Chapter 3 The Structures of Music by wK0S14F6

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									Chapter 3
The Structures
of Music

     Texture
             Texture

Melody looks horizontally at musical lines
Harmony looks vertically at chords
Texture looks at the relationship between a
melody and all other lines and figures that
co-exist with it
Like melody, texture is universal
phenomenon
                  Texture

Listening for texture
   Who’s playing the melody?
   What’s going on behind the melody?
    • Beethoven Symphony No. 9 excerpt (Listen
      CD-ROM)
    • Copland Appalachian Spring excerpt
                 Texture

Beethoven Symphony No. 9 excerpt
   Theme: played by cellos and basses with
   no accompaniment
   Variation 1: violins play theme, low strings
   and bassoon play two countermelodies
   Variation 2: violins play theme even
   higher, multiple countermelodies
   Variation 3: trumpets take melody, block
   chord accompaniment (orchestral hits)
                     Texture

Copland Appalachian Spring excerpt:
    Theme: clarinet melody, offbeat long-tone
    accompaniment by flute, piccolo, harp
    Var. 1: oboe melody, offbeat long-tone
    accompaniment by muted trumpets and (later)
    horns, flute, piccolo
    Var. 2: “wall of sound” accompaniment (string
    pizzicato, glockenspiel, staccato woodwinds,
    harp, etc.); melody played by trombone and
    violas, imitated later by horns and violin, cellos
    and basses
        Identifying Textures

Three questions to determine texture:
   How many “lines” can you hear?
   Is there a foreground/background
   relationship, or are all lines equally
   interesting?
   How similar or different are the lines?
    Identifying Textures

How many “lines” can you hear?
• How many “lines,” or different “things,” are
  going on at a time
• Is it melody only?
• Is there more than one melody?
• Are there various chords, figures, bass lines,
  and/or countermelodies in addition to the
  melody?
      Identifying Textures

Is there a foreground/background
relationship, or are all lines equally
interesting?
 • Is there one main melody with clearly
   accompanimental patterns supporting it?
 • Is it hard to tell which is the main melody,
   because it is so busy and confusing?
     Identifying Textures

How similar or different are the lines?
 • Are they rhythmically the same or different?
 • Do they use the same melody or a different
   one?
     Monophonic Texture

How many “lines” can you hear?
 • Only one, nothing else
Foreground/background relationship, or
are all lines equally interesting?
 • N/A
How similar or different are the lines?
 • N/A
    Homophonic Texture

How many “lines” can you hear?
 • Two or more
Foreground/background relationship, or
are all lines equally interesting?
 • Foreground/background; there is one main
   melody and the other parts support it
How similar or different are the lines?
 • Different rhythms = melody and
   accompaniment
 • Similar rhythms = chordal (homorhythmic)
    Homophonic Texture

Melody and accompaniment texture




Chordal (homorhythmic) texture
      Polyphonic Texture

How many “lines” can you hear?
 • Two or more
Foreground/background relationship, or
are all lines equally interesting?
 • All lines equally interesting, all competing for
   your attention; can be hard to follow
How similar or different are the lines?
 • Same tune = imitative polyphony
 • Different tunes = non-imitative polyphony
   Polyphonic Texture (1)

Imitative polyphony
   Polyphonic Texture (2)

Non-imitative polyphony
            Key Terms

Texture              Polyphonic texture
Monophony            Counterpoint
Monophonic texture   Contrapuntal writing
Homophony            Imitation
Homophonic texture   Imitative polyphony
Polyphony            Non-imitative
                     polyphony
          Texture Listening

Name that texture!
   How many “lines” can you hear?
   Foreground/background relationship, or
   are all lines equally interesting?
   How similar or different are the lines?
   Texture type?
    • Monophonic?
    • Homophonic? Chordal or melody and
      accompaniment?
    • Polyphonic? Imitative or non-imitative?

								
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