Behavioral Approaches to Learning and Teaching by gxdA9lh

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									Behavioral Approaches to
 Learning and Teaching
         FOUN 3100
       Sondra M. Parmer
       Auburn University
          Fall 2003
             What is learning?
 Examples     of learning
     Learning addition
     Learning to drive
     Learning social interaction
 Examples     of things that are NOT learning
     Reflexive behavior (e.g., swallowing)
     Innate abilities
       Approaches to Learning
 Behavioral – emphasis on experiences
 Cognitive – emphasis on mental process
     Social cognitive
     Cognitive information-processing
     Cognitive constructivist
     Social constructivist
Behavioral Approaches to
       Learning
         Classical Conditioning

A type of learning in which an organism
 learns to connect or associate stimuli.


  Neutral stimulus   meaningful stimulus   response
Classical Conditioning: Ivan Pavlov
Classical Conditioning
       Classical Conditioning
Generalization – involves the tendency of a
 new stimulus similar to the original
 conditioned stimulus to produce a similar
 response (e.g., test anxiety: biology test –
 chemistry test).
       Classical Conditioning
Discrimination – occurs when the organism
  responds to a certain stimuli but not others
  (e.g., test anxiety: English test).
       Classical Conditioning
Extinction – involves weakening of the
 conditioned response in the absence of
 the unconditioned stimulus (e.g., good
 grades on test = fading of test anxiety).
      Classical Conditioning
 Good  at explaining how neutral stimuli
  becomes associated with unlearned,
  involuntary responses.
 Good at understanding students’ anxieties
  and fears.
 Not as effective at explaining voluntary
  behaviors.
    Classical Conditioning Activity
 Get into groups of 3-4 people.
 Determine an example of classical conditioning.
 Each group will present their example in the
  form of a skit to the rest of the class.
 The class will try to identify the following:
       Unconditioned stimulus
       Conditioned stimulus
       Unconditioned response
       Conditioned response
      Operant Conditioning
A  form of learning in which the
  consequences of behavior produce
  changes in the probability that the
  behavior will occur.
 Example: When John made good grades
  [behavior] his parents gave him money
  [consequence] so he continued to make
  good grades [future behavior].
            Operant Conditioning
   Thorndike
       Cats in puzzle boxes
       Thorndike’s Law of Effect
         • Behaviors followed by positive
           outcomes are strengthened; behaviors
           followed by negative outcomes are
           weakened.
               Positive Example: I sing a song – you
                applaud for me – I continue to sing.
               Negative Example: I sing a song – you
                boo at me and throw tomatoes – I no
                longer sing.
B. F. Skinner
       Operant Conditioning
 Reinforcement  (reward) – increases the
 probability a response will occur
    • Positive reinforcement – frequency of a response
      increases because it is followed by a rewarding
      stimulus
    • Negative reinforcement – frequency of a response
      increases because it is followed by the removal of
      an aversive stimulus
 Punishment – decreases the probability a
 response will occur
        Examples of Positive
          Reinforcement
 My  son scores a goal in soccer [behavior];
 I praise him [consequence]; He continues
 to try to score goals [future behavior].

 Student begins using the adverb “well”
 correctly [behavior]; She receives extra
 time in the reading area [consequence];
 Student continues to use “well”
 appropriately [future behavior].
               Examples of Negative
                  Reinforcement
   Student comes to class on time [behavior];
    Teacher stops writing student’s name on the
    board [consequence]; Student continues to come
    to class on time [future behavior].

   Student completes homework after school
    [behavior]; Parents stop nagging at student to
    complete homework [consequence]; Student
    increasingly completes homework after school
    [future behavior].
     Examples of Punishment
 Student is caught cheating [behavior];
  Student is placed in ISS [consequence];
  Student does not cheat again [future
  behavior].
 Two students are disruptive during class
  [behavior]; Students are reprimanded by
  the teacher [consequence]; Students
  become silent during class [future
  behavior].
Punishment vs. Negative Reinforcement



Decreases the          Increases the
likelihood that the    probability that
response will          the response
occur.                 will occur.
    Operant Conditioning Activity
 Get into groups of 3-4 people.
 Determine an example of
       positive reinforcement
       negative reinforcement
       punishment
 Each group will present their examples to the
  rest of the class.
 The class will try to identify each of the above as
  well as identify the behavior, consequence and
  future behavior.
     Applied Behavior Analysis
           in Education
        operant conditioning to change
 Applies
 human behavior. It increases desirable
 behavior while decreasing undesirable
 behavior.
Increasing Desirable Behaviors
 Choose     effective reinforcers
     Tailored for individuals
     Natural ones – praise and privilege
     Premack principle – a high probability activity
      can serve as a reinforcer for a low probability
      activity
       • Example: If you complete the assignment, you may
         have 5 extra minutes at recess.
Increasing Desirable Behaviors
 Make the reinforcer contingent and timely
 – provide the reward only after the child
 performs the behavior.
     Example: If you clean up your area, then you
      may listen to music.
Increasing Desirable Behaviors
   Use the best schedule of reinforcement
       Fixed-ratio schedule
         • A behavior is reinforced after a set number of responses
       Variable-ratio schedule
         • A behavior is reinforced after an average number of times,
           but on an unpredictable basis
       Fixed-interval schedule
         • First appropriate response after a fixed amount of time is
           reinforced
       Variable-interval schedule
         • A response is reinforced after a variable amount of time has
           elapsed
Increasing Desirable Behaviors
 Consider contracting – putting reinforcement
  contingencies in writing.
 Using prompts and shaping
       Prompt – an added stimulus or cue that is given just
        before a response and increases the likelihood that
        the response will occur. (e.g., peace and quiet)
       Shaping – teaching new behaviors by reinforcing
        successive approximations to a specified target
        behavior (e.g., tennis ball activity)
Decreasing Undesirable Behaviors
 Use   differential reinforcement – reinforce
  behavior that is more appropriate (e.g.,
  reinforce a student for raising hand to
  answer rather than blurting out answer)
 Terminate reinforcement (extinction) –
  withdraw positive reinforcement from
  inappropriate behavior and reward the
  appropriate behavior (e.g., “thank you for
  sitting in your seat so quietly”
 Decreasing Undesirable Behavior
 Remove     desirable stimuli
     Time-out
     Response cost
 Present   aversive stimuli
     Example: Lack of sharing – parental verbal
      disappointment
                    IN CLASS ACTIVITY
Divide into four groups of six people. Each group will consider one of the
following students' undesirable behaviors. Each group will determine
strategies for decreasing the behaviors listed. What is the best strategy for
each? Report back to the class your strategies for decreasing the
behavior.

1) Andrew, who likes to utter profanities every now and then;

2) Sandy, who tells you to quit bugging her when you ask her questions;

3) Matt, who likes to mess up other students' papers;

4) Rebecca, who frequently talks with other students around her while you
are explaining or demonstrating something.
   Social Cognitive
Approaches to Learning
Bandura’s Social
Cognitive Theory
      Social and cognitive
       factors, as well as
    behavior, play important
        roles in learning
Bandura’s Reciprocal
 Determinism Model
         Observational Learning
   Also known as imitation or modeling
   Classic Bobo doll study
   The application of consequences is not necessary
    for learning to take place
   Rather learning can occur through the simple
    processes of observing someone else's activity
Bandura’s Contemporary Model
  of Observational Learning
Bandura formulated his findings in a four-
 step pattern which combines a cognitive
 view and an operant view of learning.
          Attention -- the individual notices something in the
           environment
          Retention -- the individual remembers what was noticed
          Reproduction -- the individual produces an action that is
           a copy of what was noticed
          Motivation -- the environment delivers a consequence
           that changes the probability the behavior will be emitted
           again (reinforcement and punishment)
Cognitive Behavior Approaches
 Emphasize    getting students to monitor,
  manage, and regulate their own behavior.
 Self-instructional techniques that can be
  taught to students for self-monitoring
     prepare for anxiety or stress
     confront and handle the anxiety or stress
     cope with feelings at critical moments
     use reinforcing self-statements
        Social Cognitive Approaches
                to Learning
                  Self-Regulatory Learning
             A Model of Self-Regulatory Learning

                              Self-Evaluation
                              and Monitoring


Monitoring Outcomes                                   Goal Setting and
and Refining Strategies                              Strategic Planning



                             Putting a Plan into
                          Action and Monitoring It

								
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