Chem 122 Hydrocarbon Derivatives Notes The types of hydrocarbon derivatives we will be looking at are: organic halides, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, amides, and amines. Each of these will differ from each other by what is added to the hydrocarbon chain. These will need to have different names that will require you to memorize different endings for each type of compound. Organic Halides Organic Halides- Organic compounds that have H atoms replaced by halogen atoms., Halogens- any atom in group 17 of the periodic table. F, Cl, Br, I, At. We already discussed these in class. To name them you need to place the prefix for the halide in front of the chain’s name, as well as it’s location. Ex: Name the following: 1-bromo-propane Alcohols Alcohols are hydrocarbon chains that have a hydroxl (OH) group added to them. Short chain alcohols dissolve extremely well in water, longer chain alcohols do not. These are named after the parent chain that the (OH) is attached to, but the ending is changed to -ol. (We abbreviate the original chain as R. So in general an alcohol is written as R-OH, meaning a hydroxyl attached to a hydrocarbon chain. Example: Name the following: 1-butanol 1,2-butadiol (two OH’s were added!) Aldehydes and Ketones Both Aldehydes and Ketones have an oxygen atom double bonded to a carbon atom. There are differences between the two. Aldehydes have an oxygen atom double bonded to the end of a hydrocarbon chain. The name of an aldehyde is done by replacing the final -e of the hydrocarbons name and replacing it with -al. The general formula for an aldehyde is (No number is needed Example: Name the following. because for aldehydes the double bonded O is always Ethanal propanal at the end! Ketones differs in the position of the double bonded oxygen. In ketones it is bonded on a carbon in the middle of the chain. The name is generated by changing the end of the name of the alkane from -e to -one. A number must be assigned to the ketone. The general formula for ketones is Example: Name the following. 2-propanone 2-butanone Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic Acids are hydrocarbons that have COOH at the end of their molecular formulas. Structurally, the hydrocarbon has a double bonded oxygen AND a hydroxyl group bonded to the last carbon. These compounds are named by removing the final -e ending of the hydrocarbon chain and replacing it with -oic acid. The general formula for a carboxylic acid is Example: Name the following. propanoic acid butanoic acid Amides Amides look like ketones in that there is a double bonded oxygen attached to a carbon atom, but there will also be a nitrogen atom bonded to the same carbon atom. The name of an amide is found by replacing the -e from the hydrocarbon name with –amide. The structural formula for amides is Example: Name the following. propanamide pentanamide Amines Amines are formed when many hydrocarbon groups are bonded to a Nitrogen atom. The names of these are composed of the names of all of the hydrocarbons bonded to the N atom, followed by –amine. The structural formula for amines is Ethyl-methyl-propyl-amine diethyl-methyl-amine Try your best to follow along with the examples, and see if you can complete the following worksheet.
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