ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)
is the science of
• Being able
• Ability to
Comparing a DSS to Artificial
• Decision Support System (DSS)
– User actively involved with the system.
– Relies on . The user must understand
problem situation and what needs to be done.
– The user makes the ultimate decision/choice.
• Artificial Intelligence
– User not as actively involved because all of the expertise
– The system makes the ultimate decision/choice.
AN EXPERT SYSTEM
is an artificial intelligence system that
applies to reach a
An expert system captures expertise from a
human expert and applies it to a problem.
Tricks of the trade Knowledge base
• Programming is in the form of
• Decision Support System guides you, but you
must reason through the problem.
• Expert Systems : you provide the facts, it
• Used as diagnostic and prescriptive.
Rules for a
Traffic Light Expert System
WHAT EXPERT SYSTEMS CAN DO
• Can handle massive • Provide in
amounts of information decision making.
and they can
• Improve customer
• Can service.
• Reduce errors and costs.
• Can explain their
reasoning or suggested • Provide
SYSTEMS CAN’T DO
• Handle all types of domain expertise. Human
experts might not fully be aware of the process
that they use. Can’t put everything into
• Can’t solve problems in areas not designed for.
• Apply or judgment to a problem
Expert Systems Perform
and Tasks Like
Expert System used
• Auditing and tax planning by American
• Diagnosing illnesses Express’ Optima
• Managing forest resources Card program.
• Evaluate credit and loan applications
• Computer help desk diagnosis assistance
• Rules to follow when directing air traffic
Whale and Forest Pest Identification Smartflow
Ethical Questions and the Use of
• An expert system will act as it is programmed. If
you program in bias, then the system will be
• The expert system is consistent, which is easily
defended in court.
• Can distinguish between good and bad, but may
not be able to distinguish between degrees of
A NEURAL NETWORK
is an artificial intelligence system which is
capable of learning because it’s patterned
after the human brain. Uses parallel
A neural network simulates the human ability to
classify things based on the experience of seeing
A Neural Network Can Perform
• Distinguishing different chemical compounds
• D in human tissue
that may signify disease
• A to detect forgeries.
• Track habits of insurance customers and predict
which ones might not renew their policies
• Virus Detection Software by IBM
• Neugent monitors 1,200 data points in the Allstate
Insurance network every 5 seconds, trying to
predict a potential problem in/with the network.
A Self-Organizing Neural Network:
in vast amounts of data by itself.
Back-propagation neural networks are trained by
Neural networks attempt to
mimic the structure and
functioning of the human
brain. They contain input,
output and hidden layers.
The hidden layers use
various weights of strength
it can change the
Neural Networks serve as Systems
• Allows the computer to or
• There are computer games with learning abilities.
• 20Questions www.20Q.net
• F and neural networks are often
combined to express complicated and
concepts (that are and ambiguous) in a
form that makes it possible to simplify the
problem and apply rules with some degree of
• Fuzzy Logic: a special field of computer science that
and does not require conditions to be
• A mathematical method of handling
information so that ambiguous information such as “
” or “ ” or other “non-exact areas
usable in computer systems
– Google’s search engine (your perception of a topic frames your query)
– Washing machines that wash until the water is “clean”
– A and subway/tram control systems
– A cameras
– Temperature sensors attached to furnace controls
– Medical equipment that based upon
patient vital signs.
A GENETIC ALGORITHM
is an artificial intelligence system that mimics
increasingly better solutions to a problem.
Genetic algorithms produce several generations
of solutions, choosing the best of the current set
for each new generation.
THE CONCEPTS OF EVOLUTION
IN GENETIC ALGORITHMS
• - or survival of the fittest. The
key is to give preference to better outcomes.
• - combining portions of good
outcomes in the hope of creating an even
• - randomly trying combinations
and evaluating the success (or failure) of the
Genetic Algorithms Can Generate Lots of
Solutions As In
• Deciding which a firm should invest in,
given limited investment dollars.
• Generating solutions to
– How much cable or track to lay?
– What should your delivery vehicles take?
• Used to (make the best use of your
• Investment companies use them to generate
by considering of stocks
and bonds .
• Clothing manufacturing: so as to
www.coyotegulch.com: The Traveling Salesman
AN INTELLIGENT AGENT
is a that and
with a certain degree of , and in doing so,
employs knowledge or representation of the user’s
goals or desires.
The Agent will take your profile and preferences and
then go out and work on your behalf.
Characteristics of an intelligent agent
A : can act without you telling them what to do
A : can and what it does based
upon your changing characteristics.
S : can and with other
agents that it encounters.
Types of Intelligent Agents
• I and bring it back to you (from the
Internet or a database)
– B s, shopping bots, , Googlebots that scour the
Internet locating and indexing sites that ultimately appear in search results when you do a
– The SuperFetch feature (search feature) found in Vista
• M and Surveillance Agents: constantly
– A and offer suggestions for improvement.
– Wizards and the Microsoft Office Assistant (Clip It)
• U : act as a personal assistant by
. Examples include sorting and prioritizing email, filling out forms on
the Web automatically for you, and automatically storing your information.
• D agents operate in a data warehouse by sifting through the
data, trying to discover trends, relationships and patterns through the use of
multidimensional statistical analysis.
• A relational database stores information in a series of
• Data warehouses are , containing
. Each is an of information.
Data-mining agents perform
multidimensional analysis in data
• C – common term for the representation of
• Info in an Excel spreadsheet and a relational
database (Access) appears in the form of a two
dimensional table of rows and columns.
• By adding a , you can
add : 3-D (rows
and columns and layers).
– Creating a 3-dimensional Pivot Table in Excel is a
means of conceptually building a data warehouse.
Page fields represent the depth layer
• Pivot Tables can help you see relationships in
AI System Problem Type Based On Information
Expert Diagnostic or Strategies of Expert’s
Systems prescriptive experts know-how
Neural Identification, The human Acceptable
Networks classification, brain patterns
Genetic Biological Set of
Algorithms Optimal solution evolution possible
Intelligent Specific and One or more AI Your
Agents repetitive tasks techniques preferences