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									                                            http://www.fao.org/aims/




       Semantic Technologies at FAO

             International Society for Knowledge
                     Organization (ISKO)
                    3 Aprile 2009, Torino
                        Margherita Sini


FAO   1/70
                               http://www.fao.org/aims/


             Few words about myself




FAO   2/70
                                                   http://www.fao.org/aims/


        Just a very rapid introduction
 • What?
      – semantic, semantic web, semantic technologies
      – ontologies, Knowledge Organization Systems,
      – metadata
 • Why?
      – interoperability, exchange, share
      – user orientation, precision and recall
      – multilinguality, cultural views, context
 • Who?
      – everybody, all domains, all countries, all .org
 • Which instruments?
      – experts, NLP, methodologies and techniques
FAO   3/70
                                      http://www.fao.org/aims/


                       Outline
 • Semantic projects involving FAO
      – AOS
      – IPFSAPH, FNA, CWR, Fisheries, Food &
        nutrition, Geopolitical ontology, AGROVOC
        Concept Server
      – Thai Rice Onto, Agropedia Indica
 • Conclusions
      – ontology-based applications
      – Collaborations
      – Take home messages

FAO   4/70
                                  http://www.fao.org/aims/




             Semantic projects involving
                       FAO




FAO   5/70
                                               http://www.fao.org/aims/


                Why AOS                             Semantic navigation,
                                                    Clustering, Ranking, ...

                                 Interoperability             ship
                                                               or
                                                            container
                            Terminology brokering
                                                             Intelligent query
                                                                expansion

                                                            Inferencing
                                                             Reasoning
                            Machine learning


               vessel?
             craft? boat?
              bateaux?
               barco?


FAO   6/70
                                                       http://www.fao.org/aims/


          Agricultural Ontology Service
 • An FAO initiative for
                                                             AGROVOC
   more coherence in                                        Concept Server
   Agricultural Information Systems
 • Need of a semantic approach
 • AOS elements:
      –      AGROVOC Concept Server                      • Built from AGROVOC
                                                         • Domain concepts
      –      KOS registry                                • Categories

      –      Mapping registries               Ontology registry

      –      Metadata standards                                   Sub-domain
                                                                  ontologies
      –      Tools
      –      Publications (guidelines, ...)                       Metadata
                                                                  ontologies
FAO   7/70
                       http://www.fao.org/aims/




             IPFSAPH




FAO   8/70
                       http://www.fao.org/aims/


             IPFSAPH




FAO   9/70
                             http://www.fao.org/aims/


              The Ontology




FAO   10/70
                                                       http://www.fao.org/aims/



                Creation of the core ontology

              Agrovoc

      Information Resources
      •Brainstorming
      •Codex Alimentarius
      •SPS Agreement                                  Ontology
                                                      1600 concepts

              Food Safety
              Documents
                                subject specialists

                     Generic
                    Documents                Ontology Editor
                                             (OI-Modeler)

FAO   11/70
                                     http://www.fao.org/aims/


              Concept Search


                        The same records will be retrieved
                        regardless of the specific synonyms
                        or singular/plural forms that the
                        user uses to refer to a concept.




                                     Related concepts
FAO   12/70
                                       http://www.fao.org/aims/


              Multilinguality




               The system is also able to
               understand a concept even when
               different languages are used.



FAO   13/70
                                   http://www.fao.org/aims/


              Check spelling

                      Spelling errors are corrected:
                      e.g. “desease” into “disease”




FAO   14/70
                               http://www.fao.org/aims/


              Paraphrasing




                             “mad cow disease
                               symptoms” or
                              “clinical signs of
                             bovine spongiform
                              encephalopathy”


FAO   15/70
                    http://www.fao.org/aims/




              give the same results,
                which are ranked.
FAO   16/70
                                      http://www.fao.org/aims/

               Semantic navigation of the
              bibliographical metadata (1)




FAO   17/70
                                      http://www.fao.org/aims/

               Semantic navigation of the
              bibliographical metadata (2)




FAO   18/70
                              http://www.fao.org/aims/


      Semantic Navigation of Knowledge


                               parent concept(s)


                              children concept(s)




FAO   19/70
                    http://www.fao.org/aims/




              FNA




FAO   20/70
              http://www.fao.org/aims/




FAO   21/70
                                                http://www.fao.org/aims/


               Creation of the core ontology
  BIBLIOGRAPHIC         CORPORATE
     DATABASE           DOCUMENT
                        REPOSITORY
                         DATABASE

                 MERGE
                RECORDS
                    +
               TRANSFORM
                 TO RDFS




      Ontology Editor
      (OI-Modeler)                   maintain


FAO    22/70
                                 http://www.fao.org/aims/


              Ontology Relationships




FAO   23/70
                                          http://www.fao.org/aims/


                       The ontology concepts

      • Publication
      • Issue
      • Work
           • Article
      • Subject Term
      • Category
      • Author
      • Region
      • Language
      • Year

FAO    24/70
                                  http://www.fao.org/aims/


              The ontology instances




FAO   25/70
                                       http://www.fao.org/aims/


                    Features
 • Multilingual concept resolution
 • Get suggestions for the navigation
   (e.g. synonyms)
 • Guided query formulation
 • Easy navigation of the objects by following the
   semantic links




FAO   26/70
              http://www.fao.org/aims/


                      RDFa




FAO   27/70
                    http://www.fao.org/aims/




              CWR




FAO   28/70
              http://www.fao.org/aims/


              Hierarchy




FAO   29/70
                                    http://www.fao.org/aims/


                 The project

 • Undertaken by FAO with partners
 • Developed in harmony with CWR descriptor list
 • First version (English only) available by
   December 2006
 • About 800 core terms + acronyms + spelling
   variants;
 • Clearly definition of concepts (AGROVOC +
   other sources); and
 • Relationships: hierarchical + causative
FAO   30/70
                                        http://www.fao.org/aims/


              More semantics

                    Term: wild plants

                      subclass of plants
                      superclass of crop wild relatives

                      adapted by domestication
                      benefits from resource conservation




FAO   31/70
                                 http://www.fao.org/aims/


              Properties (1/2)




FAO   32/70
                                 http://www.fao.org/aims/


              Properties (2/2)




FAO   33/70
                                                                    http://www.fao.org/aims/


                     Overall Solution (1/2)
                                                                        Value-added
               Aggregated    Subject       News               Informa    information
                Database                                                    services
                  View
                             specific      feed       …         tion
                             Portals      service             System
                                                                 (n)

                                                                     Shared layer
              Common exchange layer (Vocabularies,Ontologies,                    of
                              RDF/XML)                             interoperability


                                                                        Distributed
                 dataset       dataset     …        dataset
                                                                         Datasets
                    1             2                    n




FAO   34/70
                                 http://www.fao.org/aims/


              Overall Solution (2/2)




      Data


FAO   35/70
                          http://www.fao.org/aims/




              Fisheries




FAO   36/70
                                                              http://www.fao.org/aims/


                   Fisheries Ontologies
 • The initial goal
       Making information interchangeable between ASFA, FIGIS, OneFish and
        AGROVOC

 • The approach
       Creating an ontology, integrating or mapping the 3 different systems +
        AGROVOC
       Linking of the Ontology through wrappers to the different Information
        Systems

 • Evolution: NeOn



FAO   37/70
                                                          http://www.fao.org/aims/


               Fisheries Ontologies (2/2)
                                                             strains
                                        diseases              Species
                   OneFish                                     life cycle

                             FIGIS            Hatchery
                                                                           Spawning
                                              technique        Farmin
                                                                  g        technique
                                                              techniq
                                              Health monitoring      Breeding
                                                                 ue
                                                 technique           technique

                                Aquaculture                Environment                         Farming
                                 Resource                                                       system
                                                           Production center
                                                          Water
                                                                  Area                        Regulation
                                                                            landsuppliers
                                                                                          management
                                                                  Institution               system


              AGROVOC

                                     ASFA




FAO   39/70
                                              http://www.fao.org/aims/


                        Features
 1. Form versus meaning:           3.   Basic natural language
    a) Traditional Search               queries
    b) Concept Search
                                   4. Semantic navigation of
 2. Implemented functionalities:      bibliographical
                                      metadata
    a) synonym search
    b) multilingual capability
                                   5. Semantic Navigation of
    c) terminology brokering           Knowledge
    d) disambiguation                 a) Alphabetic list ...
    e) related concepts               b) Core Fishery
    f) query expansion                   Concepts ...


FAO   40/70
                                http://www.fao.org/aims/


              Ontology properties




FAO   41/70
                                     http://www.fao.org/aims/


                   Example
 • "tell me what vessels from a nearby country are
   currently in the marine area 50N060W within
   Atlantic Ocean, provided that also some Thunnus
   alalunga stock can be fished by those vessels,
   through allowed techniques"




FAO   42/70
                                  http://www.fao.org/aims/


        Using multilingual lexicalizations
                                             ENGLISH




                                               SPANISH




                                                FRENCH




FAO   43/70
                                                      http://www.fao.org/aims/


      Using hierarchically related concepts




                                Polyvalent Trawlers




               hierarchically
              related concept




FAO   44/70
                                       http://www.fao.org/aims/


  Using non-hierarchically related concepts




                               gears




              non-hierarchically
               related concept




FAO   45/70
                                                            http://www.fao.org/aims/


      Help the user formulate queries

      Original query: bateau de pêche
      To refine your query, click on the
                                                  Search:
      concepts you are interested in. They will
      appear to the left.




FAO   46/70
                                   http://www.fao.org/aims/


          Reconcile different vocabularies

   AGROVOC or                             “navire de
      ASFA or                           pêche”, “fishing
       other                                vessel”,
“fishing vessels,”                      “embarcaciones
  “fishing boat,”                          de pesca”




FAO   47/70
                                            http://www.fao.org/aims/


              Semantic Navigation of Knowledge:
                      Thesaurus based


                               Highlighting the originator
                               thesaurus. User can select a
                               specific thesaurus to look
                               for.




FAO   48/70
                                http://www.fao.org/aims/




              Geopolitical ontology




FAO   49/70
                                      http://www.fao.org/aims/


              Geopolitical ontology
 • Incorporate geopolitical data
 • Will serve as a bridge to allow communication
   between the various systems.




FAO   50/70
                   http://www.fao.org/aims/


 Properties
 isValidFrom
 hasOfficialName
 hasCode
 isSuccessorOf
 hasBorderWith
 dependsOn




FAO   51/70
                              http://www.fao.org/aims/




              Nutrition Ontology




FAO   52/70
              http://www.fao.org/aims/




FAO   53/70
                                                                                     http://www.fao.org/aims/


                                            Procedure
  <?xml version="1.0"?>
  <rdf:RDF
    xmlns="http://www.fao.org/aos/infoods#"
    xmlns:protege="http://protege.stanford.edu/plugins/owl/protege#"
    xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"
    xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"
    xmlns:owl="http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#"
    xmlns:daml="http://www.daml.org/2001/03/daml+oil#"
    xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"
   xml:base="http://www.fao.org/aos/infoods">
   <owl:Ontology rdf:about="">
    <owl:imports rdf:resource="http://protege.stanford.edu/plugins/owl/protege"/>
    <owl:versionInfo rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string"
    >Revision 4.0</owl:versionInfo>
    <protege:defaultLanguage rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string"
    >en</protege:defaultLanguage>
    <rdfs:comment rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string"
    >International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS) was established in 1984 on the basis of the
  recommendations of an international group convened under the auspices of the United Nations University (UNU). Its
 =CONCATENATE("<owl:Class rdf:ID=""",J2,"""><rdfs:subClassOf><owl:Class
  goal was to .....</rdfs:comment>
   </owl:Ontology>
 rdf:ID=""c_",B2,"""/></rdfs:subClassOf><rdfs:label
   <owl:Class rdf:ID="c_0413">
 xml:lang=""en""><![CDATA[",D2,"]]></rdfs:label><code><![CDATA[",J2,"]]></code><TA
    <code rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string"
 GNAME><![CDATA[",J2,"]]></TAGNAME>",S2, T2,"</owl:Class>")
    >0413</code>
    <rdfs:subClassOf>
FAO 54/70
                        http://www.fao.org/aims/




              AGROVOC




FAO   55/70
                                                                     http://www.fao.org/aims/


       AOS Core: the Concept Server
                                                  ABACA

                                Other thesauri     NT1 Food
                                                    NT2 Apple
                                                  ANIMAL
                                                   BT Organ
                                     and           NT ....



                                terminologies


                                    integration
 Other thesauri &
  terminologies                     AGROVOC
                                                                           AGROVOC
                                      OWL
                                                                         RDFS formats
        ABACA
         NT1 Food     mapping                                             (e.g. SKOS)
          NT2 Apple
        ANIMAL
                                                                Export        and
         BT Organ
         NT ....
                                                                            TagText
                                   Terminology                              ISO2709
                                   Workbench




FAO   56/70
                                     http://www.fao.org/aims/


              Concept Server project
 • Refine semantics and enrich data pool and
   lexicon
 • Develop a workbench for terminology and
   ontology development and maintenance.
 • Support information management specialists in
   the development, maintenance, and quality
   assurance of the AOS/CS
 • Global knowledge vs local knowledge


FAO   57/70
                                                   http://www.fao.org/aims/


              AGROVOC Concept Server
 • AGROVOC cleaning and refinement



                             Current
                            AGROVOC
                             MySQL

                                                    AGROVOC OWL
                       Revision
                          and
                      Refinement        Improved
                                       AGROVOC
                                         MySQL




FAO   58/70
                                               http://www.fao.org/aims/


                         Modelling
      –   Conversion to UTF-8
      –   Migration to MySQL (from SQL server)
      –   Migration to PostgreSQL (from MySQL)
      –   Incorporated AGRIS/CARIS classification scheme
          (multilingual) and the mapping with AGROVOC
          keywords
      –   Modified structure to store multiple classification
          schemes
      –   Revised RDBMS scheme for ontology representation
      –   Designed OWL models
      –   Export to OWL format (v0.8a)
      –   Export to SKOS format (v0.8a)
FAO   59/70
                                                                                    http://www.fao.org/aims/


                                    Methods
 • Concepts from
   descriptors
 • Synonym <owl:DatatypeProperty
      rdf:ID="synonym">

 • Acronyms
      <owl:AnnotationProperty
      rdf:about="http://www.fao.org/aos/ag
      rovoc/2005#acronym">

                             <owl:Class rdf:about=" http://www.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/2005#c_3">
                               <rdfs:label xml:lang="en">ABA</rdfs:label>
                               <rdfs:label xml:lang="fr">ABA</rdfs:label>
                               <rdfs:label xml:lang="es">ABA</rdfs:label>
                               <rdfs:label xml:lang="ar">آبا</rdfs:label>
                                                             ½
                               <rdfs:label xml:lang="zh">脱èé…¸</rdfs:label>
                               <synonym xml:lang="en">[8565] Abscisic acid</synonym>
                                 <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=" http://www.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/2005#c_3397"/>
                                 <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=" http://www.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/2005#c_32543"/>
                             </owl:Class>




FAO   60/70
                                           http://www.fao.org/aims/


                         SKOS
 • SKOS export from AGROVOC Concept Server
   Workbench (WB)
 • SKOS web services
      – SKOS-services for DSpace plug-in
 • SKOS for mapping projects




FAO   61/70
                                                http://www.fao.org/aims/


  AGROVOC CS maintain
   Workbench



  export
                          triple store

              SKOS              access



                 access                  response
                            Web
                          Services



FAO   62/70
                                                               http://www.fao.org/aims/


   Ontology models (AGROVOC Concept Server, LIR, ...)
    concept level
 Relationships                                        Relationships
 between                                              between
                                                      Relationships
 concepts                                                                 Relationship
                  Concept

                                               annotation
                          designated by
                                              relationship
Relationships
between
terms                                                                 string level
                  Lexicalization/
                       term
                      Term level
        All terms are created as instances of the class o_terms. All at
                                                           Other information:
                         manifested language per term.
        the same level. Only oneas        Note
Relationships                                                    language/culture
between                                                        subvocabulary/scope
strings                                                              audience
                      String                                         type, etc.
FAO     63/70
                             http://www.fao.org/aims/




              Agropedia Indica




FAO   64/70
                                      http://www.fao.org/aims/


                   References
 • http://www.slideshare.net/marghe_rita/1-
   pantnagar
 • http://www.slideshare.net/marghe_rita/2-
   pantnagar-w-guidelines
 • http://www.slideshare.net/marghe_rita/3-
   pantnagar-w-exercices
 • http://agropedia.iitk.ac.in/



FAO   65/70
                            http://www.fao.org/aims/




              Conclusions




FAO   66/70
                                         http://www.fao.org/aims/


              Ontology-based applications
 • Better exploitation of the potentiality at the
   application level: powerful IR
 • No more words but URIs in IS
 • Networked Ontologies
 • Ontology Web services (OWS)




FAO   67/70
                                          http://www.fao.org/aims/


                   Collaborations
 • With AOS partners
 • Within EU Projects
      – NeOn
      – SEMIC.EU
 • With other initiatives
      – GFIS
      – Ecoterm
 • Mapping projects
 • GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
   secretariat
 • JRC + BGS + Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze
FAO   68/70
                                            http://www.fao.org/aims/


 Take-home message


 • There are many uses for terminology & ontology
   systems in food and agriculture, both for information
   access and information processing
 • FAO has several projects using such systems
 • FAO is deploying the
   Agricultural Ontology Server (AOS)
   as a global resource
 • SKOS and other knowledge representation standards
   play a key role

FAO   69/70
                                                                   http://www.fao.org/aims/




                                Questions?

                                          Thanks

                          Margherita Sini: margherita.Sini@fao.org
                         Johannes Keizer: Johannes.Keizer@fao.org
                           Dagobert Soergel: dsoergel@umd.edu
                        Asanee Kawtrakul: asanee_naist@yahoo.com

               But Also: Gudrun Johannsen, Boris Lauser, Claudio Baldassarre,
                  Gauri Salokhe, Marta Iglesias, Caterina Caracciolo, Sachit
              Rajbhandari, Jeetendra Singh, Mary Redahan, Shrestha, Prashanta,
                       Ton, Imm, Thanapth, Trakul, and many others...




FAO   70/70

								
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