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					 Artificial
Intelligence
    and
   Expert
  Systems
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)
is the science of

 • R
 • L
 • Being able
   to
 • Ability to
   solve a
   problem
      Comparing a DSS to Artificial
             Intelligence
• Decision Support System (DSS)
  – User actively involved with the system.
  – Relies on                 . The user must understand
    problem situation and what needs to be done.
  – The user makes the ultimate decision/choice.


• Artificial Intelligence
  – User not as actively involved because all of the expertise
    is
  – The system makes the ultimate decision/choice.
Robotics
    AN EXPERT SYSTEM
   is an artificial intelligence system that
 applies                             to reach a
                   conclusion.


An expert system captures expertise from a
human expert and applies it to a problem.
Tricks of the trade        Knowledge base
             Reasoning Process
              Expert Systems
• Programming is in the form of
                                  and Reasons

• Decision Support System guides you, but you
  must reason through the problem.

• Expert Systems : you provide the facts, it


• Used as diagnostic and prescriptive.
  Expert
  System
Rules for a
   Bank
 Mortgage
Application
Traffic Light Expert System
WHAT EXPERT SYSTEMS CAN DO
• Can handle massive       • Provide               in
  amounts of information     decision making.
  and they can
                           • Improve customer
• Can                        service.
  from complex
  relationships
                           • Reduce errors and costs.
• Can explain their
  reasoning or suggested   • Provide
  decisions
            WHAT EXPERT
          SYSTEMS CAN’T DO
• Handle all types of domain expertise. Human
  experts might not fully be aware of the process
  that they use. Can’t put everything into
  machine form.

• Can’t solve problems in areas not designed for.
  Can’t

• Apply             or judgment to a problem
Expert Systems Perform
and          Tasks Like
                                   Expert System used
•   Auditing and tax planning      by American
•   Diagnosing illnesses           Express’ Optima
•   Managing forest resources      Card program.
•   Evaluate credit and loan applications
•   Computer help desk diagnosis assistance
•   Rules to follow when directing air traffic
    Whale and Forest Pest Identification Smartflow
    http://www.aiinc.ca/demos/whale.html
       http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hti/iid//
Easy
Diagnosis
Medical
Expert
System
    Ethical Questions and the Use of
            Expert Systems
• An expert system will act as it is programmed. If
  you program in bias, then the system will be
  biased.

• The expert system is consistent, which is easily
  defended in court.

• Can distinguish between good and bad, but may
  not be able to distinguish between degrees of
  good.
        A NEURAL NETWORK
     is an artificial intelligence system which is
     capable of learning because it’s patterned
        after the human brain. Uses parallel
                        processors.
A neural network simulates the human ability to
classify things based on the experience of seeing
many examples.

 Learn by
  A Neural Network Can Perform
                      Tasks Like
• Distinguishing different chemical compounds
• D                                in human tissue
  that may signify disease
• A                               to detect forgeries.
• De
• Track habits of insurance customers and predict
     which ones might not renew their policies
• Virus Detection Software by IBM
• Neugent monitors 1,200 data points in the Allstate
     Insurance network every 5 seconds, trying to
     predict a potential problem in/with the network.
A Self-Organizing Neural Network:
                        in vast amounts of data by itself.
Back-propagation neural networks are trained by
someone. You
Neural networks attempt to
mimic the structure and
functioning of the human
brain. They contain input,
output and hidden layers.
The hidden layers use
various weights of strength
 to

            it can change the
classification weights.
Neural Networks serve as                   Systems
• Allows the computer to                         or
                                       it receives.
• There are computer games with learning abilities.
• 20Questions www.20Q.net

• F           and neural networks are often
  combined to express complicated and
  concepts (that are        and ambiguous) in a
  form that makes it possible to simplify the
  problem and apply rules with some degree of
  certainty.
                           Fuzzy Logic
• Fuzzy Logic: a special field of computer science that
                 and does not require conditions to be

• A mathematical method of handling
  information so that ambiguous information such as “
             ” or “              ” or other “non-exact areas
  usable in computer systems
• Applications
   –   Google’s search engine (your perception of a topic frames your query)
   –   Washing machines that wash until the water is “clean”
   –   A                 and subway/tram control systems
   –   A                 cameras
   –   Temperature sensors attached to furnace controls
   –   Medical equipment that                                based upon
       patient vital signs.
     A GENETIC ALGORITHM
   is an artificial intelligence system that mimics
   the
                              to generate
   increasingly better solutions to a problem.

Genetic algorithms produce several generations
of solutions, choosing the best of the current set
for each new generation.
THE CONCEPTS OF EVOLUTION
  IN GENETIC ALGORITHMS
•                    - or survival of the fittest. The
  key is to give preference to better outcomes.
•                    - combining portions of good
  outcomes in the hope of creating an even
  better outcome.
•                 - randomly trying combinations
  and evaluating the success (or failure) of the
  outcome.

                  Seeking an
   Genetic Algorithms Can Generate Lots of
               Solutions As In
• Deciding which                                 a firm should invest in,
  given limited investment dollars.
• Generating solutions to
   – How much cable or track to lay?
   – What                should your delivery vehicles take?

• Used to                                       (make the best use of your
  production resources)

• Investment companies use them to generate
                by considering                                  of stocks
  and bonds .
• Clothing manufacturing:                                      so as to
  generate the
            www.coyotegulch.com:   The Traveling Salesman
     AN INTELLIGENT AGENT
is a                     that                     and
then
with a certain degree of          , and in doing so,
employs knowledge or representation of the user’s
goals or desires.
The Agent will take your profile and preferences and
then go out and work on your behalf.

      Characteristics of an intelligent agent
A          : can act without you telling them what to do
A           : can             and what it does based
upon your changing characteristics.
S            : can                and       with other
agents that it encounters.
           Types of Intelligent Agents
• I                                               and bring it back to you (from the
  Internet or a database)
   – B            s, shopping bots,                                   , Googlebots that scour the
      Internet locating and indexing sites that ultimately appear in search results when you do a
      Google search.
   – The SuperFetch feature (search feature) found in Vista

• M                          and Surveillance Agents: constantly
   – A                                     and offer suggestions for improvement.
   – Wizards and the Microsoft Office Assistant (Clip It)



• U               : act as a personal assistant by
                  . Examples include sorting and prioritizing email, filling out forms on
  the Web automatically for you, and automatically storing your information.

• D                          agents operate in a data warehouse by sifting through the
  data, trying to discover trends, relationships and patterns through the use of
  multidimensional statistical analysis.
• A relational database stores information in a series of

• Data warehouses are                   , containing
             . Each               is an          of information.
       Data-mining agents perform
     multidimensional analysis in data
               warehouses
• C          – common term for the representation of
  multi-dimensional information
• Info in an Excel spreadsheet and a relational
  database (Access) appears in the form of a two
  dimensional table of rows and columns.

• By adding a                              , you can
  add                                  : 3-D (rows
  and columns and layers).
  – Creating a 3-dimensional Pivot Table in Excel is a
    means of conceptually building a data warehouse.
    Page fields represent the depth layer

• Pivot Tables can help you see relationships in
  the data
                                                    Starting
AI System     Problem Type         Based On       Information

Expert        Diagnostic or      Strategies of    Expert’s
Systems       prescriptive       experts          know-how

Neural        Identification,    The human        Acceptable
Networks      classification,    brain            patterns
              prediction

Genetic                        Biological         Set of
Algorithms    Optimal solution evolution          possible
                                                  solutions

Intelligent   Specific and       One or more AI   Your
Agents        repetitive tasks   techniques       preferences

				
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posted:11/29/2011
language:English
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