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APPENDIX F

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					APPENDIX F: Expert Panel Review of Relevance and Indicators




The Flett Consulting Group Inc. and FoTenn Consultants Inc.   F-1
Expert Panel– FCM/QOLRS Study
Introduction

This analysis has been prepared at the request of The Flett Consulting Group to
support its evaluation of the Federation of Canadian Municipalities’ Quality of Life
Reporting System (2001).

The analysis was carried out by an expert panel comprising:

Dr. Bonnie Janzen
Department of Community Health and Epidemiology
University of Saskatchewan

Dr. Virginia Maclaren
Department of Geography
University of Toronto

Dr. Mark Seasons
School of Planning School
University of Waterloo

General Observations

The panel felt that FCM is to be commended on its 1999 and 2001 QOLRS
models. The shift to a more comprehensive and useful set of measures and
indicators is welcomed. The 2001 model is consistent with similar models (e.g.
CPRN), and the addition of two new categories was considered a positive step.

However, the panel believes that FCM must clarify its definition of QOL because
the choice of indicators and measures should be driven by the definition and
conceptual framework rather than by data availability alone.
As requested, the panel reviewed the 2001 model with regard to the Draft
Preliminary Evaluation Criteria, and focused on two areas in particular, Sections
(A) and (F). The panel identified four issue areas for consideration when revising
the QOLRS model. These issues and explanatory points are described below.

The panel also reviewed the 2001 FCM-QOLRS Indicators with regard to these
criteria: validity, stability/reliability, sensitivity, disaggregation, and comparability
over time.

The Panel’s report is presented in two parts:

Section 1 – Overview of Findings
Section 2 – Application of Criteria/Indicator




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Section 1 – Overview of Findings

1. The conceptual framework/foundation is a concern (A)
     Lack of an appropriate conceptual framework or theory
     Conceptual framework/theory needed to ground indicators and measures
     Comprehensive evaluation of indicators requires clear, shared
      understanding of QOL – this has yet to be articulated in sufficient detail
     QOLRS indicators’ selection apparently dictated by data availability
     Need explicit framework and/or theoretical underpinnings
     Framework should show the key constructs, input, output, outcomes, etc.,
      and inter-relations among constructs
     Need to reconcile measures and indicators with stated intentions re:
      valued aspects of QOL discussed on pp.5-6 of QOLRS (2001); existing list
      of indicators address only a few of these issues of municipal concern
     QOLRS users/clients not clear; is the model appropriate for their needs?
      What do different users/clients really need to know?

2. Qualitative information should complement quantitative information (A)
    The “experiences” of people not adequately addressed
    Experiences and perceptions often essential to decisions, yet often
      overlooked in decision-making processes
    For example – how people/residents feel about selves and community
    Need for qualitative indicators/measures to complement quantitative
    Methods – could make selective use of survey research methods to
      generate qualitative/perception-based information
    Should consider broadening indicators to include “non-traditional”
      indicators such as culture, arts, leisure and recreation
    Should also include variables which allow for better disaggregation of QOL
      (by age, gender, social role occupancies, income adequacy, etc.)
    Saskatoon community health/QOL broad-based research could be a
      useful model to review

3. Indicator selection, meaning and analysis needs clarification (F)
     Indicator selection usually not sufficiently explained – why were these
       chosen and not others?
     Focus on limited description of indicator; need more interpretation
     The meaning of data/findings requires clarification – what are the
       thresholds or benchmarks of positive or negative change? How much is
       good or bad?
     Level of analysis quite superficial; analysis/findings rarely explained or
       substantiated
     Many of the indicators seem oriented to inputs and outputs rather than
       outcomes or impacts – is this the intended approach?
     Unclear whether we need two indicators for charitable giving (Statistics
       Canada and United Way)




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       Should consider broadening indicators to include: mental health,
        perceived QOL, functional health, potential years of life lost, better paid
        work quality variables, balancing work and home, social support, and
        social cohesion
       The addition of the two new indicator categories is positive; should include
        indicator of transportation use (Envt.), review waste management indicator
        (replace with %waste diverted from landfill)
       When comparing rates over time (or between communities), changes to
        the age structure of the population must be considered
       Should also disaggregate indicators by gender and age, and other
        variables such as vulnerable groups (e.g. aboriginal population)
       Some ambiguous indicators wit unclear meaning – e.g. families receiving
        employment insurance, hospital discharges – could be clearer re: intent
       Is the model widely applicable beyond the small sample of cities? What
        are the limits to expansion/diffusion?
       It is not easy to evaluate validity, as a major criticism of ours was that
        these indicators are not clearly connected to a particular concept, I’ve
        separated really two types of validity, the first referring to how accurately
        the measure assesses the specific characteristic, and the second, to how
        well the indicator reflects the construct of quality of life. Thus, the
        measure/data source they used may be a valid indicator of visible minority
        status for example, but may not be a valid indicator of quality of life.
       Scalability appears good for all indicators (not included in table).
       Regarding the preliminary social infrastructure variables. These indicators
        will meet their objectives with the exception of one, that being “to identify
        service gaps or unmet needs”. It is not clear how these indicators will
        fulfill this need unless there is some cut-off/standard in mind to establish
        that a gap is present.

4. Indicators are overly reliant on available data sets (e.g. Statistics
Canada) (A)
     Reliance on Statistics Canada data sets – understandable and necessary,
       but not sufficient
     Considerable potential to access/share data sources other than Statistics
       Canada – e.g. health data from the National Health Survey, workplace
       satisfaction research, functional health research
     Indicator categories (8 plus 2 new) consistent with conventional models
       (see CPRN’s recent work1)

5. General Observations
COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION
Voter Turnout


1
 For information on the CPRN’s Quality of Life Indicators Project, see the CPRN web site:
http://www.research.uwaterloo.ca/main/cirg/uw/establishci.html


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This is a fundamental indicator of civic engagement, but it has several problems.
   1. Municipal population size: Turnout tends to be higher in smaller
       communities than in larger ones, therefore comparability is questionable.
       This may not be a problem if all of the FCM communities are medium to
       large in size.
   2. Election competitiveness: Close races, e.g. for mayor, usually have a
       positive impact on electoral participation, whereas a high number of
       acclamations or a popular long-serving mayor (e.g. Mississauga)
       decrease turnout. Does the presence of a long-serving mayor and the
       consequent lower voter turnout mean that quality of life in the community
       is low? Probably not.
   3. Compelling local issues: Examples include municipal amalgamation
       (e.g., the 1997 Toronto elections) or public concern over a locally
       unwanted land use such as a landfill. This is really what the indicator
       should capture – civic engagement over issues of community concern –
       but it may be difficult to separate out this effect from the election
       competitiveness effect.

Charitable Donations
It is not clear why two indicators are needed for charitable giving (Statistics
Canada data and United Way data). The text itself notes that both indicators are
acting in a similar way. The distinction between the two indicators is that the
United Way figures show giving for community service needs while the Statistics
Canada data show giving for a broader set of activities, including religion, health
and social services, and arts and culture. The Statistics Canada data on
charitable donations per tax filer include United Way donations along with
donations to other groups and organizations

United Way Contributions per Resident
See comments above. Also, do these donations include corporate donations? If
they do, is it fair to compare communities with a large corporate presence (e.g.
Toronto, Calgary) to communities lacking the big corporate donors? Or is this
the whole point of the indicator – to show that some communities are much better
off than others because they have a large number of corporate donors?

Recycling per Resident.
The current environmental indicator of “weight of collected recyclables per
resident” has comparability problems, as noted in the text. A better indicator for
waste would probably be the percentage of waste diverted from landfill, but this
indicator would also face comparability problems. In cooperation with
participating municipalities, FCM may want to develop a data collection protocol
for the waste indicator and for all other indicators collected by municipalities
themselves.

Daily Newspaper Circulation




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It is not clear how this indicator is estimated. For example, can the Audit Bureau
of Circulation distinguish between households that receive three newspapers
versus those that receive only one? If not, is there a danger of double-counting?
The results are fascinating (e.g. very low percentages in Toronto and very high
percentages in Edmonton and Halifax) but we were puzzled about their meaning.
Perhaps readership is lower in Toronto because only English language
newspapers were audited, although Toronto is a multi-lingual community. But
why would readership be so low in Sudbury compared to Halifax? Interpretability
may be a problem here.


ENVIRONMENTAL

Number of Smog Days.
Rates well on all of the criteria, as long as all reporting municipalities define smog
advisories in the same way.

Amount of Municipal Waste Generated per Capita.
This is very difficult to measure without regular household waste audits. It can be
calculated indirectly as the amount of waste collected minus the amount of waste
diverted from landfill (via recycling, composting, etc.). But if you have diversion
rates, do you also need generation rates, given the need to minimize the total
number of indicators?

Weight of Collected Recyclable Goods per Resident.
See comments above.

Quality of Raw Water Meant for Use as Drinking Water.
Is this the key quality of life issue or is it whether the water is safe to drink?
Perhaps it would be better to report the frequency with which drinking water
quality guidelines were exceeded. Alternatively, if there are no health-
threatening exceedences, then perhaps it would be better to have a water quality
indicator that deals with recreational opportunities, e.g. number of days public
beaches open for swimming (or number of days beaches closed). The problem
with this alternative indicator is that not all communities may have public
beaches.

% of Population Served by Treated Water.
There may be some ambiguity in this indicator. Is it better to have treated water
or untreated well water or river water? Well water may be more susceptible to
health risks from external contamination, but treated water may be a concern
because of its chemical content.

% of Environmentally Significant Land that is Protected.




The Flett Consulting Group Inc. and FoTenn Consultants Inc.                       F-6
This indicator has potential because the protection of ESA’s (environmentally
sensitive areas) is essential to sustainability and ecosystem health generally. The
challenge here is to find a common definition of “environmentally sensitive” lands.



QUALITY OF EMPLOYMENT

Quality of employment as a title for this domain seems to be a misnomer. The
indicators don’t really get at quality except quite indirectly (ie., temporary
employment is likely characterized by fewer job benefits, etc. than permanent).
Quality issues should encompass such aspects as the social and physical
characteristics of the work environment, as well as things as work pace,
organization, etc.

SOCIAL
Proportion of Labour Force Employed in Community Services.
This indicator does not tell us whether the demand for such services is being
met. The proportion of the labour force engaged in such activity may be higher in
some communities, such as Toronto which receives many new Canadians, but it
may be far below the numbers needed. Alternatively, a lower labour force in
some communities with less need may also be misleading.

Per capita Annual Expenditures on Parks, Recreation, Cultural Facilities.
This is an input indicator. A better indicator is an output or outcome indicator,
such as park accessibility (proportion of households within a 10 minute walk of a
park) or attendance at cultural events.

Per capita Annual Expenditures and/or Per Capita Holdings in Public Libraries
Per capita expenditure is an input indicator. Library holdings is a better indicator.

Child Care Spaces per Resident.
A good indicator. May want to disaggregate by subsidized and non-subsidized
places.

Pupil-teacher Ratios.
A good indicator.

What is missing?

An important indicator missing from the proposed list of environmental indicators
is an indicator of transportation use. For example, daily commuting-to-work time
or kilometres travelled by automobile (or other modes of transport) would be an
indicator of time lost to work or family, pollution from automobile travel, and even
urban sprawl (which is correlated with commuting times).




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Another aspect missing from the proposed set of social indicators is a measure
of social capital or social cohesion. Significant advances have been made over
the last several years in the measurement of these concepts and their inclusion
should be given serious consideration.


MS (24/04/02)
On behalf of the expert panel




The Flett Consulting Group Inc. and FoTenn Consultants Inc.                   F-8
Expert Panel – Section 2: Application of Criteria/Indicator
DOMAIN/INDICAT                 VALIDITY                            VALIDITY                      STABILITY/RELIABILITY                 COMPARBILITY         DISAG.
OR                         (accuracy of specific           (as a measure of quality of                                                  OVER TIME
                                measure)                    life/well-being construct)
POPULATION
RESOURCES
Population age groups                High              These first four indicators are                          High                                         Good
Population growth                    High              essentially descriptive; that is, they                   High                                         Good
Visible minority status              High              are important for communities to                         High                                         Good
Internal migration                   High              know for planning purposes, but                          High                                         Good
                                                       relationship to quality of life is
                                                       difficult to say (e.g. changes in the
                                                       proportion of visible minority
                                                       population tells us nothing about
                                                       the quality of relationships within
                                                       the community). Indeed, the
                                                       visible minority indicator could be
                                                       difficult to define, with
                                                       implications for data collection
                                                       and analysis.
Labour force                         High                               High                                    High                                         Good
replacement ratio
Education levels                    High                              High                                     High                                          Good
                                                       research suggests that educational
                                                       attainment is an important
                                                       determinant of economic,
                                                       psychological, physical and social
                                                       well-being.

Literacy (measured by             Medium                               High                                    Medium                  Should use age
proportion less than      research suggests that       illiteracy may have negative             literacy is also related to age; the   standardized or
grade 9)                  the probability of being     effects on well-being by hindering       proportion of people with less         age specific rates
                          functionally illiterate is   access to health information and         than nine years of schooling           if changes over
                          higher in this education     meaningful employment.                   increases with age. Thus               time are examined.
                          group.                                                                standardization or age-specific
                                                                                                rates are needed.




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DOMAIN/INDICAT               VALIDITY                       VALIDITY                    STABILITY/RELIABILITY             COMPARBILITY     DISAG.
OR                       (accuracy of specific      (as a measure of quality of                                            OVER TIME
                              measure)               life/well-being construct)

COMMUNITY
AFFORDABILITY
CAM1 & CAM2                      High                            High                                High
Pattern of change in             High                            high                                High
family income                                    income inequality is an important
                                                 determinant of physical and mental
                                                 health and quality of life.
Public transportation            High                            High                                High                                   Good
as % of minimum
wage
Government transfer              High            there is an indirect although                       High                                may be more
income by source                                 important relationship between                                                          informative if
                                                 source of funds and impacts on                                                          provided by
                                                 the community. This is a key                                                            income group
                                                 indicator of local fiscal capacity.                                                     and family
                                                                                                                                         type
QUALITY OF
EMPLOYMENT
Emp. & unemp. rates     Medium;                  High                                  Statistics Canada cautions that                       good
                        unemployment rate        job loss and unemployment is          figures for cities may fluctuate
                        likely underestimate     associated with poorer mental and     widely because they are based on
                        real unemployment rate   physical health.                      small statistical samples.
                        since it does not take
                        into account persons
                        who have stopped
                        actively looking for a
                        job.

Permanent, temporary             High            While not always the case, non-       Statistics Canada cautions that                       good
and self-employment                              standard employment (e.g. part        figures for cities may fluctuate
                                                 time, temporary, self-                widely because they are based on
                                                 employment) is often                  small statistical samples.
                                                 characterized by less job security,




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DOMAIN/INDICAT              VALIDITY                         VALIDITY                  STABILITY/RELIABILITY             COMPARBILITY             DISAG.
OR                      (accuracy of specific       (as a measure of quality of                                           OVER TIME
                             measure)                life/well-being construct)
                                                 lower pay and fewer fringe
                                                 benefits – likely in turn linked
                                                 with poorer outcome.
% receiving social             Medium           low levels of income are correlated   Medium                            Likely difficult to         good
assistance and EI by   Likely a good            with poorer health and lower life     Rates are very much influenced interpret changes
family type            indicator of people on   expectancy.                           by factors such as changing       over time
                       social assistance at a                                         eligibility rules and enforcement
                       particular time.                                               procedures (which in turn vary
                                                                                      throughout the country);
                                                                                      therefore, data comparisons
                                                                                      over time or between
                                                                                      communities is difficult.
Hourly wages                    High            As noted above, lower levels of                       High                                    In addition to
                                                income are correlated with poorer                                                             disaggregation
                                                health, lower life expectancy, etc.                                                           by gender and
                                                resulting in greater demands for                                                              age, it would
                                                social and health services                                                                    have been
                                                                                                                                              informative to
                                                                                                                                              have
                                                                                                                                              information
                                                                                                                                              with regard to
                                                                                                                                              persons with
                                                                                                                                              disabilities and
                                                                                                                                              aboriginal
                                                                                                                                              persons (ie.,
                                                                                                                                              their wage as a
                                                                                                                                              percentage of
                                                                                                                                              national
                                                                                                                                              average).
Long term                       Medium                        High                    Statistics Canada cautions that                               Good
unemployment           unemployment rate      job loss & unemployment is              figures for cities may fluctuate
                       likely underestimate   associated with poorer mental and       widely because they are based on
                       real unemployment rate physical health.                        small statistical samples.
                       since it does not take




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DOMAIN/INDICAT                 VALIDITY                      VALIDITY                   STABILITY/RELIABILITY            COMPARBILITY              DISAG.
OR                        (accuracy of specific      (as a measure of quality of                                          OVER TIME
                                measure)              life/well-being construct)
                        into account persons
                        who have stopped
                        actively looking for a
                        job.

Employment income                High                                                  Change may be due to numerous     Changes over time     More
as % of all income                                                                     factors including, changing       likely difficult to   informative if
                                                                                       demographics, changes in the      interpret             provide by
                                                                                       economic base, or changes to                            income and
                                                                                       social assistance or employment                         family type
                                                                                       insurance policies.
QUALITY OF
HOUSING
Rental costs                     High             There is a clear and significant                  High
                                                  relationship between rental costs
                                                  and income, measured in
                                                  proportional terms
Average price, single            High             This is a traditional indicator of                High
family dwelling                                   affordability of home ownership.
                                                  However, the relationship
                                                  between QOL and home
                                                  ownership is unclear. There are
                                                  regional variations in ownership
                                                  across the country, and different
                                                  perceptions about the need to own
                                                  a residence.
Substandard dwellings                             The relationship between housing                    High                                       More
                                                  and health outcomes are generally                                                            informative if
                                                  viewed as complex and difficult                                                              provide by
                                                  to disentangle – ie., family                                                                 income and
                                                  income and housing conditions                                                                family type
                                                  are closely related. However,                                                                and other
                                                  there is some evidence that                                                                  vulnerable
                                                  substandard dwellings are linked                                                             population




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DOMAIN/INDICAT             VALIDITY                          VALIDITY                 STABILITY/RELIABILITY   COMPARBILITY              DISAG.
OR                     (accuracy of specific         (as a measure of quality of                               OVER TIME
                            measure)                  life/well-being construct)
                                               to:                                                                                   groups.
                                                    an increase risk of injury
                                                    child developmental
                                                     problems (ie., poorer motor
                                                     and social development).
Real estate sales            Medium            This indicator measures the                    High
                                               relationship between supply of,
                                               and demand for, housing. High
                                               rates of home sales could reflect
                                               many variables. The link to QOL
                                               seems tenuous.
Vacancy rates                  High            Vacancy rates have a direct                    High
                                               bearing on QOL. Associated
                                               issues include affordability of
                                               shelter, and appropriateness of
                                               shelter, and stability of tenure.
Housing starts               Medium            This indicator measures the                    High            For comparison
                                               relationship between supply of,                                purposes, rates
                                               and demand for, housing. High                                  should be used (ie.,
                                               rates of housing starts could                                  per population)
                                               reflect many variables. The link
                                               to QOL seems tenuous.
COMMUNITY
STRESS
Proportion of lone             High            This indicator measures social and             High
parent families                                economic vulnerability since the
                                               children of these families are often
                                               the financial responsibility of a
                                               single parent.
                                               Research suggests that these
                                               families are more likely to have a
                                               limited social network. Compared
                                               to two parent families with young
                                               children, persons in single-parent




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DOMAIN/INDICAT             VALIDITY                          VALIDITY                 STABILITY/RELIABILITY           COMPARBILITY             DISAG.
OR                     (accuracy of specific         (as a measure of quality of                                       OVER TIME
                            measure)                  life/well-being construct)
                                                families with children under 18 are
                                                less happy, feel more isolated and
                                                have a more negative perception of
                                                their health. The level of
                                                psychological distress in children
                                                15 or over is also higher. Children
                                                born or raised in underprivileged
                                                families are also more likely than
                                                advantaged children to experience
                                                health problems in later life.
Incidence of low                High                             High                             High                                     More
income                                          research consistently suggests that                                                        informative if
                                                low income is associated with                                                              provide by
                                                poorer health and lower quality of                                                         family type
                                                life                                                                                       and other
                                                                                                                                           vulnerable
                                                                                                                                           population
                                                                                                                                           groups.
Teen fertility rate             High                            High                               High
                                                evidence suggests life chances of
                                                both teen parents and offspring are
                                                limited;
Suicide rates                  Medium           Traditional indicator of            Small number of cases in many     Use average annual
                      the indicator shows       community stress; probably a more communities may make the data       rates for
                      only the final            valid indicator of extreme distress unstable if examined each year.   comparisons over
                      consequence of the        for males than females.                                               time.
                      suicide phenomenon,
                      since “successful”
                      suicides represent only
                      a small proportion of
                      all attempted suicides.
                      Under-estimation of
                      death due to suicide is
                      estimated at 18% for




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DOMAIN/INDICAT               VALIDITY                       VALIDITY                     STABILITY/RELIABILITY                COMPARBILITY          DISAG.
OR                      (accuracy of specific       (as a measure of quality of                                                OVER TIME
                               measure)              life/well-being construct)
                      females and 12% for
                      males. Among young
                      adults, some suicides
                      may be classified as
                      traffic accidents.
Bankruptcies                     High                        Moderate                   a reliable measure of economic
                      accurately measures       many factors contribute to              distress since bankruptcies must
                      bankruptcies which        bankruptcies and there may be           be reported to public authorities.
                      have begun formal         wide variation from one
                      procedures                community to the next.
Crisis calls                     Low                            Low                                    Low
                                                                                        as mentioned in the FCM report,
                                                                                        highly variable between locales;
                                                                                        data for a number of
                                                                                        communities are missing
COMMUNITY
HEALTH
Infant mortality               High              infant mortality is an indicator of    Small number of cases in smaller      Likely a less
                                                 the level of mortality, health         communities may make the data         sensitive indicator
                                                 status and level of health care of a   unstable if reported on a yearly      of health status in
                                                 country as well as the                 basis (ie., as opposed to five year   developed rather
                                                 effectiveness of its preventive        averages).                            than developing
                                                 care and the attention paid to the                                           countries.
                                                 health of the mother and child;
                                                 likely a less sensitive indicator of
                                                 health status in developed than
                                                 developing countries.
Low birth weight               High             low birth weight is considered an       Small number of cases in smaller
                                                important indicator of risk to          communities may make the data
                                                infants and has been shown to           unstable if reported on a yearly
                                                correlate with problems in child        basis
                                                development;
                                                 low birth weight is strongly
                                                 associated with poor conditions of




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DOMAIN/INDICAT             VALIDITY                          VALIDITY                     STABILITY/RELIABILITY             COMPARBILITY          DISAG.
OR                     (accuracy of specific        (as a measure of quality of                                              OVER TIME
                            measure)                 life/well-being construct)
                                                 the mothers during the prenatal
                                                 period. Poor health and nutrition
                                                 can result from poverty or other
                                                 problems such as drug abuse. As
                                                 such, low birth weight is a marker
                                                 for a range of poor living
                                                 conditions.

Premature mortality             High                            Medium                                 High                 Should use age-
                                                 As a measure of premature                                                  standardized to
                                                 mortality, the cutoff of 75 years of                                       account for
                                                 age was based on the approximate                                           variations in
                                                 life expectancy for Canadians of                                           population age
                                                 both sexes combined – however,                                             distributions.
                                                 the average life expectancy now                                            Likely a less
                                                 exceeds age 75. Also, different                                            sensitive indicator
                                                 standards exist (Statistics Canada –                                       of health status in
                                                 age 70; LCDC – age 75;                                                     developed rather
                                                 international – 64).                                                       than developing
                                                                                                                            countries.

Hospital discharges   Accurate as a measure      Poor indicator of health status; that   Likely a reliable/stable indicator Very difficult to
                      of hospital discharge;     is, changes in discharge rates may      of hospital discharges but the     interpret changes
                      however, these rates       be due to many factors other than       reasons for the change may have over time.
                      cannot be used to          health status, such as availability     nothing to do with health status.
                      measure the prevalence     of services, physical accessibility,    Crude rates provided – should
                      of a disease because the   administrative decisions and            age standardize for comparability
                      data are based on,         hospital specialization.                across local and over time.
                      discharges rather than
                      the number of persons
                      hospitalized (i.e., a
                      person may be
                      hospitalized more than
                      once in a given year




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DOMAIN/INDICAT                VALIDITY                    VALIDITY               STABILITY/RELIABILITY              COMPARBILITY         DISAG.
OR                        (accuracy of specific   (as a measure of quality of                                        OVER TIME
                               measure)            life/well-being construct)
                        and thus counted more
                        than once).

Work hours lost due to           High                        High                 More unreliable estimates
disability/injury                                                               in smaller communities
COMMUNITY
SAFETY
Young offender                  Medium                     Medium                           Medium
charges                police statistics do not
                       record all crimes
                       committed in a given
                       area. The ratio between
Violent crime          the number of crimes                Medium                           Medium
                       committed and those
                       reported to the police
                       varies as a function of
Property crime         the type of offence,                                                 Medium
                       ranging from 100% for
                       homicides to
                       approximately half for
                       robbery and a third for
                       assault. When several
                       different criminal acts
                       are committed during
                       the same incident, only
                       the most serious is
                       recorded.
Injuries/poisoning                                                              Crude rates provided – should       Should be age
mortality and                                                                   age standardize for comparability   standardized for
hospitalization                                                                 across local communities and        comparisons over
                                                                                over time.                          time.
COMMUNITY
PARTICIPATION
Voter turnout                     High                       High                             High                         High        Poor




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DOMAIN/INDICAT               VALIDITY                   VALIDITY              STABILITY/RELIABILITY   COMPARBILITY             DISAG.
OR                      (accuracy of specific   (as a measure of quality of                            OVER TIME
                              measure)           life/well-being construct)
Charitable donations    High                                High                      High            Medium - Sensitive     Poor
                                                                                                      not only to
                                                                                                      community
                                                                                                      mobilization efforts
                                                                                                      but also to
                                                                                                      economic
                                                                                                      conditions
United way              High                               High                      Not sure               Medium           Poor
contributions
Recycling               Low                              Medium                       Low                    High            Perhaps
                                                                                                                             possible to
                                                                                                                             disaggregate
                                                                                                                             by type of
                                                                                                                             dwelling –
                                                                                                                             e.g. by single
                                                                                                                             family versus
                                                                                                                             apartment
                                                                                                                             units. This
                                                                                                                             can be useful
                                                                                                                             because
                                                                                                                             apartments are
                                                                                                                             typically very
                                                                                                                             difficult to
                                                                                                                             service and
                                                                                                                             are slow
                                                                                                                             adopters of
                                                                                                                             recycling
                                                                                                                             programs
Newspaper circulation   Unknown – depends                Medium                      Unknown          Poor - Probably        Poor
                        on how it is being                                                            more sensitive to
                        measured                                                                      price than to
                                                                                                      changes in quality
                                                                                                      of life




The Flett Consulting Group Inc. and FoTenn Consultants Inc.                           F-18

				
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