VIEWS: 64 PAGES: 11 POSTED ON: 11/29/2011
Fred Tony Osime Nickols Title 5) Course Objectives Objectives Materials 1) An unusual start (note: in the Army we called this an "Interest Device") 2) Course Introduction Introduction 3) Participant Introductions 4) Participants' experience and attitudes 6) Terms and definitions 7) Principles 8) Basic Process 9) Basic Tools 10) General Perspectives a. Historical (past/present/future) b. Competitive (other organizations) c. Strategic d. Technology e. Other 11) Topic 1 - theory Presentation 12) Topic 1 - practice Application 13) Topic 1 - exercises 14) Topic 1 - feedback & review Summary 15) Topic 2 - theory 16) Topic 2 - practice 17) Topic 2 - exercises 18) Topic 2 - feedback & review 19) Topic X - theory 20) Topic X - practice 21) Topic X - exercises 22) Topic X - feedback & review Test 23) Simulation - combined/start to finish 24) General review and summary 25) Personal reflection and application Assignment 26) Close Gary Lear 1. Learning Objective(s) – Select an objective at an appropriate level of difficulty and complexity, as determined through a task analysis, diagnostic testing, and/or congruence with Bloom's cognitive taxonomy. (Use the ABCD method for writing objectives.) 2. Anticipatory Set – Motivate instruction by focusing the learning task, its importance, or the prior knowledge/experience of the learners. 3. State the lesson objective(s) to the students. 4. Input – Identify and teach main concepts and skills, emphasizing clear explanations, frequent use of examples and/or diagrams, and invite active student participation. 5. Modeling - To increase participants’ knowledge about the desired product, process, or behavior by showing examples. 6. Check for Understanding – Observe and interpreting student reactions (active interest, boredom) and by frequent formative evaluations with immediate feedback. Adjust instruction as needed and re-train if necessary. 7. Provide Guided Practice – Following instruction have students answer questions, discuss with one another, demonstrate skills, or solve problems. Give immediate feedback and re-train if necessary. 8. Assign Independent Practice – Have students work on their own, individually or in groups, to solidify skills and knowledge when students have demonstrated understanding. This can be done outside of the classroom in the form of a project during class time or as “homework.” 9. Closure – To summarize the new learning, which facilitates retention, and to explore transfer of the new learning to other situations. R. John Howe 1. Identify any employees who are performing as desired (ironically, there are nearly always some such folks and management knows who they are). 2. Arrange to have access to these expert performers. 3. Work with the expert performers in groups of three to five, preoccupying them with the area of performance of concern and getting them to describe such things as "what's difficult," in this area and what the character is of frequent performer mistakes in it. We also get them to describe how the job "comes at" performers in this area of concern and to help us create scenarios of realistic problem situations. (We use a "grid" structure to help them both generate such scenarios, compare them with one another and judge whether we've included ALL the important ones performers are likely to encounter and perhaps 80% of the universe of problems likely in this performance area.) 4. Next, we have the expert performers state (independently at first without consulting one another)and/or demonstrate how they would handle a given problem scenario soundly. We also ask them to give a rationale for what they do or recommend. 5. Then we compare with the expert performers, all their answers or demonstrations (we often tape demonstrations)and get them to agree on consensus "book answers" for each scenario. 6. We select (with the expert performers)ther scenarios to be used in the learning design. 7. Determine the character of the learning experience. For example, if a given area of performance difficulty has only to do with the correct application of given criteria to make a decision or to solve a problem, that learning experience might soundly be individual and may not require a classroom. But if the scenario of concern in one in which the employee is interviewing someone, then not only may a classroom setting be needed but the design likely need to provided repeated practice and critique, usually with video recording and playback. This latter design also needs to provide for sound feedback. 8. Attempt to discern any "rules of craft" being used by the expert performers in their consensus responses to the problem scenarios. Write generalized versions of these "rules" or other consensus "book answers." These generalizations become the "resource" materials of the instructional design. (Notice that they are produced after not before the scenarios. The reverse sequence is usual in most designs and signals that the scenarios are mostly illustrative of the subject matter, not the most central "guts" of the design. 9. Students will complete any sequences seen to be appropriately handled with self-instructional sequence immediately before coming into a subsequent class experience if the latter is needed. 10. Classrooms are usually of 20 students or less. Students sit in groups of 3-5 preferably at round tables 60" in diameter. Each table is equipped with a flipchart and markers. Mostly black markers, but also some in blue or red. Flip charts placed so that everyone in the room can read all the flipcharts during group reporting sessions. 11. The instructional team is usually comprised of two expert practitioners in the target job and two instructional designer-facilitators. Instructional roles are sharply pressed away from "teaching" behaviors in the direction of facilitation. 12. A usual course sequence begins with an instructor giving the class an assignment to read a section in the "resource" materials and 12 continued: then to apply them in solving a given set of problem scenarios also in the materials. Learners are asked to work individually without conversation and only after individual table work has been completed to compare answers and rationales and to agree on groups answers and rationales and to post both on the flipchart. 12 continued: When all the table groups have completed their work and posted their consensus answers on their flipchart a facilitor member of the instructional staff leads a reporting session inwhich he/she invites a given group rep to report and then points out differences in other group responses and invites discussion. 12 continued: When the reporting session has been completed, instructors pass out the book answers for that set of scenarios and ask whether there are questions. Learner questions are dealt with and work moves to the next sequence.
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