The Problems of Overpopulation

Document Sample
The Problems of Overpopulation Powered By Docstoc
					Chapter 9
The Problems of
Overpopulation
  Population and Quality of Life
 Primary problems with overpopulation:
• Environmental degradation
• Hunger
• Persistent poverty
• Economic stagnation
• Urban deterioration
• Health issues
    Environmental Impact
Model to show mathematical relationship
 between environmental impacts and the
 forces that drive them:
                I=PxAxT
     Environmental Impact
Ienvironmental impact (Ex: env. impact of CO2
  emissions from cars)
Pnumber of people (total # of people driving
  cars)
Aaffluence (amount of resources consumed) per
  person (# miles driven per person)
Tenvironmental effects of the technologies used
  to obtain and consume the resources (CO2
  emissions per mile)
    Environmental Impact
Must be interpreted with care because we
 often do not understand all the
 environmental impacts of a particular
 technology
Valuable because it helps identify what we
 don’t know or understand about
 consumption and its environmental impact
 Population and Quality of Life
Population and World Hunger
 Population and Quality of Life
Different proposed strategies for reducing
 hunger:
 1) Strictly control population growth
 2) Stimulate economic development
 3) Provide better equitability of resources
Population and Quality of Life
          Economic Effects of
      Continued Population Growth
Competing hypotheses:
Hypothesis 1: Rapid population growth 
↑economic development + ↑technological
innovation.

Hypothesis 2: Rapid population growth
does the opposite.
Population and Quality of Life
          Economic Effects of
       Continued Population Growth
Debt in Developing Countries
Reducing the Total Fertility Rate
Why is Total Fertility Typically High?
• Gender defined roles
• High fertility to compensate for high
  mortality
• Work expectations of children
• Religious beliefs
Reducing the Total Fertility Rate
The Social and Economic Status of Women
• Gender inequity is common worldwide

                     Percent illiteracy
                     of men and
                     women in select
                     developing
                     countries, 2002
Reducing the Total Fertility Rate
The Social and Economic Status of Women
• Gender inequity is common worldwide
• Younger age of marriage  ↑ fertility rates
Reducing the Total Fertility Rate
The Social and Economic Status of Women
• Gender inequity is common worldwide
• Younger age of marriage  ↑ fertility rates
• Higher level of education  ↓ fertility rates
Reducing the Total Fertility Rate
Family Planning Services
Government Policies and Fertility
China’s Controversial Family Planning Policy

                        One child per family




 Main problems with policy:
 Eroded personal freedom
 Disproportionate number of males born
Government Policies and Fertility
India’s Severe Population Pressure
• Early efforts centered on compulsory
  sterilization.
  (which was a complete failure)
• Currently attempting to integrate economic
  development and family planning.
  (total fertility rates have dropped)
Government Policies and Fertility
Mexico’s Young Age Structure
• Strong positive population growth
  momentum due to high % young.
• Government measures (e.g., education
  reform) have reduced the fertility rate.
Government Policies and Fertility
The Population Challenge in Nigeria
• Most populous African country with high a
  fertility rate.
• Birth control use very low (8%).
• Government attempting to improve health
  care and encourage marrying later.
Government Policies and Fertility
Population Concerns in Europe:
• Opposite of most areas — fertility rate very
  low.
• Pronatalists predict overwhelmed pension
  programs and loss of economic growth.
• Opponents predict technological
  innovations will spur economic growth and
  the elderly will be asset to society.
Government Policies and Fertility
Case-in-Point: The Global Summit on
  Population and Development
Focused on:
• Reproductive rights
• Empowerment of women
• Reproductive health
Achieving Population Stabilization
Discuss some of the ethical issues
associated with overpopulation:
• Is it ethical to have more than 2 children?
• Is it ethical to consume to much in the way
      of material possessions?
• Is it ethical to try to influence a couple’s
      decision about family size?

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:53
posted:11/30/2011
language:English
pages:21