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									   Grease Basics

Mid-Continent Seminar
May 21, 2010
Mark Mulvihill
Bestolife Corporation



                        1
Grease Basics
  What is a Lubricating Grease?
      History
          Terminology
                  Composition / Chemistry
          Manufacturing Techniques
      Testing
  Disadvantages and Benefits
                                             2
A Multiphase Lubricant…….
 Thickener
   Soap or Non-Soap
 Base Oil
   Mineral, Synthetic, Natural, Combined
 Soluble Additives
   EP, AW, R&O, Polymers
 Solid Additives
   Molybdenum, Teflon, Calcium Carbonate,
   Graphite
                                             3
History
 1650 B.C. Friction “reducers” for Pyramid building &
 Chariot axles




                                                         4
History

 1800’s and early 1900’s - Cold reaction calcium
     greases
 1942 - First Ca-Complex patent issued
 1943 - Simple Lithium Grease patent issued
 1952 - AL-Complex patent issued
 1962 - Li-Complex commercialized


 Driving Force - Industrialization and Mechanization


                                                       5
Basic Grease Terminology

 NLGI Number - A numerical scale for
  classifying grease consistency
 Bleed - The separation of liquid lubricant from
  a lubricating grease
 Complex - DP >400°F
 Reversibility - The ability of a grease to
  return to its normal consistency after a period of
  external stress

                                                   6
Basic Grease Terminology

 Thickener - The solid particles, uniformly
  dispersed within the fluid lubricant, which form
  the semi-solid structure of the grease
 Saponification - The reaction of fatty acids
  with an alkali to form a metallic salt (soap)




                                                     7
Composition


                80-90% Oil




              7-15% Thickener

              3-10% Additives

                                8
Thickener
 Soap Thickeners
   Lithium, Li-Complex, Calcium, Ca-
   Complex, Aluminum, Al-Complex, Sodium,
   Sulfonates


 Non-Soap Thickeners
   Clay, Polyurea, Silicones, Silica, Pigments,
   Carbon Black

                                                   9
Soap Thickeners

 Non-Complex

 Alkali + Fatty Acid

                       Soap + Byproducts




                                       10
Soap Thickeners

  Complex

Alkali + Fatty Acid + Dibasic Acid
              (or Short Chained Acid)

                                        Complex Soap +
                                        Byproducts




                                                   11
Non-Soap Thickeners

 Clay
 Clay + Quaternary Amines




                            Polar Activator   Clay Matrix



                                                            12
Non-Soap Thickeners

 PolyUrea
 Mono Amine + Di- Amine
  + Diisocyanate




                          PolyUrea Thickener


                                         13
Base Fluids
              Paraffinic
Mineral       Naphthenic
              Hydroprocessed

              Polyalphaolefin
Synthetic     Ester
              Polyglycol

Natural       Vegetable Oils

Exotic        Silicones

                                14
Additives

Soluble                 Solid
  Antioxidants            Molybdenum Disulfide
  Antirust                Teflon
  EP / AW                 Calcium Carbonate
  Corrosion Inhibitor     Graphite
  Polymers
  Friction Modifiers
  Structure Modifiers

                                             15
Manufacturing Techniques

 Batch Process
  Contactor / Kettle
  Open Kettle


 Continuous Process




                           16
Manufacturing Process
        SAPONIFICATION



         DEHYDRATION



       HOMOGENIZATION



           FINISHING

                         17
Batch Process

 Contactor / Kettle
   Saponification reaction performed in contactor
   Grease finishing performed in kettle


 Open Kettle
   Saponification + Finishing in same kettle

   Batches typically take 18-36 hours to complete

                                                    18
                  Batch Manufacturing Process
  Fatty acids          Steam       Mixer Motor
  Base oil             Additives
  Water                Base oil
  Alkali               Soap




Baffles




High speed
motor


                                                                     Filter
                                      Kettle
                                                                  deaerator
                                                 Finishing
                                                 pump      Homogenizer
                Contactor                                                     Grease
Batch Process
                      Alkali + Fat                         Soap + By
          Contactor                   Saponification       Products




                                      Drying of soap
          Kettle                      Addition of oil +
                                        additives
                                      Coarse mixing



                                                  Filtering,
                   Ultrafine mixing               deaeration

Homogenizer                                               Finishing    20
Continuous Process

In-Line blender for greases……...
  Continual formation, dehydration, and
  finishing of grease.


 80% FASTER THAN BATCH PROCESS ON AVERAGE




                                            21
                                  Continuous Grease Process
                                                        Steam



                                             Vacuum


                                                                Finishing
                                             Flash
                                                                 Section
                                            Chamber
                                                                            Consistometer
                                                                              S


                                                                  Shear
                        Reactor                                   Valve

                 Base
                  Oil

Fatty
        Alkali                                   Base                             Grease
                                                  Oil
Acids                                    Addi
                                                                                  storage
                                            -                                       tank
                                         tives
Testing

   Consistency
   Stability
   Corrosion Protection
   EP/AW
   Water Tolerance
   Oxidation Resistance
   Other Lab Tests
                           23
Consistency

 Cone Penetration - ASTM D-217
   UWP, WP (60X), Extended Worked



 NLGI Grease Classification Scale




                                     24
NLGI Grease Classification
Scale

Worked        NLGI    Grease
Penetration   Grade   Consistency

445 - 475     000     Semifluid
400 - 430     00
355 - 385     0
310 - 340     1
265 - 295     2       Smooth
220 - 250     3
175 - 205     4
130 - 160     5       Hard/Block


                                    25
Structural Stability

 Dropping Point - ASTM D2265
 Extended Worked Pen - ASTM D217 MOD
 Roll Stability - ASTM D1831




                                    26
Dropping Point




                 27
Roll Stability




                 28
Rust and Corrosion Protection

 ASTM Rust - ASTM D 1743
 Emcor Rust - ASTM D6138 (IP 220)
 Copper Strip Corrosion - ASTM D 4048




                                         29
EP / AW

 4-Ball EP - ASTM D 2596
 4-Ball Wear - ASTM D 2266
 Timken O.K. Load - ASTM D 2509




                                   30
Water Tolerance

 Wet Roll Stability - ASTM D1831 Mod.
 Water Spray Off - ASTM D4049
 Water Wash Out - ASTM D1264




                                         31
Water Spray Off




                  32
Water Wash Out




                 33
Oxidation Resistance


PDSC - ASTM 5483
 Bomb Oxidation - ASTM D942




                               34
PDSC




       35
Bomb Oxidation




                 36
Other Lab Tests

 Cone Bleed - FTM 321.3
 Oil Separation - ASTM D1742
 Evaporation Loss - ASTM D 972




                                  37
Cone Bleed




             38
Oil Separation




                 39
Evaporation




              40
Compatibility

“The characteristic of lubricating greases to
be mixed together without significant
degradation of properties or performance”
                             ASTM D6185-97

A measure of performance of a mixture of greases of different
composition to maintain acceptable performance levels in
application


                                                                41
Determination of
Compatibility
 Stability Effects
   Extended Worked Penetration
 Structural Effects
   Dropping Point
   High Temperature Storage
 Reactivity Effects
   Visual


                                  42
ASTM Compatibility -
D6185

 Three tests used
   Dropping Point
   Worked Penetration (100,000 Strokes)
   High Temp Storage
 3 Blends - 10%/90%, 50%/50%, 90%/10%
 Two possible methods
    This method is a screening test for compatibility

                                                        43
Are The Materials
Compatible??

 Case-by-Case Analysis.
   Can the application handle the deviation from
   theoretical?


 Pens softens out of grade at low
    contamination level
 Dropping Point decreases rapidly
 Roll Stability negatively affected
                                                44
Why Lubricate with Grease?

   Builder requirement
   Cost -> Grease can act as a seal
   Vertical shafts
   Hard to reach lube points
   Decreased complexity



                                       45
Grease Disadvantages

 Oils Outperform Greases When:

 Heat removal is necessary
 Dirt removal is necessary
 Seal lubrication is necessary




                                  46
Grease Advantages
    Greases Outperform Oils When:

   Extended relubrication intervals
   Leakage/Housekeeping is an issue
   Effective environmental seal is needed
   Equipment /budget constraints
   Extended maintenance intervals
   Extreme conditions
                                             47
Grease Basics - Summary
  Definition of Grease
      History
          Terminology
                   Composition / Chemistry
          Manufacturing Techniques
      Testing
  Disadvantages and Benefits
                                              48
Acknowlegments

Bestolife Corporation

Bob Greenwood – General Manager




                                  49

								
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