meaning a hydroxyl
attached to a hydrocarbon chain.
Example: Name the following:

                      1-butanol                                      1,2-butadiol (two OH’s were added!)

Aldehydes and Ketones
Both Aldehydes and Ketones have an oxygen atom double bonded to a carbon atom. There are
differences between the two.
Aldehydes have an oxygen atom double bonded to the end of a hydrocarbon chain. The name of an
aldehyde is done by replacing the final -e of the hydrocarbons name and replacing it with -al. The general
formula for an aldehyde is
                                                                               (No number is needed
Example: Name the following.
                                                                               because for aldehydes the
                                                                               double bonded O is always
                Ethanal                                     propanal
                                                                               at the end!

Ketones differs in the position of the double bonded oxygen. In ketones it is bonded on a carbon in the
middle of the chain. The name is generated by changing the end of the name of the alkane from -e to -one.
A number must be assigned to the ketone. The general formula for ketones is
Example: Name the following.

                 2-propanone                                                2-butanone
Carboxylic Acids
Carboxylic Acids are hydrocarbons that have COOH at the end of their molecular formulas. Structurally,
the hydrocarbon has a double bonded oxygen AND a hydroxyl group bonded to the last carbon.

These compounds are named by removing the final -e ending of the hydrocarbon chain and replacing it
with -oic acid. The general formula for a carboxylic acid is
Example: Name the following.

                      propanoic acid                                       butanoic acid

Amides look like ketones in that there is a double bonded oxygen attached to a carbon atom, but there will
also be a nitrogen atom bonded to the same carbon atom. The name of an amide is found by replacing the
-e from the hydrocarbon name with –amide. The structural formula for amides is
Example: Name the following.

                  propanamide                                                pentanamide

Amines are formed when many hydrocarbon groups are bonded to a Nitrogen atom. The names of these
are composed of the names of all of the hydrocarbons bonded to the N atom, followed by –amine. The
structural formula for amines is

                      Ethyl-methyl-propyl-amine                                   diethyl-methyl-amine

      Try your best to follow along with the examples, and see if you can complete the following

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