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					                           GEOL 3035
                          Chapter 24
                    Beyond Our Solar System

Journey to a Star

-The Space Shuttle orbits the Earth at 17,800 miles/hr
 (7.9 km/sec)

- Proxima Centauri distance is 4.3 Light Years (4 x 1013 km)
  (i.e. 40,000,000,000,000 km)

At the speed of the Space Shuttle the trip to Proxima Centauri
would take 164,000 years

-Pioneer 10 was the longest lived deep   space probe - launched
1972. It is now twice the distance of    Pluto traveling at
12 km/sec. In about 2 million years it   will reach the red star
Aldebaran which is 68 light years away   from Earth.
                         Chapter 24
                   Beyond Our Solar System


Big Bang started - hydrogen (one proton) formed

Some Helium (2 protons) and Lithium (3 protons) formed in the
first 200 seconds

First stars formed at 400 million years and burn Hydrogen into

As stars age more Helium atoms are produced, they collide and
form Berylium

Stars star to run out of hydrogen, core collapses, Berylium
and helium collide to form Carbon

Supernovas occur and create heavier elements at 1 billion
                            GEOL 3035
                           Chapter 24
                     Beyond Our Solar System
Distance to a star

- Parallax is used to find the distance to the closest stars
   - Take photos 6 months apart and determine the shift of
     location in seconds of arc.

  Parallax = 1/2 of this angle

Distance (parsecs) = 1/parallax (seconds of arc)

This technique is only good out to a distance of 100 parsecs.
Beyond that, the angle is too small to measure.

If the Earth's orbit were larger we could measure more
distance stars using this technique.

1 parsec = 3.26 light years,
1 Light year = 9.5 x 1012 km (5.8 x 1012 miles)

-A light year is the distance light travels in one year at the
speed of light (3 x 108 m/sec, 186,000 mi/sec)
                             GEOL 3035
                            Chapter 24
                      Beyond Our Solar System

Brightness of Stars

- Apparent Magnitude (AM)
     A stars brightness as seen from Earth

  AM (brightest stars) = -1.4     (the star Sirius)

  AM (faintest stars, unaided eye) = 6

  AM (Sun) = -26.7

- Brightness difference = 2.5(Magnitude   Difference)

e.g.   If two stars are 2 magnitudes different

  (2.5)2 = 6.25

i.e. like logarithms to the base 2.5
                             GEOL 3035
                            Chapter 24
                      Beyond Our Solar System

Brightness of Stars

Absolute Magnitude = true brightness at a standard distance of
10 parsecs (3.1 x 1014 km)

For Example

Sun's apparent magnitude = -26.7

Sun's absolute magnitude = 5

Very hot Stars - Blue     (30,000 deg K)

Sun            - Yellow (6,000 deg K)

Cool Stars     - Red      (3,000 deg K)
                            GEOL 3035
                           Chapter 24
                     Beyond Our Solar System

Binary Stars

- 50% of all stars

Enables measuring the combined mass of both stars

M1 + M2 = D(A.U.)3/(P2)   where P = period of orbit

Get P from the light curve

Get D from measurements if the stars are close enough
to see the separation.
                            GEOL 3035
                           Chapter 24
                     Beyond Our Solar System

Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

Most stars spend most of their active years as main sequence

Hottest Main sequence stars are brightest (B)

Temperature  Brightness(B)  Mass  size

B1/B2 = (4π r12)/(4π r22),   where r = radius of the star
                           GEOL 3035
                          Chapter 24
                    Beyond Our Solar System

Variable Stars

- Pulsating - Cepheid variables   (discovered by Henrietta

  - Period  Absolute Magnitude

     - helps find absolute magnitude of stars > 100 parsecs

- Eruptive (NOVA)

  - Binary made up of red giant and white dwarf

  - Outburst of ejected material from Giant to Dwarf.

  - A few days later the giant returns to normal.
                             GEOL 3035
                            Chapter 24
                      Beyond Our Solar System

Interstellar Matter

-Emission Nebulae

  -Fluoresce by Ultraviolet light from nearby stars

-Reflection nebulae

  -Reflects light from nearby stars

-Dark Nebulae
   -Dust clouds not close enough to stars to be illuminated
                          GEOL 3035
                         Chapter 24
                   Beyond Our Solar System

Star Evolution

Birth - Cloud of gas and dust contracts due to gravity
        (adiabatic heating)
     92% hydrogen, 7% helium 1% other elements

One proposal is that a nearby supernova shock wave could start
the contraction.


  -Core reaches 10 million deg K
  -Hydrogen burning
  -Radiation pressure balances gravity
                          GEOL 3035
                         Chapter 24
                   Beyond Our Solar System

Main Sequence

-Hot massive stars deplete hydrogen in a few million years

-Yellow stars like the Sun remains a main sequence stars for
 close to 10 billion years.

-Most stars spend most of their active years as main
sequence stars.

-Red Giant

  -Hydrogen burning moves outward above the Helium core

  - At 100 million deg K the Helium starts fusing to carbon.
  - Carbon + Helium = Oxygen (produces only 10% Hydrogen
  - Oxygen + Helium = Neon
  - Carbon + Carbon = Silicon
- Silicon + Silicon = Nickel, Cobalt and Iron
                             GEOL 3035
                            Chapter 24
                      Beyond Our Solar System

Star Death

-Low Mass (1/2 mass of Sun)

  - After 100 BY they become hot dense white dwarfs

-Medium Mass (Sun's mass to 3 times the Sun mass)

  -Red Giant
  -Planetary Nebula
  -White Dwarf
                            GEOL 3035
                           Chapter 22
                     Beyond Our Solar System

Star Death

Massive Stars (>3 times the mass of the Sun)

1st becomes a Red Super Giant

Consumes nuclear fuel
Implosion & development of shock wave
Turns into a neutron star & creates heavy elements
Goes supernova and creates heavy elements
Creates Cobalt 56 ‡ Nickel + Gamma ray

First supernova was seen on July 4, 1054 A.D.
Second was seen Nov. 11, 1572 by Tycho Brahe
 Unchanging perfect celestial sky was no more

Eventually   ‡   neutron star or black hole
                           GEOL 3035
                          Chapter 24
                    Beyond Our Solar System

Stellar Remnants

-White Dwarfs

  -Degenerate matter (very dense)

  -electrical forces support against gravity

  -Very hot T > 25,000 deg K

-Neutron Stars

- electrons are pushed into protons giving neutrons
   - Tiny (some as small as 20 km diameter)
   - very rapidly rotating (some rotate 43,000 times a second)
   - Pulsars produces short pulses of radio energy
    e.g. Crab Nebula
   - The Fermi Telescope is now detecting gamma ray pulsars
      (otherwise dark i.e. no radio energy or visible light)
                          GEOL 3035
                         Chapter 22
                   Beyond Our Solar System
Complete disruption of stars at the end of their lives.
Among the most violent events in the universe. Supernovas
occur at the rate of about 1 per second in the visible
universe. What kind of stars turn into Supernovas?(ref.
Science, 14 Nov. 2003, pg 1161)
  Type I no hydrogen spectral lines
          Destruction of a white dwarf which has grown to be
          1.4 times the mass of the sun. (merging of 2 dwarfs)
          Most luminous of all supernovas.
Type Ia   have doubly ionized Silicon spectral lines.
  (similar evolution as above).
  These are used as a standard distance estimator. But
  type Ia in old eliptical galaxies appear dimmer than
  those in younger galaxies. This creates a problem for
  estimates of distance thereby causing problems with
  red shift calculations.
Type Ib   no doubly ionized Silicon spectral lines.
  Type Ic    like type Ib, but exhibits virtually no
Type II   has hydrogen spectral lines. (> 8 to 10 solar
Iron-rich core collapses to form a Neutron star.
                             GEOL 3035
                            Chapter 24
                      Beyond Our Solar System

Interstellar Matter

Black Holes

  - Stars > 6 to 20 Solar masses collapse into objects
    even more dense than neutron stars (e.g. Cygnus x-1)

  - Strong x-rays are given off as material is engulfed

Star Clusters
  -Each star is thought to have a similar origin.

  -Some clusters are missing hot massive O and B class stars

In the early 1970's Vera Rubin of the Carnegie Institute
studied the motions of stars and found that stars
revolving around the centers of galaxies do not slow
down like planets and satellites as they get further
away from the parent body. This showed that there must
be more mass in the outer regions of each galaxy. This
was termed Dark Matter.
                           GEOL 3035
                          Chapter 24
                Beyond Our Solar System

By 2003 scientists agreed
   The visible universe contains only 4% of ordinary
   matter (stars, trees, humans, etc)
   The other 96% is Dark Matter

   73% is dark energy which we don't understand yet.

   23% is dark mass which may be an undiscovered
particle. Collision of two dark matter particles may
have something to do with Cosmic Rays which are
currently not understood.

   The Fermi telescope
   launched June 2008 to study gamma rays and Cosmic
   rays may be able detect this dark matter.
                            GEOL 3035
                           Chapter 24
                     Beyond Our Solar System

Milky Way

-Band of light North to South seen in dark skies

-100 billion Stars

- 100,000 light years across

- 10,000 light years thick

-3 spiral arms

-10 Billion Years old

-Sun is about 30,000 light years from the center

-Sun orbits center each 200 million years

-Milky way contains both young and old stars with the
   youngest located in the arms
Andromeda Galaxy is 1,000,000 light years away.
                             GEOL 3035
                            Chapter 24
                      Beyond Our Solar System


There are Hundreds of Billions of Galaxies in the universe.

-3 types

  -Irregular (mostly young stars)

  -Spiral (20%)    -Barred Spiral (10%)
Are usually among the larger galaxies.

  -Elliptical (60%)    -   (usually small, but some are the
largest of all)

-Galaxies also form clusters

  - Our "Local Group" contains 28 galaxies
                           GEOL 3035
                          Chapter 24
                    Beyond Our Solar System

Red Shifts

- Doppler effect causes receding galaxies spectra to shift to
longer wavelengths (redder)
    obs= (C-v) /C, where C = speed of light,  = wavelength
                              v = velocity
- Edwin Hubble used Cepheid variable stars to find the
distance of stars
   - He found the red shift  distance (i.e. the farther a star
is from us the faster it is receding from us.

  -Hubbles Law states that galaxies recede at a rate
proportional to their distance

     -This is why they say the universe is expanding

                           GEOL 3035
                          Chapter 24
                    Beyond Our Solar System
Milky Way

Of the 100 billion stars in the Milky Way, it is estimated
that about 7% of the stars might be in a hospitable location
in which life could form (7 billion stars).
   Far enough away from dangerous supernovas
   Enough heavy elements to form planets
   Old enough that complex life could form

These criteria give a annular distance between 7 and 9
kiloparsecs from the center of the Milky Way Galaxy.

Reference: Science, vol. 303, pg 59, Jan. 2, 2004.


Age = 13.7 Billion years
Expansion = 71 km/(sec megaparsec)
Shape = flat

Reference: Science Vol. 302, Dec 19, 2003, pp 2038-2039.
                           GEOL 3035
                          Chapter 24
                Upcoming/Current NASA Missions

To keep up to date on activities in space go to:

Mars Rovers
  - Launched in June and July 2003 and landed in Jan. and Feb.

Spirit - landed on Mars on Jan. 3, 2004 near Gusev crater.

Opportunity - landed on Mars on Jan. 24, 2004 in Meridiani.

Hubble Space Telescope
  - Launched April 25, 1990
  - images are available from:
   - Has collected images for 19 years.
   - Final repair completed May 21, 2009 on STS-125

Deep Impact
   - Hit the comet Tempel 1 with a   massive copper
projectile    in July 2005. Comet Boethin has broken
up, so Deep Impact will fly by Comet Hartley - 2 on Oct
11, 2001.
                           GEOL 3035
                          Chapter 24
                Upcoming/Current NASA Missions

Stardust - launched Feb. 7, 1999
  Objective - Flew by the comet Wild 2 and collected samples
  on January 2, 2004 and returned them to Earth for Study
  in January 2006. Will arrive at comet Tempel 1 in 2011.

• Venus Express- launched toward Venus Nov. 9,
  2005. Arrived in orbit about Venus April 11,
  2006. Final orbit to be achieved May 2006.

  - launched October 15, 1997, arrived at Saturn in July 2004
  - Huygens probe separated Dec 25, 2004 and landed on surface
     of the moon Titan Jan 14, 2005.

Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) - The $ 1.5 B craft is
planned to land on Mars in 2010 with over 16 times the
capability of the MER rovers (Spirit and Opportunity).
It will have a 2 year lifetime.
Messenger - Launched toward Mercury Aug 3, 2004. Gravity
boost by Earth Flyby in Aug 2005, boost by Venus Oct. 2006 and
2007. Entered Mercury orbit in March 2011.

Dawn Asteroid Orbiter - launch Sept. 2007.      Will orbit
asteroid Vesta in 2011 and Ceres in 2015

James Webb Space Telescope - launch 2014

LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) launched June 18,
2009 and is in lunar orbit. Scientists used this to
search for water ice near the moon's poles. The laser
altimeter mapped the moon's terrain.

LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite)
flew through & imaged the plume from the upper Centaur
Stage impact on Oct. 9, 2009 and found 5.6% of the
regolith at the lunar south pole crater Cabeus was

Phoenix Lander - Landed about 70 deg N on May 25, 2008.
New Horizons Spacecraft - launched to Pluto Jan. 19, 2006.
Arrival expected in 9 years.

Kepler Orbital Telescope - launched March 6, 2009 will search
for Earth sized planets in orbit about other stars using the
transit method.

Herschel and Planck infrared and mm wavelength Telescope -
launched May 14, 2009 by ESA & is stationed in the 2nd
Lagrange point and will study the formation of galaxies and
the chemistry of stars, planets and comets.

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