League of Nations by 1975g26Y


									   Set up as part of the Treaty of Versailles

   It was envisioned to be a truly INTERNATIONAL
    organization which would MAINTAIN WORLD PEACE

   Collective Security

   For a brief idea of its organisation, do look at Fig. 6
    on page 43 of your textbook
   Important Note:
        A FAILURE the League of Nations was … you must
        look at HOW MUCH of its AIMS the League was able
        to FULFIL:
            To promote international co-operation, peace and security
             by accepting an obligation not to go to war
            To promote open, just and honorable relations between
            To lay out a system of international law
            To maintain, or help to modify, treaties between nations
   The League of Nations also tried to influence:
       Aid
       Labour Issues
       Mandates
       Collective Security
       Human Rights
       Minorities
       Health Issues
   For a brief idea of what the League tried to
    influence, do look at Fig. 7 on page 44 of your
   Dealing with social issues such as the
    improvement of living and working
    conditions worldwide (through ILO)

   Dealing with health issues – targeted the
    treatment of specific diseases (e.g. leprosy)

   Set up commissions that improved living
    conditions in poorer countries
   Weakest at dealing with issues that nations
    saw as a threat to their security

   Most members of the League were unwilling
    to put the security of their nations at risk in
    order to fulfill collective security
   Attitudes to the League

   Membership

   Mandates

   Difficulties in Resolving Disputes
   Attitudes to the League
       Many countries found the peace treaties unpopular
        thus they were not very accepting of the League of
        Nations as it was a part of the treaty

       The League of Nations WAS NOT TAKEN SERIOUSLY
        by Britain and France

       The USA was not a member – sending the signal
        that if the USA did not take the LON seriously, why
        should other countries?
   Membership
       USA was not a member
       Germany, Austria and Hungary were not allowed to
        join (resented by Germany)
       Constant shift of membership as joining and leaving
        the League was very easy
       Many countries left because the League opposed
        their actions or because it wasn’t doing much to
       The League had very little control over its member
   Mandates
       The legal right to govern under the control of the
       Took over most of Germany’s former colonies
       Countries holding colonies in mandate had to
        help the colonies move to self-government as
        soon as possible
       However, even after 20 years, this was not
        happening and many countries who had been in
        favour of the League turned against it
   Difficulties in Resolving Disputes
       Usual form of punishment for disobeying the League
        was the imposing of SANCTIONS (not allowing trade
        to take place)

       Method was quite useless because sanctions hurt
        trade with other countries so they were removed as
        quickly as they were imposed

       League had no force of its own (expected members
        to contribute troops) so it could not prevent the rise
        of authoritarian regimes in Germany, Italy and Japan
        FAILURE       PARTIAL SUCCESS            SUCCESS
The Ruhr (1923)   Upper Silesia (1921)   Aaland Islands (1921)
Corfu (1923)      Memel (1923)           Albania (1923)
Vilna (1923)                             Greek-Bulgarian Border
                                         Dispute (1925)
    Evaluating the League of Nations
   Successes:                           Failures:
       Social issues – improvement          Unable to enforce collective
        of living and working                 security
        conditions                           Unable to act as an effective
       Health issues –                       deterrent towards aggressive
        improvement in the                    countries
        treatment of diseases such           Attitudes towards the League
        as leprosy                           Lack of strong membership
       Solving some territorial             Failure of the mandate
        disputes and conflicts                system
                                             Difficulties in resolving
    How Far did Hopes for Disarmament
   What is Disarmament?
       Dismantling of armies and the breaking up of
        weapons to be in the position of making war
       Disarmament was part of collective security
        because if nations cut down their use of
        weapons, the world would be safer
Collective vs. Individual Security
   While nations felt
    that collective
    security was good,
    many still wanted to
    focus on individual
        Reasons for not Disarming
   Britain:
       The need to defend the Empire and to stop trouble in
        parts of the Empire seeking independence

   France
       Defend France from Germany

   China
       Civil War in progress and the need to defend China
        against Japanese advances
        Reasons for not Disarming
   Japan:
       Power of the Japanese Army and the need to defend
        Japan against European land-grabbing in the Asia-Pacific

   Switzerland
       Army was small and only big enough to defend their

   Poland
       Need to defend their new country, especially from
        Germany and Russia
           German Disarmament
   Supervised by the League of Nations

   Was slow and took advantage of several
       Trained its cut-down Army as officers so as to
        secretly train others to be ordinary soldiers
Disarming the rest of the World
   Naval Disarmament
       Targets set by agreeing to a ratio of shipbuilding
        between nations
       Tensions between countries based on ratios
       Proportions were applied to all warships
       Everyone could build submarines but at a low
       Look at Fig. 11, page 52
Disarming the rest of the World
   Military Disarmament
       1923 Treaty of Mutual Assistance
            Countries would limit arms
            League of Nations would come to their assistance
            Very few agreed to the TMA

       1924 Geneva Protocol
            Nations would agree to bring disputes to arbitration instead of
             going to war

       1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact
            Signed by 65 nations
            Promised no war over the next 5 years except in self-defence
    Difficulties of Reconstruction & Recovery

   Post-War Economic
       War Damage (esp. France)
       Broken Trade Links
       Industrial Problems
       Disrupted Communication
       Debt
   Reparations made Germany’s economic problems
    after the war, WORSE:
       Prices Rose
       Wages Fell
       High Unemployment
       High Levels of Discontent
       French Invasion of the Ruhr after debt default
       Strikes by German workers worsens the situtation
       The Weimar Government responds to the situation by
        printing more money and creating inflation
Children using bundles of
money as building blocks
          A housewife using
       bundles of money to light
              her stove

    In 1923, it cost
200 Billion Marks to buy
   a loaf of bread in
   Simply put, inflation is a rise in prices relative to money available. In other
    words, you can get less for your money than you used to be able to get.
   Here's an example:
       You buy a candy bar for 50 cents. A year later, you go to buy the same candy
        bar and it's 60 cents. You still have only 50 cents, but the prices of the
        candy bar has gone up. We can say that inflation is at work. The price of
        that bar has been inflated.
       When inflation rises but people's pay-checks don't, this means that people
        have to spend more of the money to buy the same things that they used to
        be able to buy for less.
       Let's go back to the candy bar. You have only 5/6 of what that candy bar
        now costs. Your money supply hasn't changed, but the price of what you
        want has. That's inflation.
   Became Chancellor of Germany in 1923

   Replaced the German mark with the Rentenmark
    and reduced government spending

   Improved relations with Germany’s enemies (e.g.
    Treaty of Locarno)

   Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1929
   Introduced the Rentenmark

   Borrowed money from overseas to increase
    Germans’ confidence in the new currency
    (had proper currency to back the value of the
    new currency)
German Mark (before Rentenmark)
German Rentenmark
   The Ruhr, Germany’s most industrialised area, was
    occupied by France after Germany defaulted on her

   As a result, workers went on strike or worked slowly,
    generating little or no profits. This was harming the German

   Stresseman negotiated with the workers and the economy
    improved. He also borrowed money from overseas for
    building schemes, taking off many unemployed people off
    the streets.
Protest placard against the occupation
of the Ruhr District (Theo Matejko,
1923): Hands off of the Ruhr District!
   Signed the Locarno Treaty in 1925, normalising
    relations with Britain and France

   Entered the League of Nations in 1926

   Signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact in 1928

   Stresseman’s efforts encouraged the USA to
    produce 2 plans to cut down the amount of
    reparations and lend Germany money
   Germany was to pay less money

   USA would lend Germany money

   French troops would leave the Ruhr

   Germany would give the A/G for Reparations gold, which
    would be invested and the interest used to pay off the

   Profits from the German railways would be used as well
   Cut German reparation amounts to ¼ of the original

   Lengthened the repayment period by 59 years

   Made the repayment method fairer and more achievable
   The Results:
       Despite the 2 plans, Germany still could not
        meet the requirements
       Most of the borrowed money went to economic
        recovery programmes
       Some of the money was funneled towards secret
       When Hitler took over power in the 1930s, the
        Young Plan was abandoned

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