Tony Osime Nickols
5) Course Objectives Objectives
1) An unusual start (note: in the Army we
called this an "Interest Device")
2) Course Introduction Introduction
3) Participant Introductions
4) Participants' experience and attitudes
6) Terms and definitions
8) Basic Process
9) Basic Tools
10) General Perspectives
a. Historical (past/present/future)
b. Competitive (other organizations)
11) Topic 1 - theory Presentation
12) Topic 1 - practice Application
13) Topic 1 - exercises
14) Topic 1 - feedback & review Summary
15) Topic 2 - theory
16) Topic 2 - practice
17) Topic 2 - exercises
18) Topic 2 - feedback & review
19) Topic X - theory
20) Topic X - practice
21) Topic X - exercises
22) Topic X - feedback & review Test
23) Simulation - combined/start to finish
24) General review and summary
25) Personal reflection and application Assignment
1. Learning Objective(s) – Select an objective at
an appropriate level of difficulty and complexity, as
determined through a task analysis, diagnostic
testing, and/or congruence with Bloom's cognitive
taxonomy. (Use the ABCD method for writing
2. Anticipatory Set – Motivate instruction by
focusing the learning task, its importance, or the
prior knowledge/experience of the learners.
3. State the lesson objective(s) to the students.
4. Input – Identify and teach main concepts and
skills, emphasizing clear explanations, frequent use
of examples and/or diagrams, and invite active
5. Modeling - To increase participants’ knowledge
about the desired product, process, or behavior by
6. Check for Understanding – Observe and
interpreting student reactions (active interest,
boredom) and by frequent formative evaluations
with immediate feedback. Adjust instruction as
needed and re-train if necessary.
7. Provide Guided Practice – Following instruction
have students answer questions, discuss with one
another, demonstrate skills, or solve problems. Give
immediate feedback and re-train if necessary.
8. Assign Independent Practice – Have students
work on their own, individually or in groups, to
solidify skills and knowledge when students have
demonstrated understanding. This can be done
outside of the classroom in the form of a project
during class time or as “homework.”
9. Closure – To summarize the new learning,
which facilitates retention, and to explore transfer
of the new learning to other situations.
R. John Howe
1. Identify any employees who are performing as desired (ironically, there
are nearly always some such folks and management knows who they are).
2. Arrange to have access to these expert performers.
3. Work with the expert performers in groups of three to five, preoccupying
them with the area of performance of concern and getting them to describe
such things as "what's difficult," in this area and what the character is of
frequent performer mistakes in it. We also get them to describe how the job
"comes at" performers in this area of concern and to help us create
scenarios of realistic problem situations. (We use a "grid" structure to help
them both generate such scenarios, compare them with one another and
judge whether we've included ALL the important ones performers are likely
to encounter and perhaps 80% of the universe of problems likely in this
4. Next, we have the expert performers state (independently at first without
consulting one another)and/or demonstrate how they would handle a given
problem scenario soundly. We also ask them to give a rationale for what
they do or recommend.
5. Then we compare with the expert performers, all their answers or
demonstrations (we often tape demonstrations)and get them to agree on
consensus "book answers" for each scenario.
6. We select (with the expert performers)ther scenarios to be used in the
7. Determine the character of the learning experience. For example, if a
given area of performance difficulty has only to do with the correct
application of given criteria to make a decision or to solve a problem, that
learning experience might soundly be individual and may not require a
classroom. But if the scenario of concern in one in which the employee is
interviewing someone, then not only may a classroom setting be needed but
the design likely need to provided repeated practice and critique, usually with
video recording and playback. This latter design also needs to provide for
8. Attempt to discern any "rules of craft" being used by the expert
performers in their consensus responses to the problem scenarios. Write
generalized versions of these "rules" or other consensus "book answers."
These generalizations become the "resource" materials of the instructional
design. (Notice that they are produced after not before the scenarios. The
reverse sequence is usual in most designs and signals that the scenarios
are mostly illustrative of the subject matter, not the most central "guts" of the
9. Students will complete any sequences seen to be appropriately handled
with self-instructional sequence immediately before coming into a
subsequent class experience if the latter is needed.
10. Classrooms are usually of 20 students or less. Students sit in groups of
3-5 preferably at round tables 60" in diameter. Each table is equipped with a
flipchart and markers. Mostly black markers, but also some in blue or red.
Flip charts placed so that everyone in the room can read all the flipcharts
during group reporting sessions.
11. The instructional team is usually comprised of two expert practitioners in
the target job and two instructional designer-facilitators. Instructional roles
are sharply pressed away from "teaching" behaviors in the direction of
12. A usual course sequence begins with an instructor giving the class an
assignment to read a section in the "resource" materials and
12 continued: then to apply them in solving a given set of problem
scenarios also in the materials. Learners are asked to work individually
without conversation and only after individual table work has been
completed to compare answers and rationales and to agree on groups
answers and rationales and to post both on the flipchart.
12 continued: When all the table groups have completed their work and
posted their consensus answers on their flipchart a facilitor member of the
instructional staff leads a reporting session inwhich he/she invites a given
group rep to report and then points out differences in other group responses
and invites discussion.
12 continued: When the reporting session has been completed, instructors
pass out the book answers for that set of scenarios and ask whether there
Learner questions are dealt with and work moves to the next sequence.