Behavioral Therapy

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					          Behavioral Therapy
•   John B. Watson (1913)
•   B.F. Skinner (1953)
•   Wolpe (1958)
•   Eysenck (1960)
•   Albert Bandura (1963)
•   1950’s Behavioral Therapy came into
        Behavioral Therapy
• B.F. Skinner was born in Pennsylvania in
  1904, oldest of two sons.
• Notably, his parents did not use corporal
• PhD in Psychology in 1931 @ Harvard
• Infant air crib (Time Magazine article)
• Wrote Walden Two - about utopia
• Died in 1990 at the age of 86
        Behavioral Therapy
Three common behaviorists’ beliefs:
• All behavior is learned, whether it is
  adaptive or maladaptive
• Learning can be effective in changing
  maladaptive behavior or acquiring new
• The human personality is not composed of
        Behavioral Therapy
The Stimulus-Response Model
Also called Respondent Learning
Also called Conditioning of Involuntary
• Pavlov’s dog – pool ball break & beer
• Watson’s Little Albert & Rat – phobia
Counterconditioning reverses the learning
        Behavioral Therapy
Applied Behavior Analysis
• Operant Conditioning – is when the
  subject learns to discriminate between
  behaviors that bring rewards & those that
  do not. Called Skinnerian Conditioning.
         Behavioral Therapy
Social-Cognitive Theory
• Also called: observational learning,
  imitation, social modeling & vicarious
• The behavior of an individual or a group,
  the model, acts as a stimulus for similar
  thoughts, attitudes, or behavior on the part
  of an individual who observes.
        Behavioral Therapy
Models closest to the observer’s age,
 gender, race, & attitude have the greatest
 impact. Live models, symbolic models
 (videos), and multiple models (groups) are
 almost as effective. Covert models, are
 effective as well when the person
 imagines a model performing a socially
 desired activity.
          Behavioral Therapy
Behaviorists help clients reach mutually
 agreed upon goals with these steps:

•   Define the problem
•   Take a developmental history
•   Establish specific goals
•   Determine the best methods for change
         Behavioral Therapy
General Techniques:
• Use of reinforcers – positive & negative,
  primary & secondary
• Reinforcement schedules – continuous,
  intermittent, interval, fixed-ratio, fixed-
  interval, variable-ratio, fixed-ratio
• Shaping – learned gradually in steps thru
  successive approximations
        Behavioral Therapy
• Generalization – using the behavior in
  environments where the behavior was not
• Maintenance – consistent performance of
  desired actions without depending on
  anyone else for support: self-observation,
  self-recording, self-monitoring
        Behavioral Therapy

• Extinction – behavior quits when the
  reinforcement quits

• Punishment – use of an aversive stimulus
  to suppress or eliminate behavior
        Behavioral Therapy
• Specific techniques:
• Behavioral rehearsal – practicing the
  desired behavior
• Environmental planning – using the
  environment to promote or limit behavior
• Systematic desensitization – decreasing
  anxiety by successive practice of less
  anxiety provoking situations
        Behavioral Therapy
• Assertiveness training – reinforcement of
  expressing one’s own feelings/thoughts in
  socially appropriate ways
• Contingency contracts – written out
  rewards & punishments for specific
• Implosion – imagining a situation that
  would have dire consequences
         Behavioral Therapy
• Flooding – imagining a situation that does
  not have dire consequences
• Aversive techniques – time out, correction,
  overcorrection, etc.
• Covert sensitization – eliminating
  undesirable behavior by associating it with

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