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Negative effects of Petrochemical engineering to the ... - Projects

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									Negative effects of Petrochemical engineering to the environment




        Negative effects of Petrochemical engineering to the environment


Introduction


      In the 1920s and 1930s, while the rest of the world was relying on coal as the

essential source of organic starting materials, the United States was blazing the trail of

oil-based chemicals. Carbon black, used in the tire industry and based on oil, was an

American monopoly. Isopropyl alcohol, obtained through propylene hydration, was

produced in the Bay way unit of Standard Oil of New Jersey. In 1930 in California, Shell

started to produce hydrogen from natural gas, then butyl alcohols and methyl ethyl

ketone from nbutylenes, while in 1925 in South Carolina, Union Carbide began

producing a whole series of aliphatic derivatives, especially glycols, from petroleum

gases. The spectacular development of petrochemicals in the United States after 1940

was due to two factors. On the one hand the synthetic rubber program required

increasing amounts of butadiene and styrene. On the other hand improved refining

technologies to obtain aviation gasoline also opened the way to the production of other

feedstock chemicals. The ethylene used to prepare styrene via ethyl benzene was

produced either from refinery gases or from naphtha steam cracking carried out by

Standard Oil of New Jersey in Baton Rouge, from 1941 on. Butadiene came from the

dehydrogenation of cat cracker butylene or, since 1943, from butane cracking (1991).
       In 1945, the United States produced 820,000 tons of synthetic rubber accounting

for nearly 50 percent of the country's petrochemicals production. The petrochemicals

industry spilled over into Canada also. Synthetic rubber units set up in Sarnia, Canada

produced 45,700 tons in 1945. The Americans themselves were of two minds about

how vigorously to pursue petrochemicals. Synthetic rubber production fell below 400,

000 tons in 1949; and half the GRS units had been closed down. Europeans needed to

rebuild their refineries before they could think about substituting petrochemicals for their

traditional coal-based chemicals. But, with the end of the U.S. slump of 1948-1949 and

with new needs emerging in Europe in solvents and polymers, petrochemicals became

universally recognized as an essential source of organic base products 1991).




       Over the last few years, the high cost of installations and of the money needed to

finance them was not conducive to the building of new plants on any large scale in

industrialized countries. But as demand trends have been moving upwards lately,

petrochemicals have at long last returned to profitability. The specialties rush of

chemical leaders is, on the contrary, more likely than not to produce a surfeit of

products, at least insofar as some specialties are concerned. These will shed their

added value, and consequently lose their attraction for the too numerous industry

leaders that had decided to follow that path. Other disappointments are likely to come

from the organizational and managerial differences between a purchaser and the

specialties firm acquired (1991). The many divestments that have often followed upon
hasty acquisitions show how difficult it is to force on an entrepreneurial company the

management methods of a large multinational. It is not certain that the errors of the past

will not be repeated in the future. The thirst for power could indeed lead some company

heads to over invest, especially if they have public funds at their disposal. They would

then recreate the over capacities that have been so harmful to fertilizer, petrochemicals,

synthetic fibers, and plastic producers over the last few years. It is also likely that

specialties will continue to attract industry leaders anxious to develop fresh prospects

(1991). The paper is a proposal of the negative effects of Petrochemical engineering to

the environment.




Problem of the study


      The fastest growing part of the chemicals industry was petrochemicals, an

industry which developed in the interwar years out of the technological convergence of

the oil and chemical industries. Initially it was an almost exclusively US industry: in

1950, 98 percent of world production of ethylene, a key petrochemical product, was

located in the United States. Subsequently, the petrochemicals industry grew

exponentially with surging demand from the automobile, textile and construction

industries, the growing use of synthetic materials, and falling costs of petroleum raw

materials. World ethylene capacity grew twenty-six-fold between 1950 and 1970. While

in 1950, 98 percent of this capacity was in the United States, by 1970 the share of the

United States was 48 percent, Europe 33 percent and Japan 14 percent. More than

one-third of world ethylene capacity outside the United States and Japan was foreign-
owned in 1970 (2005). Before World War II, the American chemical industry consisted

of a diverse collection of technologies that served a broad spectrum of markets. The

rapid development of petrochemicals and polymers in the war and immediate postwar

years attracted the attention of the entire industry as well as outsiders. The investment

of enormous sums in developing new polymers and dramatically expanding the

production and marketing of older ones led the chemical companies to neglect older

businesses, such as dyes and other specialty chemicals, and to limit the extent of

diversification (1993).




       Petrochemicals Engineering is important for the production of the much needed

petrochemicals. Petrochemicals are needed by different equipments that are part of

people’s daily lives. Petrochemicals are one of the influential sources of man made

energy. For countries and businesses petrochemicals serve not only as sources of their

energy but in serves as sources of income. The use of petrochemical might be

acknowledged as something connected with human beings’ existence but few people

realize that although Petrochemicals bring many good things to society and business it

may bring negative impact to the environment. The study will focus on the negative

effects of Petrochemical engineering to the environment.




Statement of the study
       There are different benefits of Petrochemicals to society but it has also created

negative problems for the environment. The study will try to determine the different

negative effects of petrochemical engineering to the environment. This study is being

proposed as a response to calls for environmental concerns as well. This study is also

constructed to further understand Petrochemical engineering. The different information

that will be acquired by the study will be helpful in providing a conclusion on why

Petrochemical may not be always a good thing.




Objectives of the study


       While the research questions only refer to the information that the researcher

intended to question. The objectives, however, will focus on the necessary problems

and objectives that should be clarified in order to gather the intended information and

also be able to derive specific information that are not limited by the previous questions.

With these objectives, the study will be able to attain the necessary information that can

help derive further conclusions and proper recommendations. The study intends to

determine the negative effects of petrochemical engineering to the environment. The

study intends to get the appropriate data to help in making the proper assessment. The

study intends to make sure that questions on effects of petrochemical engineering will

be answered. There are other aims and objectives of the study. This includes:


   1. To analyze the current situation in petrochemical engineering

   2. To determine the current trends in the practice of petrochemical engineering
   3. To determine if the current trends in petrochemical engineering brings positive

      implications to the environment.

   4. Forecast what might happen if the negative effects of petrochemical engineering

      remains unnoticed.




Literature Review


Business and the environment


      Businesses have different relationship with the environment. These relationships

can be based on different instances and situation. The relationship of business and the

environment can be divided on different things. First, business activities have an impact

on the environment. This occurs through pollution, the modification of ecosystems,

introducing exotic species and chemical compounds, genetic engineering and

irreversible physical changes-the sorts of impacts widely reported in the popular press

and television. The ways in which land has been used, particularly for agriculture and

forestry, are a reflection of the way in which the commercial pressures of business have

changed the physical landscape ( 2001) Business affects the environment in a variety of

ways both deliberate and accidental. Most of the effects are usually seen as

detrimental, although increasingly people see some business activity improving the

environment. Second, but less obvious, are the impacts the environment has on

business. Changes in climate have led to changes in business activity. Depleting

resources or physical limitations on the use of some materials have changed patterns of
exploitation and their uses. Changing environmental conditions have led to the birth of

new industries (2001).


        Third, business activities are influenced by environmental concerns. It is hard to

identify a business where environmental concerns have no impact on its operations. For

most businesses, environmental issues are less important than other external

influences such as the state of the economy or the behavior of its competitors. For

some, which are close to the environment such as agriculture or tourism, the impacts

can be at the top of their agenda. Environmental legislation, customer attitudes to the

environment along with direct actions by environmental groups are among the most

obvious influences which can be grouped together under the umbrella term of

environmentalism. Environmentalism has a considerable impact on many individual

businesses. Businesses are increasingly aware of public pressure to have due regard

for the environment and now many have corporate policies that are either sympathetic,

or pro-active, to environmental aims (2001). The way in which business behavior has

been influenced and modified, as a result of the influence of environmentalism, is

something that will be developed more than other relationships in this book. Fourth,

business has worked hard to influence public opinion about the environment. While

many such actions can be seen merely as window dressing, we shall see that many

business opportunities have been seized to pro-actively develop products and services

resulting in environmental improvement. Business has actively promoted some of its

activities in terms of the environmental benefits they have brought (2001). The

environment will always be one of the first things that will be affected by business

activities.
Significance of the study


       With the establishment of the purpose given, this study may be of importance to

the purpose that have been discussed By fulfilling the aims that were stated in the

previous section, this study will be helpful for other researchers who may be focusing on

the different customer orientated strategies, and innovation being ultimately destructive

to the principles of sustainability or of other areas especially with regards to the method

of gathering the information. Such data will hopefully be helpful for researchers in

establishing their own means of conducting their study. As such, the notable

significance of this study is the possibility that it may be able to use the findings for the

other studies that may wish to analyze the factors for the success or demise of a

particular study. The methods that this study will take must also be credible and help

researchers in knowing how to look for particular information and know how to analyze

them. It is through this that researchers will then be able to find out how they will be able

to focus on their particular investigation and also know the possible methods that they

may choose in the possible time that they may choose to already conduct their study.

Thus, another significance of this study is to serve as a guide for researches that focus

on the analysis of the negative effects of petrochemical engineering to the environment.




Scope of the study


       The study intends to determine the negative effects of petrochemical engineering

to the environment. The scope of the study is on petrochemical engineering, its effects
and what are the effects of such to the environment. The study limits itself on gathering

information from people involved in petrochemical engineering. The study limits itself to

interviewing most probably 50 or more respondents to minimize the time and expenses

that will be used in the study. By having lesser people as respondents the researcher

will not waste time in interviewing more people that has different ideas and concepts.

The researcher will also not have a hard time in spending more for materials and other

forms.




Theoretical Framework


         Conjecture is necessarily situated in a theory or it cannot be interpreted. Theory,

such as intellectual development theory, social organizational theory, or cognitive

theory, relates the conjecture to other aspects of education or mathematics. Whatever

the particular theoretical aspect of the conjecture is, it serves to structure the activities

and methodologies in the teaching experiment. In relation to the conjecture, the theory

helps to weave together the content and pedagogical dimensions (2000). A critical

element of the theoretical framework is a careful review and analysis of the existing

literature. Seldom, if ever, does a robust conjecture fall full-blown from the sky. Usually

it comes from a thoughtful and critical review of the literature to discern an anomaly that

has been overlooked, unsolved, or addressed inadequately by one's colleagues. As a

result, a theoretical discussion should funnel one from a broad set of theoretical claims

to the specifics of the content to be imparted and how the conjecture is situated in that

literature (2000). Petrochemical engineering maybe the cause of ruined ecosystem and
increase in the worsening situation of global warming of the planet. Petrochemical

engineering might be causing global warming to worsen. The assumption that comes

out from this is petrochemical engineering should be moderated or re evaluated. The

mentioned effects of petrochemical engineering are part of the issues that will be

verified. The paper will try to prove or disprove these thoughts on the effects of

petrochemical engineering.




Data Collection


Type of research


       This study will use the descriptive type of research. Descriptive method of

research is to gather information about the present existing condition. The purpose of

employing this method is to describe the nature of a situation, as it exists at the time of

the study and to explore the cause/s of particular phenomena (1994). This research is

partly based on quantitative research method. This allowed for an investigation of

important new issues and questions as they arose. In addition, this study also employed

partly qualitative research method, since this research intends to find theories that

would explain the relationship of one variable with another variable through qualitative

elements in research. These qualitative elements are behavior, attitudes, opinions, and

beliefs. The study opted to use this kind of research considering the goal of the study to

obtain first hand data from the respondents so as to formulate rational and sound

conclusions and recommendations for the study.
Research Strategy


      For this research data will be gathered through collating published studies from

different books, articles from different related journals and studies, and other literary

instruments. The next thing that will be done is to make a content analysis of the

collected documentary and verbal material. The study will then summarize all the

necessary information. By summarizing it additional knowledge of the study will be

imparted to the researcher. The study will then make a conclusion based on the said

information.




Data Collection and Analysis


      The study shall use survey using questionnaires and interviews to gather

pertinent data. Moreover, the study shall also use previous studies and compare it to its

existing data in order to provide conclusions and competent recommendations. Survey

can be done either by personal survey, telephone survey, self administered

questionnaire, mailed questionnaire, and email questionnaire.




Primary and Secondary data


      The primary source of data will come from a survey using questionnaire and

interviews conducted by the researcher. The primary data frequently gives the detailed

definitions of terms and statistical units used in the survey. These are usually broken
down into finer classifications. The primary source of data will give actual responses

from people who encounter different kinds of things. This kind of data will give a further

understanding of the situation. The secondary source of data will come from research

through the internet; books, journals, related studies and other sources of information.

Acquiring secondary data are more convenient to use because they are already

condensed and organized. This kind of data can be found anywhere and at any time

that is needed. Moreover, analysis and interpretation using the secondary source of

data can be done more easily.




Sampling


       To determine the number of respondents that will be asked to participate and

give information regarding the study random sampling will be used. The participants are

different people working in petrochemical industry or those involved in petrochemical

engineering. As much as possible the respondents should at least have been serving in

the industry within a year so that accurate data can be achieved.




Data analysis


        Data gathered will be analyzed through frequency distributions. These will give

way to reviewing the data categories and the number of referrals in each category. With

relation to data analysis, the indicators that will be used in evaluating the study include
the age of the respondent; the social status; the educational attainment of the

respondents; the position of the respondents in the company and the number of years

the respondent served as an employee of the industry.




Plan


       The study will initially gather information that will serve as introductory part of the

study. These kind of information helps the reader what the study is about, what it

intends to do and what will be its result. The study will then gather related literature to

prove the need for conducting the study. The literature review can help in determining

what are the studies already done, what study needs to be corrected. The study will

then determine the methods and means for data to be gathered and analyzed. In this

part the data is being readied to be gathered and analyzed but the method to gather it

will first be determined. The next part of the study is gathering, presenting and

interpreting the data. In this part the validity of the hypothesis and ideas about the study

will be proven. The last part of the study will be the part where conclusions and

recommendations will be stated. In this part final statement about the study will be done.




Time frame


       The first thing to be done is to collect necessary data and information. This

includes colleting data from primary and secondary sources. Within this time frame the
questionnaire has been formulated and ready for use, the survey will be conducted to

the respondents. After gathering such data the next thing to be done is analyzing it to

use it in the study. This will be done for a month. The next activity is formulating the first

two chapters. Within the said activity the data is integrated with the research, and the

related literature is included. This will be done in 2 weeks. The next activity is

formulating the last few chapters of the study wherein the data gathered from the survey

is integrated and the analysis of the data is included in the research. This will be done

for at least 3 weeks to ensure that the study is done well. The last activity is finalizing

the paper and preparation to present the result of the study.




Hypothesis


       Hypothesis testing is a complex process. Breaking it down into small steps

makes it easier to understand how it works. With practice, each of the steps, and then

the whole procedure, becomes clear. That practice should begin with trying to

understand how each step is related to successive steps, and why each step is

necessary in hypothesis testing. Your understanding of hypothesis testing will be

complete when you understand how errors are made, and how the probability of making

errors can be reduced (1996). The following are the hypothesis for the study. One

hypothesis for the study is that petrochemical engineering can worsen the

environmental problems. Another hypothesis for the study is that petrochemical

engineering can be moderated so that its effects will be minimized. Moreover a

hypothesis for the study is there are new discoveries made that can be used as a
substitute for petrochemical engineering. Lastly a hypothesis for the study is there can

be alternative sources of energy that can be used as replacements for petrochemicals

								
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