Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

Equivalence in Translation by xMCPTBQ

VIEWS: 137 PAGES: 15

									Equivalence in Translation

   A key concept in translation
   Equivalence centers around 
   the processes interacting
   between the original source
   text and translated text.
          Types of Equivalence
(1) Referential equivalence is established when the
words in the source language (SL) refer to the
same objects in the world as the words in the
target language (TL)
 .g. book and in English refers. ‫كتاب‬e
 (2) Connotative equivalence is established when
the words in both languages and texts trigger the
same associations and connotations.
(3) Pragmatic equivalence refers to words in both
languages having the same effect on the readers
in both languages.
  Types of Equivalence
Referential


• when the words in the source language (SL) refer to the same
  objects in the world as the words in the target language (TL).



Communicative

• when the words in both languages and texts trigger the same
  associations and connotations.



Pragmatic

• When words in SL + TL have the same effect on the readers in
  both languages
         Types of Equivalence
(4) Contextual equivalence is established when
words in both languages are used in the same
or similar contexts.
(5) Formal equivalence refers to words in both
languages having similar phonological or
orthographic features.
 (6) Textual equivalence refers to aspects of
cohesion and coherence which are similar in
both texts and languages.
  Types of Equivalence
Contextual


• when words in both languages are used in the same or similar
  contexts.


Formal


• When words in both languages having similar phonological or
  orthographic features


Textual

• When aspects of cohesion and coherence which are similar in
  both texts and languages
 Why is equivalence important in
          translation?
How is meaning reproduced in translation? •
  How is meaning reproduced in
          translation?
Is it only through surface language
features?
            Words, grammar, phonology, text cohesion •

Or through covert underlying conceptual
meaning? Pragmatic meaning
Meaning in use, situation, context and readership •
cultural background, It is not in text, but in situations
involving language
         What is pragmatics?
• The study of language in use.
• How utterances are used in
  communicative situations and the way
  we interpret them in a context
• The study of meaning not as generated
  by the linguistic system but as conveyed
  and manipulated by participants in a
  communicative situation
Two important concepts in
      pragmatics
    a network of relations which organizes and create text
  concerned with how utterances are connected to each other
         Coherence and cohesion
coherence                       cohesion
 Conceptual relationship        Surface textual relationships
  underlying the surface text     such as cohesive devices
 Underlying semantic            Linking words and expressions
  relation                        to other words and expressions.
 Readership property:           Text property: cohesive markers
  reader’s evaluation of the      “therefore” etc.
  text
 Implicit meaning               Explicit meaning
 Subjective: varies from        Objective: automatic
  reader to reader                recognition
 Making sense of the text       Cannot create coherence
     Example of a cohesive text
I bought a Ford. The car in which President
   Wilson rode down the Champs Elysees was
   black. Black English has been widely
   discussed. (See Baker P 218)
As for coherence see example P. 220 “A Hero
   from Zero”
  What is pragmatic equivalence?
 How a text makes sense to a given readership.
  We go beyond the textual level and see how
  utterances are used in communicative situations
 pragmatic equivalence tends to reproduce the
  context and text goals of the SL.
 "pragmatic equivalence subsumes all of the
  semio-pragmatic-communicative layers of
  communication."[29]
 Examples of these semiotic and communicative
  dimensions are genre, field, mode, tenor, text
  type and translation purpose (skopos).
      Examples
                                         a)
1-Eng ST: He was armed to his teeth.
          ‫-2 كان مسلحا حتى أسنانه‬Arb TT1:
‫-3 كان مدججا بالسالح‬Arb TT2, (optimal):
                                         b)
      1-Eng ST: He kicked the bucket.
                       ‫-2 ركل الدلو‬Arb TT1:
        ‫-3 وافته المنية‬Arb TT2, (optimal):
‫‪Example for translation‬‬
                     ‫ٌقول أمرسون فً قصٌدته (التمٌمة) ‪Amulet‬‬              ‫•‬
       ‫‪Give me an amulet that keeps intelligence with you‬‬
                      ‫‪Red when you love, and rosier red‬‬
                   ‫‪And when you love not, pale and blue‬‬

                                                            ‫ما ترجمته:‬
                          ‫أعطنً تمٌمة تحتفظ بالذكاء/المعلومات معك‬
                               ‫حمراء عندما تحب، وحمراء أكثر توردا‬
                                 ‫ّ‬
                                            ‫وشاحبة زرقاء عندما ال تحب‬
                                           ‫وأظن أن ما ٌقصده هو اآلتً:‬
                                   ‫أعطنً تمٌمة عربونا للمودة ما بٌننا‬
     ‫بحٌث تكون صلة الوصل بٌن روحٌنا، فتبقٌنً على علم بما تحس به.‬
  ‫فعندما تحبنً تحتفظ بلون أحمر، وكلما ازداد حبك تحول لونها إلى وردي‬
   ‫ّ‬
 ‫أما إن شحب لونها وعلته زرقة، فعندها سأعرف أن حبك خبا وفقد وهجه.‬
Implicature

								
To top