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					     Unit 3
Waves, Sound, and
     Light

           Name

     _________________
           Period




                         1
                       Sound, Light & Waves
                                              10             11
                                              Intro to       Diagramming
                                              Waves          Waves Lab

                                                             Wave
                                              Waves Puzzle   Properties




14            15            16                17             18
Wave          Slinky Lab    Intro to          Who wants to   Intro to Light
Behavior                    Sound             Rock – Sound
                                              waves,
                                              Doppler
                                              effect,
                                              Resonance

21            22            23                24             25
Light         EM Spectrum   Light Like a      Reflection &
Continued     Activity      Wave, Light       Refraction     Reflection and
                            Like a Particle                  Refraction
EM Spectrum                                                  Lab
                            Polarization




28            29            30                31             1
Color         Review        Test Light




                                                                              2
Thursday March 10

Today’s Essential Question




Warm UP




Thursday March 10

Today’s Essential Question




Warm UP




Thursday March 10

Today’s Essential Question




Warm UP




                             3
Thursday March 10

Today’s Essential Question




Warm UP




Thursday March 10

Today’s Essential Question




Warm UP




Thursday March 10

Today’s Essential Question




Warm UP



                             4
Thursday March 10

Today’s Essential Question




Warm UP




Friday March 11

Today’s Essential Question




Warm UP




Monday March 14

Today’s Essential Question




Warm UP




                             5
Tuesday March 15

Today’s Essential Question




Warm UP




Wednesday March 16

Today’s Essential Question




Warm UP




Thursday March 17

Today’s Essential Question




Warm UP




                             6
Friday March 18

Today’s Essential Question




Warm UP




Monday March 21

Today’s Essential Question




Warm UP




Tuesday March 22

Today’s Essential Question




Warm UP




                             7
Wednesday March 23

Today’s Essential Question




Warm UP




Thursday March 24

Today’s Essential Question




Warm UP




Friday March 25

Today’s Essential Question




Warm UP




                             8
Monday March 28
Today’s Essential Question




Warm UP




Tuesday March 29

Today’s Essential Question




Warm UP




Wednesday March 30

Today’s Essential Question




Warm UP




                             9
                                                    Sound & Light

E   I   B   P   D   X   J   R   H   F   Z   L   C   J   L   S   M   Q   O   S   P   P   G   D   C   V   I   T   X   R
M   J   E   F   F   P   A   F   T   Q   D   D   I   Z   Q   J   C   L   H   U   H   T   X   U   A   U   M   Z   S   E
E   A   P   Z   E   Z   F   L   G   L   S   N   B   T   S   U   U   O   L   G   D   N   U   O   S   A   R   T   L   U
S   E   R   S   F   R   V   M   N   E   E   O   U   K   D   H   T   A   O   M   D   Y   R   T   V   W   E   P   J   E
T   O   O   G   M   K   G   W   E   B   M   W   N   O   W   C   X   O   W   C   D   L   Y   D   L   H   F   F   C   H
R   O   E   V   O   X   S   F   L   I   H   B   R   A   S   L   R   Z   B   X   S   U   Z   I   Z   L   W   P   T   S
N   G   F   O   R   N   G   D   E   C   H   K   G   L   R   A   O   I   U   K   C   J   V   X   B   N   S   T   J   E
C   R   N   G   M   E   O   M   V   E   D   N   X   X   I   C   R   D   N   T   G   O   Y   Y   P   D   O   Z   U   R
V   B   N   B   M   Y   J   S   A   D   C   O   A   J   S   E   H   F   L   W   R   Y   G   L   G   U   I   R   M   I
G   M   K   T   M   M   S   M   W   Z   P   B   P   H   V   Z   Z   Z   N   J   R   H   F   Q   H   I   L   Z   K   W
P   K   P   H   M   M   N   Z   C   V   D   N   T   K   A   K   Z   K   D   I   X   Y   F   W   I   H   Y   T   E   G
G   W   W   F   H   F   M   R   Q   W   H   F   V   Y   T   I   N   Z   N   P   F   P   R   I   M   A   P   X   H   S
U   U   S   Q   M   U   J   B   O   D   E   N   Q   C   C   C   Q   E   Y   P   L   G   R   X   C   R   Q   O   M   E
J   U   O   P   I   C   W   X   C   F   R   V   L   R   K   X   L   F   I   M   V   U   N   F   U   M   S   S   J   O
A   D   M   D   O   G   H   O   E   S   T   X   X   M   K   F   A   D   Q   H   U   F   N   S   O   O   S   U   U   B
S   S   E   N   D   U   O   L   N   N   Z   R   J   U   E   I   P   R   B   P   N   X   N   A   B   N   D   Q   E   C
X   M   C   B   C   C   Z   O   Z   S   D   K   O   V   U   X   W   O   U   K   C   Z   K   D   H   I   P   J   C   G
L   W   O   Y   F   F   I   Z   Y   T   C   X   G   S   Y   O   F   O   Q   D   V   T   C   W   J   C   E   Z   Z   Z
W   M   Z   U   A   T   K   K   F   A   S   L   I   E   C   E   U   C   V   V   S   X   X   J   B   S   H   N   G   D
B   S   S   F   A   T   A   V   U   Q   Z   H   O   Y   G   E   G   G   Y   D   H   M   X   D   U   W   S   D   Q   W
F   L   O   R   U   N   I   O   Q   U   H   E   F   Y   K   F   M   I   O   U   S   Y   D   I   V   S   U   K   N   B
V   K   B   O   E   W   K   N   I   P   P   N   M   X   R   O   Z   A   R   M   X   O   P   L   Y   U   B   S   M   J
T   I   M   A   V   R   B   M   T   W   H   I   M   E   P   I   T   C   H   V   B   I   X   O   B   C   Q   J   X   Y
V   Y   G   E   R   I   M   P   K   E   Q   J   Q   V   I   I   E   N   V   F   P   L   A   B   Z   W   H   U   I   K
F   V   F   W   P   Q   C   M   B   O   N   U   V   K   M   V   G   I   C   C   O   N   K   S   G   Z   T   W   U   X
U   K   R   E   S   O   N   A   N   C   E   S   H   K   Q   H   Q   J   S   F   S   W   I   I   V   K   G   I   Q   R
Q   X   A   O   D   D   K   I   G   N   N   H   I   C   C   V   Z   L   E   Q   Q   K   O   U   O   U   H   G   P   N
Y   F   A   R   K   O   O   F   C   Q   O   Y   J   T   Q   N   J   N   F   X   X   Q   M   G   V   M   M   D   Q   S
A   B   Q   W   S   Y   M   Y   Z   I   G   K   Z   J   Y   G   D   V   Y   N   O   G   U   R   G   U   O   M   P   R
N   B   V   K   H   I   Q   H   X   Y   U   K   G   C   A   S   N   A   K   K   C   H   Q   R   R   T   W   K   N   L




            Decibel                                 Frequency                               Harmonics
          Hertz                                     Infrasound                              Intensity
         Loudness                                     Medium                                Resonance
          Sonar                                      Sonogram                               Ultrasound
        Vibrations                                  Wavelength                                Pitch




                                                                                                                        10
                                Lab – Diagramming Waves




Purpose:     To identify and label the parts of transverse waves and to understand the concepts of
amplitude and frequency.

Materials:
5 pieces of 20.0 cm string

White glue

Paper

Pen or pencil

Procedure:
1. Measure and cut 5 – 20.0 cm pieces of string (cut 1 – 100.0 cm piece and divide that into 5 equal
pieces).

3. Glue one end of a piece of the string to your paper showing a transverse wave (p. 365)

4. Construct a transverse wave and label the parts

        WAVELENGTH

        CREST

        AMPLITUDE

        BASE LINE

        TROUGH




                                                                                                     11
5. Construct another transverse wave (like the first one), with two pieces of string, but with a higher
amplitude than the first and label all the parts above.




6. Construct another transverse wave with the remaining two pieces of string but with a higher
frequency than the first and label all of the parts above.




                                                                                                      12
                                           Wave Speed

                                             Problems


1. The lowest pitch that the average human can hear has a frequency of 20 Hz. At what speed does a
sound wave with this frequency travel through the air to reach the human ear if it has a wavelength of
16.55 m?



Given        Unknown      Equation            Substitution                            Solve
______________________________________________________________________




2. A wave with a frequency of 80 Hz travels through an iron rod with a wavelength of 62.5 m. What
is the speed of this wave?



Given        Unknown      Equation            Substitution               Solve
________________________________________________________________________




                                                                                                    13
3. Waves in a lake are 6 m apart and pass a person on a raft every 2 s. What is the speed of the waves?
(hint: calculate the frequency first)



Given        Unknown      Equation            Substitution               Solve
________________________________________________________________________




4. If the speed of sound in air is 346 m/s and an insect produces a buzzing sound with a frequency of
138.40 Hz, what is the wavelength of the sound the insect is producing?



Given          Unknown         Equation                Substitution                    Solve
________________________________________________________________________




                                                                                                     14
5. Sonar is a device that uses sound waves to measure underwater depths. Sound can travel in water
with a speed of 1400 m/s. If a sonar signal has a wavelength of 5 m, what is the frequency of the
sonar signal?



Given        Unknown      Equation            Substitution               Solve
________________________________________________________________________




6. A musical note has a frequency of 440 Hz and a wavelength of 0.80 m. Calculate the wave speed.



Given        Unknown      Equation            Substitution               Solve
________________________________________________________________________




                                                                                                     15
                                          Wave Properties

Background: The wave characteristics you will observe during this lab experiment are common to all
waves (sound waves, light waves, water waves, and other kinds of waves). In general, all waves follow
the same rules. Because this is so, you can investigate waves in a coiled spring to learn about waves in
general.




Materials:                                               A

        Long hallway or large open space

        Long slinky                                      B

        String

        Piece of Tape

Procedures:

    1. Find a smooth open space on the floor in the hallway. Remember, there are other classrooms
       nearby – so DON’T BE LOUD!!


    2. Stretch your slinky out on the floor between yourself and our partner – about 3 meters apart.


    3. Practice making transverse (type B in the diagram above) and longitudinal (type A in the
       diagram) waves as shown by your teacher and in the diagram above. To do so, have your
       partner hold the end of the slinky stationary while you make one good wave pulse (a single
       wave) from one quick and firm hand motion. Let your partner practice this same motion.
       Finally, move your hand back and forth at a consistent pace so that several pulses are traveling
       at once. This is a wave train.


    4. Shake your hand back and forth very rapidly, causing transverse wave trains to move through the slinky.
       Observe the wavelength (distance from crest to crest). Repeat, shaking your hand slowly (low
       frequency). Again, observe the wavelength.

                 How does the frequency of the waves influence their wavelength?




    5. Does the frequency of the waves affect the speed that the waves move down the slinky (think
       about this one carefully before you answer...and read over your notes if you need to)?




                                                                                                           16
6. Create a large transverse pulse and observe its speed it moves down the slinky. Now create a
   smaller (less amplitude) transverse pulse, and notice its speed (use your stopwatch for
   comparisons if you need to).


            Does the pulse size (amplitude) affect the speed of the wave? Explain (be careful
            about this one, too!).




7. Stick a piece of tape on the slinky somewhere in the middle. This represent a “particle” in the
   medium the wave moves through. Create a transverse wave pulse and observe the particle’s
   (the piece of tape’s) motion.


            Does a particle in a transverse wave move parallel or perpendicular to the direction of
            the wave motion?

8. Now make a longitudinal wave pulse.

            Does your “particle” move parallel or perpendicular to the wave?

9. In unison with your partner, practice sending single, large transverse pulses toward each other
   at the same time. Experiment with pulses of the same size and with different size pulses.
   Where the pulses meet, they interfere with each other. Now create a large pulse on your right
   hand side at the instant your partner creates one of the same size on his/her right hand side..


            What observations do you make about the pulses at the point where they meet?




10. Now, create a large pulse on your right hand side at the instant your partner creates a pulse of
    the same size on his/her left hand side. Observe the interaction.

            Describe what happens at the point where the pulses meet.




11. Now, have your partner securely hold one end of the slinky still on the ground. This creates a
    fixed end for the wave. While you partner is holding the one end fixed, you send ONE single
    (but large) transverse pulse toward the barrier. Observe what happens to the orientation of
    the wave after it reflects from the barrier.




                                                                                                  17
   If the reflected pulse has the same orientation as the original/incident pulse, the reflected
   wave is upright.



   If your reflected pulse flips up-side-down to the other side of the slinky, the reflected pulse is
   inverted as compared to the original pulse.



           When striking a fixed end boundary, is the reflected pulse upright or inverted as
           compared to the original/incident pulse?




12. Regarding your experiment in #11 above, will the reflected wave contain as much energy as
    the original wave?
    Why?_________________________________________________________________________
    _____________



13. Tie the end of a thin string to one end of the slinky. This creates a free end boundary. While
    your partner is holding the end of the string firmly (about 1m of string should be between the
    hand and the slinky) and you are holding the other end of the slinky, you send a large
    transverse pulse through the slinky towards the string. Carefully observe the reflected pulse in
    the slinky (it may be small) as it reflects from the string. The string represents a free (as
    compared to the slinky).


           Does a wave reflected from free end reflect upright or inverted as compared to the
           original pulse?




14. Regarding your experiment in #12 above, will the reflected wave contain as much energy as
    the original wave?
    Why?_________________________________________________________________________
    _____________
    ______________________________________________________________________________
____________




                                                                                                   18
                      The Electromagnetic Spectrum




In this lab, we will diagram the waves in the electromagnetic spectrum, and compare their
wavelengths, frequencies, and uses.

Data Table


Type of waves                   Wavelength                      Uses
Radio waves                     Greater than 30 cm              AM and FM radio, television
                                                                broadcasting, radar, aircraft
                                                                navigation

Microwaves                      30 cm >  > 1 mm                Microwave ovens,
                                                                communication satellites

Infrared (IR) waves             1 mm >  > 700 nm               Physical therapy, heat lamps,
                                                                infrared photography,
                                                                weather reporting

Visible light                   700 nm >  > 400 nm             Visible-light photography,
                                                                optical microscopes, optical
                                                                telescopes

Ultraviolet (UV) light          400 nm >  > 60 nm              Sterilizing medical
                                                                instruments, identifying
                                                                fluorescent minerals

X rays                          60 nm >  > 1 x 10-4 nm         Medical examination of
                                                                bones, teeth, and organs;
                                                                cancer treatments

Gamma rays                      0.1 nm >  > 1 x 10-5 nm        Food irradiation, cancer
                                                                treatments


                                                                                                19
Instructions

   1. Obtain a blank sheet of paper, and turn it sideways. Draw a line going across the middle of the
      paper, from left to right. This line will be the scale in your diagram.


   2. For the scale:
       Block off a section of your scale for each type of wave. Label the section with the wave’s
          name and with its corresponding wavelengths. This information can be found in the chart
          above.
       Using colored pencils or markers, show the colors in the visible light section of your scale
          in their correct order.


   3. Directly above or below each type of wave on your scale, draw a picture that shows a property
      or use of the wave.


   4. On the top of your paper, draw an arrow that points from short wavelengths to high
      wavelengths. Label this arrow “increasing wavelengths.”


   5. Now, draw an arrow pointing from low frequency to high frequency. Label this arrow,
      “increasing frequency.”


   6. Draw an arrow that points from low-energy waves to high-energy waves. Label this arrow,
      “increasing energy.”




                                                                                                  20
                                        Mirror, Mirror …




Purpose: In this activity we will look at the law of reflection.

Materials:

        7 Stick Pins

        Cardboard Square

        Plane Mirror

Procedure:

                                                  · Pin            Mirror Line

        Pin ·                                                                · Pin




                                                                             Incident Ray

    1. Place this sheet of paper over the cardboard square.
    2. Put the mirror along the line above.
    3. Hold it upright by pushing three pins in through the paper at the points shown above. The
       three pins should press up against the mirror.
    4. Put two pins along the incident ray.
    5. Look in the mirror and put a third pin in front of the mirror on the left side so that when you
       look at the two pins in the mirror, the third lines up with them.
    6. Put a fourth pin in the same way.
    7. Remove the two pins from the paper an use a ruler to draw a straight line through the two pin
       holes left in the paper.
    8. Label the line Reflected Ray.
    9. Draw the normal line and label the angle of incidence and reflection.

                                                                                                    21
                                              Refraction
Purpose:

        In this activity we will investigate how light refracts when it enters and leaves a medium.

Materials:

        Cardboard Square

        4 Stick Pins

        Rectangular Prism




                                                                 Incident Ray



Procedure:

    1. Place this sheet of paper on the cardboard square.
    2. Place the rectangular prism on the paper in the area above so that the incident ray ends at the
       side of the prism.
    3. Draw the outline of the prism on your paper.
    4. Place two pins through the paper along the incident ray.
    5. From the other side of the prism, look through the prism and place a pin so it lines up with
       the pins as they appear in the glass. Be careful not to move the prism.
    6. Place a fourth pin so it lines up with the third pin and the apparent location of the pins as seen
       through the glass.
    7. Remove the two pins.
    8. Draw a line through the pin holes so that it ends at the prism.
    9. Label this line the refracted ray.




                                                                                                      22
                              Reflection and Refraction of Light


1. a. Use the law of reflection to complete the diagram below by drawing and labeling the normal, the
reflected ray, the angle of incidence, and the angle of reflection.




b. How many degrees from the normal is the angle of reflection?




2. Label the following lenses as either a converging lens or a diverging lens. Draw the refracted rays
coming from each (they will either bend inward or outward).




                                                                                                         23
3. Explain, using complete sentences as well as a ray diagram, why an object at the bottom of a pool
appears to be closer than it really is when you are looking at it from the edge of the pool.




4. What type(s) of mirror can produce a real image? What type(s) of lens can produce a real image?




                                                                                                   24
                       .   Waves, Sound, & Light Review


Define:



Mechanical Wave



Electromagnetic Wave



Sound



Light



Reflection



Refraction



Frequency



Period



Amplitude




                                                          25
Draw the electromagnetic spectrum on the line below




On the spectrum above show wavelength from longest to shortest, frequency from lowest to highest,
and energy from lowest to highest.




1. What is the period of a sound wave that has a frequency of 480 Hz?
Given         Unknown         Equation                Substitution                Solve




2. What is the speed of a wave that is 10 m long and a frequency of 4 Hz?
Given         Unknown         Equation                Substitution                Solve




                                                                                               26
3. How long is a sound wave that travels 340 m/s and has a frequency of 470 Hz?
Given         Unknown        Equation               Substitution                    Solve




4. What is the frequency of a 3.4m long wave that moves at 27m/s?
Given         Unknown         Equation              Substitution                    Solve




5. If you observe 15 wave crests in 75 seconds what is the frequency of the wave?

Given          Unknown         Equation               Substitution                  Solve




6. Explain the difference between mechanical waves and electromagnetic waves. (about 2 sentences)
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________




                                                                                               27
          7. What does it mean to say that light can be modeled as both a wave and particle? Explain the
             implications for scientific theory. (about 2 sentences)
          _____________________________________________________________________________________________
          _____________________________________________________________________________________________
          _____________________________________________________________________________________________
          _____________________________________________________________________________________________
          _____________________________________________________________________________________________
          _____________________________________________________________________________________________
          ____________________________________________




          Concept Problems!!!!!!
____   1. Sound waves
          a. require a medium.                           c. are not mechanical waves.
          b. are unrelated to vibrations.                d. can travel in a vacuum.
____   2. Light waves
          a. require a medium.                           c. are caused by a vibrating object.
          b. cannot travel through solids.               d. are electromagnetic waves.
____   3. Sound waves are
          a. transverse waves.                           c. circular waves.
          b. longitudinal waves.                         d. polarized waves.
____   4. Light waves are
          a. transverse waves.                           c. rotating waves.
          b. longitudinal waves.                         d. circular waves.




____   5. The amplitude of the above wave is
          a. 6 m.                                         c. 0.5 m.
          b. 3 m.                                         d. 1 m.
____   6. A wave has a period of 0.25 seconds. The frequency of this wave is
          a. 25 seconds.                                  c. 4 hertz.
          b. 0.25 hertz.                                  d. 2 hertz.
____   7. A man is standing on the shore of a beach, up to his knees in water. Every 5 seconds a wave breaks on
          him. What is the period of the wave?
          a. 12 waves per minute                          c. 5 seconds
          b. 5 hertz                                      d. 0.2 hertz


                                                                                                                  28
____    8. A train of waves is moving at a speed of 30 m/s. The frequency of the waves is 10 Hz. What is the
           wavelength?
           a. 300 m                                           c. 3 m
           b. 30 m                                            d. 0.1 m
____    9. A person is standing still and listening to a siren sounding an alarm. The frequency of the sound is 500
           Hz. The person begins running toward the sound at a rate of 20 m/s. The frequency of the sound the
           person hears will
           a. remain the same.                                c. decrease.
           b. increase.                                       d. change by 20 Hz.
____   10. The frequency of a sound wave determines
           a. the pitch of the sound.                         c. how fast the sound travels.
           b. how loud the sound is.                          d. the magnitude of the compression.
____   11. How loud a sound is depends on
           a. the wavelength of the sound.                    c. the amplitude of the waves.
           b. the pitch of the sound.                         d. the medium.
____   12. The difference between visible light and X rays is that
           a. the amplitude of visible light is greater.      c. they travel through a different medium.
           b. the speed of X rays is greater.                 d. the frequency of X rays is greater.
____   13. The color of light is determined by ____ of the light waves.
           a. the medium                                      c. the frequency
           b. the speed                                       d. the amplitude
____   14. Which type of electromagnetic wave has the greatest wavelength?
           a. visible light                                   c. radio waves
           b. microwaves                                      d. X rays
____   15. Which type of electromagnetic waves has slightly longer wavelengths than red light?
           a. yellow light                                    c. ultraviolet light
           b. infrared light                                  d. green light
____   16. Which type of electromagnetic waves has the highest frequency?
           a. gamma rays                                      c. infrared
           b. ultraviolet light                               d. microwaves
____   17. The law of reflection states that when light rays reflect off a surface the angle of incidence
           a. is one-half the angle of reflection.            c. is twice the angle of reflection.
           b. equals the angle of reflection.                 d. equals the angle of refraction.
____   18. An image that results from an apparent path of light rays is called
           a. an apparent image.                              c. an objective image.
           b. a real image.                                   d. a virtual image.
____   19. Which statement about mirrors is incorrect?
           a. Flat mirrors create virtual images.
           b. Concave mirrors can create real or virtual images.
           c. Curved mirrors distort images by reflecting light according to the law of reflection.
           d. Only convex mirrors work according to the law of reflection.
____   20. An orange looks orange because it
           a. reflects orange light and absorbs other colors.
           b. absorbs orange light and reflects other colors.
           c. reflects red and yellow light only.
           d. absorbs red and yellow light only.
____   21. You look at a red tulip, with green leaves, under green light. What would you see?
           a. a green flower with green leaves                c. a yellow flower with black leaves
           b. a black flower with green leaves                d. a black flower with black leaves




                                                                                                                      29
____ 22. The color that an object appears to be depends on the
         a. angle at which visible light is reflected off the object.
         b. use of additive rather than subtractive colors.
         c. wavelengths of light that the object reflects.
         d. speed with which visible light reaches it.
____ 23. Which statement about a diverging lens is correct?
         a. It bends light inward and can create either a virtual or a real image.
         b. It bends light inward and can only create a real image.
         c. It bends light outward and can create either a virtual or a real image.
         d. It bends light outward and can only create a virtual image.
____ 24. Light rays that pass through a lens change direction because
         a. each light ray strikes the curved surface at a different angle.
         b. they are refracted.
         c. light is broken up into many different colors.
         d. virtual images always appear slightly larger than real images.




                                                                                      30

				
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