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					                                    2nd North American Conference
                                    on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced
                                    Oxidation Technologies




C    O    N     F   E   R   E   N   C   E    P   R      O    G     R      A     M




                                                     September 18 - 21, 2011

                                                            Fairmont Royal York

                                                      Toronto, Ontario, Canada




  International                                                  International
Ozone Association   Co-organiz e d b y IOA a n d IUVA       Ultraviolet Association
Thank you to the following sponsors for their support of the
    2011 North American Joint Regional Conference
               I am pleased to extend my warmest greetings to everyone attending the
second annual North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet and Advanced
Oxidation Technologies, hosted by the International Ozone Association and the
International Ultraviolet Association.

               The Government of Canada works with the provinces and territories to
protect the long term security of Canada s renewable water resources, and continues to
play a leading role in scientific research, monitoring, and the development of water
quality guidelines.

               This meeting gives water quality professionals a forum in which to
discuss current issues of interest and to exchange information about the newest and
most promising advances in oxidation techniques for the protection of human health
and the environment. I am certain that attendees will benefit from the educational and
networking opportunities available at this conference, and will leave ready to put what
they have learned into practice.

              On behalf of the Government of Canada, I offer you my best wishes for a
most enjoyable and productive conference.




                                     The Rt. Hon. Stephen Harper, P.C., M.P.

OTTAWA
2011
               Premier of Ontario - Premier ministre de l’Ontario




September 18 – 21, 2011

           A PERSONAL MESSAGE FROM THE PREMIER

On behalf of the Government of Ontario, I am delighted to extend
warm greetings to everyone attending the 2nd North American
Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet and Advanced Oxidation
Technologies, co-hosted by the International Ozone Association and
the International Ultraviolet Association.

Countries around the globe are seeking innovative ways of addressing
environmental challenges. Those who develop responsible and
sustainable approaches to meeting these challenges will play a vital
role in shaping a greener, healthier economy. I am confident that this
conference, which brings together scientists, engineers, manufacturers
and other experts from around the world, will provide an ideal forum
to share the latest ideas and technologies in municipal and industrial
water and wastewater processes.

I commend organizers, sponsors and everyone who has worked hard
to ensure the success of this event. And to everyone in attendance:
welcome to Toronto — the provincial capital! I hope you find time
to take in some of the sites and attractions the city has to offer.

Please accept my sincere best wishes for an informative and
productive conference.




Dalton McGuinty
Premier
Dear Colleagues and Friends

On behalf of the International Ozone Association – Pan American Group, it is my pleasure to
welcome you to the 2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation
Technologies in the vibrant city of Toronto. We are proud to present this year’s joint conference with
a focus on both Ozone and Ultraviolet Technology and to continue to highlight the many benefits
when used alone and cohesively.

We are excited to share with you the comprehensive sessions presented by leaders in the field.
I am sure their presentations will inspire new thoughts and discussions about the uses of Ozone
and Ultraviolet technologies, as well as encourage you to continue to learn. In addition, great
networking opportunities abound during the receptions, the exhibits and the closing banquet!
We thank our Conference Technical Program Committee Co-Chairs Dr. Pamela Chelme-Ayala,
Prof. Ron Hoffman and Prof. Daniel Smith for putting together a strong technical program.

While in Toronto we hope you are able to find time to enjoy some of the many activities the city has
to offer. From a walk around the outside edge of the CN Tower, a visit to the Art Gallery of Ontario,
shopping at Eaton Centre, a baseball game, or even the Bata Shoe Museum, there is definitely
something for everyone.

Finally, the conference would not be possible without the support of our sponsors. Our appreciation
goes out to our generous sponsors and exhibitors, and all those who have made this event possible.




Dr. Saad Y. Jasim, P.Eng.
President
International Ozone Association-Pan American Group
Dear IUVA Members

As the IUVA President and on behalf of our Board of Directors, it is my great pleasure to welcome
you to Toronto and to our conference. Thanks to your participation, the 2nd North American
Conference on Ozone and Ultraviolet Technologies is going to be a success. My hope is that this
Conference will be a rewarding and useful experience for you as we share and learn about new ideas
and technologies in our industry. I hope that you’ll also take the opportunity to explore the beautiful
city of Toronto, in between the many Conference events.

This is our forum to showcase leading innovative research and technologies for municipal water and
wastewater, industrial process applications, and other UV applications. The conference sessions
include talks with special attention to ozone and UV synergy, and the benefits of ozone and UV as
green technologies. The broad group of high-quality presentations will also give you the opportunity
to learn about the latest scientific achievements from experts in the field. This is your opportunity to
deepen knowledge areas and interact with IUVA’s many leaders in their respective fields.

We’d like to acknowledge the many exhibitors, who contribute so much to make our events a
success. In addition, we’d like to thank our many sponsors. I also want to extend my thanks for the
local support we have received from Absolute Conferences & Events, who planned the event for us.

I hope that your experience this week will confirm that this IUVA/IOA Conference is a leading event in
our industry. Our planning committee has worked diligently to meet the needs of our membership
and the ozone and UV communities, with the objectives of: building relationships, encouraging
future research and highlighting the significant scientific achievements in our ever-evolving industry.

Thank you and I look forward to speaking with you at the Conference.

Sincerely,




Paul Swaim
President, IUVA
Program
Saturday, September 17, 2011
10:00 – 12:00       Boardroom                      PAG – Ozone Safety Group
14:00 – 18:00       Boardroom                      IOA International Meetings
15:00 – 17:00       Jasper Room                    Municipal Task Force
14:00 – 17:00       Mezzanine Balcony North        Registration


Sunday, September 18, 2011
07:00 – 21:00       Canadian Room Foyer            Registration
08:00 – 13:00       Library Room                   IOA – PAG Board Meeting
08:00 – 16:30       Manitoba Room                  Ozone Disinfection for Water and Wastewater Treatment
                                                   Systems: Depth and Breadth Workshop
                    Quebec Room                    UV Disinfection for Water and Wastewater
                                                   Treatment Systems: Depth and Breadth Workshop
11:00 – 12:00       Boardroom                      IUVA Manufactures Council Meeting
14:00 – 17:00       Boardroom                      IUVA Board Meeting
14:00 – 17:00       Library Room                   IOA International Board Meeting
19:00 – 21:00       Canadian Room                  Opening Reception


Monday, September 19, 2011
07:00 – 17:00       Canadian Room Foyer            Registration
08:15 – 09:30       Concert Hall                   General Opening Session
                                                   Welcome by:
                                                   Dr. Saad Jasim
                                                   President, International Ozone Association –
                                                   Pan American Group
                                                   Paul Swaim
                                                   President, International Ultraviolet Association
                                                   Awards Ceremony
                                                   Keynote Addresses by:
                                                   Pierre Trepanier
                                                   Commissioner, International Joint Commission
                                                   Lee Anne Jones
                                                   President, Ontario Water Works Association –
                                                   Section of AWWA
                                                   Manager, Capital Programming and Facility Asset
                                                   Planning, City of Toronto
09:30 – 10:15       Canadian Room                  Refreshment Break on the exhibit floor

2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                      5
10:15 – 11:55         Ballroom                     Session 1 – Disinfection and Disinfection Byproducts
                                                   Moderator: Daniel W. Smith
    • 10:15 – 10:40                                Advantages of Combined Oxidants in Water Treatment
                                                   Douglas Rittmann, Ph.D, P.E.
    • 10:40 – 11:05                                Multiple Benefits of Intermediate Ozone at Four Surface
                                                   Water Treatment Plants in Southern California
                                                   Michael A. Oneby, Richard Lin, and James H. Borchardt
    • 11:05 – 11:30                                Disinfection Byproducts in Wastewater Effluent and
                                                   Technology Approaches to Meet Developing Regulations
                                                   Christopher S. Carr, Larry Schimmoller, Mike Witwer,
                                                   and Jenny Reina
    • 11:30 – 11:55                                Comparison Between Conventional Treatments and
                                                   Advanced Oxidation Processes Used in Disinfection of
                                                   Treated Wastewater
                                                   Rodriguez-Chueca J., Sarasa J., López A., Miguel N.,
                                                   Mosteo R., and Ormad M.P.

10:15 – 11:55         Ontario Room                 Session 2 – UV Validation and Monitoring I
                                                   Moderator: Linda Gowman
    • 10:15 – 10:40                                Use of a High-Resistance Challenge Organism for
                                                   Validation of Low Pressure, High Output UV Reactors for
                                                   Virus Inactivation
                                                   Brian Petri, Stewart Hayes, Adam Festger, P. Chan,
                                                   O. Karl Schieble, C. Shen, P. Patil, C. Odegaard,
                                                   and I. Gobulukoglu
    • 10:40 – 11:05                                How Low Can You Go: Impact of UV Turndown
                                                   Capabilities on Operating Efficiency
                                                   Bryan Townsend, Donnie Ginn, Andrew Schipper,
                                                   Adam Westermann, and Xi Zhao
    • 11:05 – 11:30                                Wastewater UV Disinfection Systems – Lessons Learned
                                                   during Performance Testing
                                                   Cody L. Charnas, Katherine Y. Bell, Ph.D., PE, BCEE,
                                                   Dale Adams, PE, Jed Chambers, Dean Cohrs,
                                                   Dan Hammer, and Pat Schmidt
    • 11:30 – 11:55                                Operation, Maintenance, and Reporting Activities for
                                                   Municipal Drinking Water UV Disinfection Facilities
                                                   Todd Elliott, Alex Chen, David Euler, Andrew Niblock,
                                                   Eric Kiefer, Enoch Nicholson, and Paul Swaim

10:15 – 11:55         Salon A                      Session 3 – AOP Methods
                                                   Moderator: Fernando Rosario-Ortiz
    • 10:15 – 10:40                                Catalytic Ozonation of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid in
                                                   Water using Ni/SiO2
                                                   J.L. Rodríguez S, T. Poznyak, H. Tiznado,
                                                   M.A. Valenzuela, and D. Magallanes
    • 10:40 – 11:05                                Composite Titania Photocatalytist Coating for
                                                   Vacuum UV Photoreactor
                                                   C. Duca, G. Imoberdorf, and M. Mohseni

6                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
10:15 – 11:55       Salon A                        Session 3 – AOP Methods (continued)
 • 11:05 – 11:30                                   Advanced Oxidation of Drinking Water Using Ultraviolet
                                                   Light and Alternative Solid Forms of Hydrogen Peroxide
                                                   Zachary Monge, MS, EIT, and Erik Rosenfeldt, PE, Ph.D.
 • 11:30 – 11:55                                   Development of an Integrated UV/Self-Generated Ozone
                                                   Advanced Oxidation Reactor for Water Treatment
                                                   Jingyun Fang, Hai Liao, Chii Shang, Minzhen Zeng,
                                                   Zhi Chen, Menglin Ni, and Wei Liu
12:00 – 13:05       Concert Hall                   Lunch

13:10 – 16:50       Ballroom                       Session 4 – Ozone in Drinking Water Treatment
                                                   Moderator: Kerwin L. Rakness
 • 13:10 – 13:35                                   Seven Years of Using Ozone as a Cost Effective
                                                   Treatment Strategy
                                                   Gord Devine, and Bill Mundy
 • 13:25 – 14:00                                   Designing Ozone Systems for the Great Lakes Water –
                                                   State of the Art and Lessons Learned from 10 Years
                                                   of Experience
                                                   Helen Jin, Quirien Muylwyk, and Ed Minchew
 • 14:00 – 14:25                                   Upgrading the Largest WTP Plant in the Czech Republic –
                                                   Experiences Gained in Design, Start up and Operation of a
                                                   State of the Art Ozonation System
                                                   Radka Hušková, Jiri Benes, Philip Page, Florian Axt,
                                                   and Michael Ziegler
 • 15:10 – 15:35                                   Implementing Ozone at the Frank J. Horgan Water
                                                   Treatment Plant
                                                   Liza Ballantyne, P.Eng., Alex Vukosavljevic,
                                                   and Gordon Mitchell, P.Eng.
 • 15:35 – 16:00                                   Implementing Ozone Training and Maintenance
                                                   Integration at the Frank J. Horgan Water Treatment Plant
                                                   Alex Vukosavljevic, Liza Ballantyne and Gord Mitchell
 • 16:00 – 16:25                                   Mitigation of Anoxic Hypolimnetic Water in a Drinking
                                                   Water Reservoir by Bottom Water Withdrawal and
                                                   Treatment – Bench-Scale Ozone Test and
                                                   Full-Scale Water
                                                   Keisuke Ikehata, Andrew T. Komor, and
                                                   Philip F. Bogdanoff
 • 16:25 – 16:50                                   Assessing Raw Water Ozonation for Taste and Odor
                                                   Removal, Manganese Oxidation, and DAF Preconditioning
                                                   Joseph Huang, P.E., Robert Biehler, P.E.,
                                                   Dean Gregory, Ph.D., and Alan G. LeBlanc, P.E.

13:10 – 16:50       Ontario Room                   Session 5 – UV Validation and Monitoring II
                                                   Moderator: Tom Hargy / Karl Linden
 • 13:10 – 13:35                                   Yikes! What the UVDGM Does Not Address on
                                                   UV Disinfection
                                                   Harold Wright, Mark Heath, and Jeff Bandy


2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                         7
13:10 – 16:50         Ontario Room                 Session 5 – UV Validation and Monitoring II (continued)
    • 13:25 – 14:00                                Evaluating Piping Layout Impacts on UV Does Delivery
                                                   Christopher Schulz, P.E.; Mike Hyland, P.E.;
                                                   Mark Allen, P.E., David Werth Ph.D., P.E., and
                                                   Inder Singh, M.A.Sc. P.Eng.
    • 14:00 – 14:25                                UV System Checkpoint Bioassays: Challenges from the
                                                   Field, Comparison Methodology, and Proof of Scale-Up
                                                   B. Petri, J. An, Y. Lawryshyn, and V. Moreland
    • 15:10 – 15:35                                Impact of Low Wavelength UV Light on UV Dose
                                                   Monitoring and Validation
                                                   H. Wright, J. Bandy, M. Heath, C. Bokermann,
                                                   and R. Bemus
    • 15:35 – 16:00                                Practical UV Light Source Diagnostic Tools for Measuring
                                                   Uniformity, Intensity and Fluence
                                                   Todd E. Lizotte
    • 16:00 – 16:25                                Understanding Evaluation, Testing and Certification of
                                                   UV Systems for Drinking Water and Recreational
                                                   Water Treatment
                                                   Richard Martin
    • 16:25 – 16:50                                Using Microbial Surrogates for the Wrong Reasons:
                                                   The Risk in T1 as UV Challenge Microbe for Waste Water
                                                   Brian Petri, Wayne Lem, and Mike Shortt

13:10 – 16:50         Salon A                      Session 6 – AOPs Applications
                                                   Moderator: Susan Andrews / Yuri Lawryshyn
    • 13:10 – 13:35                                Degradation of Carbamazepine during UV/H2O2
                                                   Treatment of Wastewater
                                                   Olya Keen, Seungyun Baik, Karl Linden, Diana Aga
                                                   and Nancy G. Love
    • 13:25 – 14:00                                Removal of Cylindrospermopsin from Water by
                                                   Photochemical Oxidation
                                                   Xuexiang He, Armah A. de la Cruz and
                                                   Dionysios D. Dionysiou
    • 14:00 – 14:25                                Fate and Residual Toxicity of Pharmaceuticals in
                                                   Oxidation Processes
                                                   Viviane Yargeau, Deniz Nasuhoglou, Simone Larcher,
                                                   and Angela Rodayan
    • 15:10 – 15:35                                Methylene Blue Bleaching by a Solar Driven Advanced
                                                   Oxidation Process
                                                   Po Yee Chan, James R. Bolton and
                                                   Mohamed Gamal El-Din
    • 15:35 – 16:00                                Micropollutant Degradation in Tap Water by UV, Ozone
                                                   and UV/Ozone Processes
                                                   Jingyun Fang, Zhi Chen, Minzhen Zeng, Chii Shang,
                                                   and Wei Liu




8                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
13:10 – 16:50       Salon A                        Session 6 – AOPs Applications (continued)
 • 16:00 – 16:25                                   Pesticides Removal by Advanced Oxidation Processes in
                                                   the Water Reclamation Process
                                                   Natividad Miguel, Judith Sarasa,
                                                   Jorge Rodríguez-Chueca, Isabel García-Suescun,
                                                   and María P. Ormad
 • 16:25 – 16:50                                   Cresols Oxidation with Fenton’s Reagent, Ozone and
                                                   Combination Ozone-Fenton’s Reagent
                                                   Clementina Rita Ramírez-Cortina,
                                                   Ma. Ángela Sánchez-Aguilar and
                                                   María Soledad Alonso-Gutiérrez
14:25 – 15:10       Canadian Room                  Refreshment Break on the exhibit floor
17:00 – 18:30       Canadian Room                  Exhibitor Reception


Tuesday, September 20, 2011
07:00 – 13:00       Canadian Room Foyer            Registration

08:15 – 11:55       Ballroom                       Session 7 – Ozone in Wastewater Treatment
                                                   Moderator: Saad Jasim
 • 08:15 – 08:40                                   Treatment of Irrigation Return-Flow Water Containing
                                                   Pesticides Using Ozone
                                                   Pamela Chelme-Ayala, Daniel W. Smith, and
                                                   Mohamed Gamal El-Din
 • 08:40 – 09:05                                   Study of Anaerobic Effluent Disinfected with Ozone
                                                   G.H. Ribeiro da Silva, L.A.Daniel, H. Bruning, and
                                                   W.H. Rulkens
 • 09:05 – 09:30                                   Examining the Role of Effluent Organic Matter
                                                   Components on the Decomposition of Ozone and
                                                   Formation of Hydroxyl Radical in Wastewater
                                                   Sarah Gonzales, Andria Peña , and
                                                   Fernando L. Rosario-Ortiz
 • 10:15 – 10:40                                   Enhanced Coagulation Pre-treatment to Improve Ozone
                                                   Efficiency in Wastewater
                                                   Eric C Wert, Sarah Gonzales, Jeff Neemann, and
                                                   Fernando L. Rosario-Ortiz
 • 10:40 – 11:05                                   Degradation of the Lignin Derivatives in Pulp and Paper
                                                   Mill Effluent with Conventional Ozonation
                                                   J. Amacosta, and T. Poznyak
 • 11:05 – 11:30                                   Ozone-Enhanced Biological Treatment of
                                                   Landfill Leachates
                                                   Claudio Di Iaconi , Antonio Lopez, and Achim Ried
 • 11:30 – 11:55                                   The BISCO Concept: Biological-Compatible In-Situ
                                                   Chemical Oxidation with Coated Microbubble Ozone
                                                   (Gas Exchange) Sparging
                                                   William B. Kerfoot



2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                        9
08:15 – 11:55      Salon A                      Session 8 – UV Design
                                                Moderator: Jim Bolton
 • 08:15 – 08:40                                Design, Commissioning, and Operation of Cedar Rapids
                                                UV Disinfection Facilities
                                                Todd Elliott, Bruce Jacobs, and Tony Myers
 • 08:40 – 09:05                                Sensor-Based Control – The Way for Safe, Energy-Efficient
                                                UV System Operation
                                                Mike Newberry, and Paul Ropic
 • 09:05 – 09:30                                The Role of UV Disinfection in Meeting U.S. Regulatory
                                                Requirements at an Existing Ozone Facility
                                                Paul D. Swaim, P.E., Joseph Zalla, P.E.,
                                                Brad Johnson, P.E., Joe Pomroy, P.E., Harvey Johnson,
                                                and Wayne Pearson, P.E.
 • 10:15 – 10:40                                New Design Lamp Drivers for Low Pressure Lamps
                                                Tonnie Telgenhof Oude Koehorst, and
                                                Gerhard van Eerden
 • 10:40 – 11:05                                Scale-Up of UV AOP Reactors from Bench Tests
                                                Using CFD Modeling
                                                Keith Bircher, Mai Vuong, Brad Crawford, Mark Heath,
                                                and Jeff Bandy
 • 11:05 – 11:30                                Assessing the UV Dose Delivered from Two UV Reactors
                                                in Series: Can you Always Assume Doubling the UV Dose
                                                from Individual Reactor Validations?
                                                Joel J. Ducoste, and Scott Alpert
 • 11:30 – 11:55                                Point-of-Use Ultraviolet Disinfection: Shedding Light on
                                                Appropriate Technologies for Developing Communities
                                                Christina K. Barstow, Aaron D. Dotson, and
                                                Karl G. Linden

08:15 – 11:55      Ontario Room                 Session 9 – AOPs in Drinking Water Treatment
                                                Moderators: Madjid Mohseni / Ron Hofmann
 • 08:15 – 08:40                                Removal of Pharmaceuticals, Personal Care Products and
                                                Endocrine Disrupting Compounds and Reduction of
                                                Disinfection By-products Using Ozone/H2O2 and
                                                UV/H2O2 Processes
                                                Devendra Borikar, Saad Jasim, Madjid Mohseni,
                                                Leslie Bragg, Mark Servos, Souleymane Ndiongue,
                                                and Larry Moore
 • 08:40 – 09:05                                Advanced Oxidation Treatment of Drinking Water: Part I.
                                                Occurrence and Removal of Pharmaceuticals and
                                                Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds from Lake Huron Water
                                                Mohammad Feisal Rahman, Earnest K. Yanful,
                                                Saad Y. Jasim, Leslie M. Bragg, Mark R. Servos,
                                                Souleymane Ndiongue, and Devendra Borikar
 • 09:05 – 09:30                                Combination of O3/H2O2 and UV for Multiple Barrier
                                                Micropollutant Treatment – An Economic Attractive Option
                                                Jens Scheideler, Karin Lekkerkerker-Teunissen,
                                                Ton Knol, Achim Ried, Jasper Verberk, and
                                                Hans van Dijk
10                   2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
08:15 – 11:55       Ontario Room                   Session 9 – AOPs in Drinking Water Treatment
                                                   (continued)
 • 10:15 – 10:40                                   Advanced Oxidation for Surface Water Treatment in
                                                   Cornwall – A New Lighthouse Project in Europe
                                                   Chris Rockey, Andreas Kolch, Alan Royce, Colin Tinkler,
                                                   and Tim Ball
 • 10:40 – 11:05                                   UV Advanced Oxidation for Taste and Odor Control:
                                                   Understanding Life-Cycle Cost and Sustainability
                                                   Paul D. Swaim, P.E., Matt Ridens, Adam Festger,
                                                   and Alan Royce, P.Eng.
 • 11:05 – 11:30                                   Inactivation of Adenovirus Using Low-Dose
                                                   Ultraviolet/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation
                                                   Sarah Bounty, Luke Martin, and Karl Linden
 • 11:30 – 11:55                                   The Effectiveness of UV + Chlorine Treatment of
                                                   Trichloroethylene in Drinking Water
                                                   Ding Wang, Tim Walton, Leigh McDermott,
                                                   Susan Andrews, and Ron Hofmann

08:15 – 11:55       Salon B                        Session 10 – UV Case Studies and Research
                                                   Moderators: Jane Bonsteel / Ghassan Ghali
 • 08:15 – 08:40                                   Energy Efficient UV Upgrade at the Arrowhead Ranch
                                                   Water Reclamation Facility
                                                   Gary L. Hunter, P.E., Andrew J. Mally, P.E.,
                                                   Dan Buhrmaster, P.E., Larry Broutman, and
                                                   Arif Rahman
 • 08:40 – 09:05                                   Integrating Ozonation and UV Disinfection for an Unfiltered
                                                   System to Comply with LT2ESWTR
                                                   Jeff Neemann, Bryan Townsend, Mario Francucci,
                                                   Kathy Moriarty, Rick Pershken, Kevin Pottle, and
                                                   Dina Page
 • 09:05 – 09:30                                   Hurdles and Progress in UV-C LED Technology for
                                                   Water Disinfection
                                                   Jennifer G. Pagan, Oliver Lawal, and Paolo Batoni
 • 10:15 – 10:40                                   12-Month UV Fouling Study on Unfiltered Source Water
                                                   Chad Talbot, Mark Heath, Harold Wright, and
                                                   David Peters
 • 10:40 – 11:05                                   Photochemical Fate of Oil Dispersants Used in the Gulf Oil
                                                   Spill Clean-Up
                                                   Austa M. Parker, Caitlin M. Glover,
                                                   Fernando L. Rosario-Ortiz, and Karl G. Linden
 • 11:05 – 11:30                                   Algae Control Methods Compared: The Importance of
                                                   Successful Algae Control for Facilities with UV Disinfection
                                                   David Drobiak, Brent R. Gill, Shawna Gill, D.C., and
                                                   Joseph Nestico
 • 11:30 – 11:55                                   Adopting and Adapting to Advanced Treatment
                                                   Technologies
                                                   Jane Bonsteel, Andrew Farr, and Jeff Hennings


2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                       11
09:30 – 10:15      Canadian Room                Refreshment Break on the exhibit floor
12:00 – 13:05      Concert Hall                 Lunch

13:10 – 16:50      Ballroom                     Session 11 – Ozone Research and Design
                                                Moderators: Pamela Chelme-Ayala /
                                                Souleymane Ndiongue
 • 13:10 – 13:35                                Study of Ozone Application for the Degradation of
                                                Paraquat Dissolved in Water
                                                Patricia Reynoso Quispe, Roberto J. Carvalho, and
                                                Wilfredo I. Urruchi
 • 13:35 – 14:00                                Decomposition Kinetics of Ozone Dissolved in Different
                                                Aqueous Solutions
                                                A.Pérez, T. Poznyak, and I.Chairez
 • 14:00 – 14:25                                Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis Optimizes
                                                Pipeline Flash Reactor Design
                                                Celia Mazzei and Mike Spillner
 • 15:10 – 15:35                                Ozone Sidestream Injection: Solving Start-Up Problems
                                                Using Underwater Video and Engineering Creativity
                                                Alan Domonoske and Gardner Olson
 • 15:35 – 16:00                                Development and Use of an Ozonation Process Simulator
                                                at the Frank J. Horgan Water Treatment Plant
                                                Gord Mitchell, Liza Ballantyne, Alex Vukosavljevic and
                                                Kerwin L. Rakness
 • 16:00 – 16:25                                Ozone Retrofit Considerations at the Oakville Water
                                                Purification Plant
                                                Elia Edwards, and Bill Mundy
 • 16:25 – 16:50                                Mastering Ozonolysis: Production From Laboratory to Ton
                                                Scale in Continuous Flow
                                                Markus Nobis and Dominique M. Roberge

13:10 – 16:50      Ontario Room                 Session 12 – UV Treatment Research
                                                Moderators: Bertrand Dussert / Ron Hofmann
 • 13:10 – 13:35                                IUVA Uniform Protocol for Wastewater UV Validation
                                                Applications
                                                G. Elliott Whitby, Ph.D. on behalf of the
                                                IUVA Manufacturers Council
 • 13:35 – 14:00                                Biodosimetry of a Full-Scale Wastewater UV Disinfection
                                                System Using Multiple Surrogate Microorganisms
                                                Bruno Ferran, and Wei Yang
 • 14:00 – 14:25                                When Dose is Not Dose. The Case of UV Disinfection
                                                of Adenovirus
                                                Karl G. Linden, Karl Scheible, Phyllis Posy,
                                                Gwy-Am Shin, Jeanette Thurston, and Anne Eischeid
 • 15:10 – 15:35                                Ultraviolet Lamp Efficiencies: Modern Derivation of the
                                                Keitz Formula and Other Efficiency Issues
                                                Qing Sheng Ke and James R. Bolton



12                   2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
13:10 – 16:50       Ontario Room                   Session 12 – UV Treatment Research (continued)
 • 15:35 – 16:00                                   What is the Impact of UV Absorbing Particles on the
                                                   Inactivation of Indigenous Bacteria?
                                                   R.E. Cantwell and R. Hofmann
 • 16:00 – 16:25                                   UV-LEDs for Water Disinfection – Are We Close?
                                                   Colleen Bowker, Scott Alpert, PhD, PE, and
                                                   Joel Ducoste, Ph.D.
 • 16:25 – 16:50                                   Degradation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by
                                                   222 nm and 254 nm UV Light
                                                   Hiroshi Sakai, Tatsuro Takamatsu, Koji Kosaka,
                                                   Naoyuki Kamiko, and Satoshi Takizawa

13:10 – 16:50       Salon B                        Session 13 – Ozone Operation
                                                   Moderators: Liza Ballantyne / Bill Mundy
 • 13:10 – 13:35                                   Sustainability and Ozonation: Making the Case for
                                                   Generator Upgrades
                                                   Julie Herzner, P.E., Anni Luck, P.E., Ian Crossley,
                                                   C.Eng., and Gerard Moerschell
 • 13:35 – 14:00                                   Ozone Cost Implications from Oxygen Supply –
                                                   Advantages of VSA Technology
                                                   David Schneider and Soeren Schmitz
 • 14:00 – 14:25                                   The Ozonation Option for Private Onsite Wastewater
                                                   Treatment – The WATERCLEAN™ Solution
                                                   Thomas W. Bain
 • 15:10 – 15:35                                   Ozone Residual Meter Calibration Approach and Status
                                                   Kerwin L. Rakness and Glenn F. Hunter
 • 15:35 – 16:00                                   Liquid Oxygen Specification for Ozone Generation
                                                   Derek Miller
 • 16:00 – 16:25                                   Converting a Large Water Treatment Plant to Enhanced
                                                   Coagulation and Biological Filtration
                                                   Mark Simon, Michael Mikeska, Peter Stencel,
                                                   Jennifer Cottingham, Nick Burns, Jeff Neemann,
                                                   George Budd, and Randy Romack
 • 16:25 – 16:50                                   After the Dust Settles – Ozone System Operation and
                                                   Optimization After Start-Up
                                                   Glenn F. Hunter

13:10 – 16:50       Salon A                        Session 14 – General Session and Food Applications
                                                   Moderator: Ghassan Ghali / Jacque-Ann Grant
 • 13:10 – 13:35                                   Source Area Treatment of a TCE Plume by Coated
                                                   Microbubble Ozone and Sequential ERD at a Portland,
                                                   Oregon, Facility
                                                   Paul Ecker, Paul McBeth, and William B. Kerfoot
 • 13:35 – 14:00                                   Photodecomposition Efficacy Validation of a Medium
                                                   Pressure (MP) UV Reactor for removal of Residual Free
                                                   Chlorine and Monochloramine in Water
                                                   Ismail Gobulukoglu

2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                     13
13:10 – 16:50          Salon A                       Session 14 – General Session and Food Applications
                                                     (continued)
    • 14:00 – 14:25                                  UV Laser Based Longitudinal Illuminated Diffuser (LID)
                                                     Beam Shaping System
                                                     Todd Lizotte
    • 15:10 – 15:35                                  Pulsed Light Inactivation of Foodborne Pathogens:
                                                     Fundamentals, Applications and Potential for the Future
                                                     Carmen I. Moraru
    • 15:35 – 16:00                                  Ultraviolet Light for Safety of Fluid Foods and Beverages
                                                     Tatiana Koutchma, PhD, Marta Orlowska, PhD, and
                                                     Cheryl Defelice, PE.
    • 16:00 – 16:25                                  Ozone for Fresh Produce Transit
                                                     David J. Cope
    • 16:25 – 16:50                                  Plague Elimination and Ozone Effects on Types Stored Corn
                                                     Jose G. LLanes O, and Miguel Angulo
14:25 – 15:10          Canadian Room                 Refreshment Break on the exhibit floor
18:30 – 19:00          Ballroom Foyer                Reception (cash bar)
19:00 – 22:30          Ballroom Room                 Closing Banquet
                                                     Joe Sealy has enjoyed a highly successful career as a
                                                     musician, composer, recording artist and radio
                                                     broadcaster. Tonight you will enjoy the melodic sounds of
                                                     this entertaining group.


Wednesday, September 21, 2011

                 Visit us at the Registration Desk & ask about possible remaining availability!

Wednesday tours are NOT included in the full conference registration, and are separate events intended for
those interested in seeing UV and Ozone applications firsthand. Each tour/workshop registration includes
transportation and a box lunch.
*Arrival times back to the hotel and airport are approximate.

Ozone Technical Tour
Horgan Water Treatment Plant &
Oakville Water Purification Plant
Sponsored by:
Associated Engineers & Mitsubishi Electric
Deadline for registration is September 14, 2011
•     Depart at 08:00, Return to
      Royal York by 16:00
•     Optional Drop off at Toronto Pearson Airport
      by 15:00




14                        2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
UV Technical Tour
Lorne Park Water Treatment Plant & Oakville Southeast Wastewater Treatment Plant
Sponsored by: Trojan
Deadline for registration is September 14, 2011




•   Depart at 08:00, Return to Royal York by 16:00
•   Optional Drop off at Toronto Pearson Airport by 15:00

Ozone Social Tour
Niagara-on-the-Lake – Peller Estates Ozone Tour
•   Depart at 08:30, Return to Royal York by 16:00
•   Optional drop off at Toronto Pearson Airport by 15:00
Experience the charm of Canada’s quaint village of Niagara-on-the-Lake with a tour to Peller Estates Winery.
The Niagara Region is one of the world’s great wonders and is not to be missed during a visit to Ontario.
Your morning begins on board a comfortable sightseeing coach as it takes you away to the scenic and
breath-taking town of Niagara-on-the-Lake. As you travel done the peaceful side roads, you will see some
of Canada’s top wineries and picturesque vineyards that supply delicious wines all year round.
When you visit the Peller Estates Winery, you will experience the Peller family’s commitment to excellence in
winemaking that spans three generations and over 45 years. You will discover how the Peller family’s dream
of producing world-class premium wines is being carried out each day at the winery. You will enjoy a tasting of
3 Peller Estates VQA wines and time to browse their selection of current and back vintage wines in the Winery
Boutique with a $5 rebate towards a purchase of wine.
A beautiful lunch will be served on site in the Peller Wine Garden.
After you have experienced the true warmth of the Niagara-on-the-Lake Winery Region, it’s time to depart for
Toronto, as you reflect on this special day of scenic beauty and Canadian charm.




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                          15
16
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                                                                                            CONFEDERATION       CONFEDERATION         CONFEDERATION                                                                                                                NOVA        NEW      EDWARD
                                                                                                                                                                 TUDOR                          TUDOR                                                                       BRUNSWICK
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     TERRITORIES
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ALGONQUIN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Hotel Floor Plan




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         YORK                                         LADIES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        STATION
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          BAR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      SALES/CATERING OFFICE
                                                                                                                                         LIBRARY             YORK       EXECUTIVE OFFICE                   RESERVATION
                                                                                                                                                                                                           OFFICE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ESCALATORS




                                                                                        CONVENTION FLOOR


                                                                                               STAGE                                                                         KITCHEN




                                                                                                                       LADIES                                                                           MENS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ONTARIO



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                                                                                                            SALON B                                                                                     SALON A                                      TORONTO

                                                                                                                                                            BALLROOM                                                       ESCALATORS




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
General Information
Registration Desk
Conference Registration desk will be open during the following times at the locations indicated below:
Saturday, September 17                                14:00 – 17:00 – Mezzanine Balcony, North
Sunday, September 18                                  07:00 – 21:00 – Canadian Room Foyer, Convention Floor
Monday, September 19                                  07:00 – 17:00 – Canadian Room Foyer, Convention Floor
Tuesday, September 20                                 07:00 - 13:00 – Canadian Room Foyer, Convention Floor
If you require information or assistance at any time during the Conference, staff at the Registration Desk will be
pleased to assist you.

Badges
Delegates, speakers, exhibitors and guests must wear their identification badges at all times to gain
admission to the conference sessions and tradeshow. In the event that your badge is lost or misplaced, a
replacement may be obtained at the Registration desk during published hours at a cost of $15.

Cell phones
Please mute or turn off cell phones, pagers etc. during conference presentations.

Continuing Education Units & Professional Development Hours
Continuing Education Units (CEU’s) and Professional Development Hours (PDH’s) will be provided for this
meeting. If you are interested in obtaining this please visit the registration area for more information.

Conference Proceedings
Copies of all papers received by the deadline will found on the DVD in each delegate bag. Additional copies are
available at $75US for members and $100US for non-members from IOA (www.io3a.org) or IUVA (www.iuva.org)

Smoking
The Conference has been designated a non-smoking area.

Emergency Procedures
Details are included on the following page.

Dress
The dress for the Conference is business casual.

Insurance
The Organizing Committee, the International Ozone Association (IOA), International Ultraviolet Association
(IUVA) and Absolute Conferences & Events Inc. (Absolute) will accept no liability for personal injuries sustained
by or for loss or damage to property belonging to Conference participants, either during or as a result of the
Conference or during the tours.


2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                          17
The Fairmont Royal York
Emergency Procedures
Security Services:
•    the hotel has 24 hr. 7 days a week security
•    Security can be reached through the hotel operator by dialing “0”
•    all security officers are trained in First Aid & CPR
•    Security will handle any Lost & Found items that you may have

Medical:
•    if any guest requires to go to the hospital the hotel will send them by taxi
•    if an emergency an ambulance will be called
•    there are two hospitals with in 5 minutes driving distance
•    response time for an ambulance is 5 -10 minutes

Fire:
•    the hotel has a two stage alarm system
•    all alarms go directly to an outside monitoring company who will call the fire department
•    the hotel operator also calls the fire department
•    the intermittent tones means there is an alarm in the hotel and guests should stand by and
     prepare to leave
•    continuous tones means to evacuate the immediate area
•    public announcements will be made giving information and instructions
•    the off site assembly area is the main level to the right in Union Station directly across from the hotel
•    response time is 3 – 5 minutes

Emergency Response Team:
•    the hotel has a team that is informed by pagers and a 2-way radio system
•    the hotel has an internal call system similar to the public 911 system. Dial 7- 4333 from any phone.
     The call goes direct to the Switchboard Supervisor.
•    DO NOT dial 911 from a cell phone. There are too many entrances to the hotel to effectively direct
     emergency crews to the correct location
•    Any 911 calls from hotel phones automatically transfer to the switchboard supervisor
•    any emergency will have six or more staff responding at any given time to your emergency
The hotel trains all new staff on emergency procedures and departmental training is done twice a year.
An annual full evacuation is done with staff involvement.



18                        2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
Upcoming Events

October 20, 2011

Drinking Water Disinfection with Ultraviolet Irradiation Workshop
Tracy, CA

www.iuva.org




December 7, 2011

UV for Water Treatment: Recent Implementation and Trends
Congress Centre, Great Russell Street,

London

www.iuva.org




September 23 – 26, 2012

IOA – PAG Regional Conference
Hyatt Regency Milwaukee

Milwaukee, WI

www.io3a.org




September 24 – 27, 2013

21st Ozone and 7th Ultraviolet World Congress
Mirage Resort

Las Vegas, NV

www.iuva.org, www.io3a.org


2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies   19
Oral Presentations

  Session 1 – Disinfection and Disinfection Byproducts                                                      S1-1


                 Advantages of Combined Oxidants in Water Treatment
                                        Douglas Rittmann, Ph.D, P.E.
                 Water/Wastewater Consultant, 1008 Sun Ridge Drive, El Paso, Texas 79912

Combined oxidants use in water treatment has been increasing because of more stringent drinking water
regulations. First of all, this paper will present a literature review of other studies concerning the advantages of
combined disinfectants. This paper will also report on three laboratory and plant studies performed at two
water plants in El Paso, Texas and a water plant in Aurora Colorado. All of these studies showed synergistic
benefits of combined oxidants in reducing THMs and chlorite levels while increasing disinfection capability in
the same disinfection zone and reducing bromate formation at the ozone water plant. The combined oxidants
evaluated were chlorine dioxide and chlorine at the Canal Plant in El Paso; chlorine dioxide and chloramines
treatment at Aurora Colorado Water Plant in reducing chlorite and THMs levels while increasing disinfection
credit; and chlorine dioxide as a pre-oxidant to ozonation to reduce bromates in water with excessive bromide
levels. Linear regression equations were developed from lab and plant studies to predict THMs formation and
bromate formation. Combined chlorine dioxide and chlorine disinfection in the same zone showed the
advantages of more chlorite reduction while increasing disinfection credit and providing a double barrier safety
margin in the disinfection capability of the plant.
Keywords: Oxidants; Combined Oxidants; Chlorine Dioxide; Chlorine, Ozone; Chloramines; TTHMs;
Bromates; Disinfection.




20                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 1 – Disinfection and Disinfection Byproducts                                                   S1-2


                    Multiple Benefits of Intermediate Ozone at
            Four Surface Water Treatment Plants in Southern California
                      Michael A. Oneby1, Richard Lin2, and James H. Borchardt2
            1. MWH Americas, 789 N. Water St, Suite 430, Milwaukee, WI 53202-3558, USA
              2. MWH Americas, 618 Michillinda Ave., Suite 200, Arcadia, CA 91007, USA

Four conventional surface water treatment plants owned and operated by a California water agency (Agency)
integrated an ozone disinfection process into existing conventional treatment trains that produce potable water
for several communities. The Agency is a wholesaler that purchases water from the State Water Project (SWP),
treats and delivers water to several communities in the Antelope Valley. Ozone replaced chlorine gas enabling
the agency to meet regulated disinfection byproduct (DBP) limits for regulated trihalomethane (THM) and
haloacetic acid (HAA) compounds at all sample locations in the respective distribution systems as required by
the Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (Stage 2 DBP). The projects began operation in
2009. Quarterly distribution system sampling since startup of the ozone facilities indicates a drop in DBP
formation. Additionally, each of the plants experienced a reduction of filter effluent turbidity and longer filter
run time, benefits not factored into the original selection process. The applied ozone dose is limited by bromate
formation, and the operators utilize bromate control strategies to achieve disinfection and operational goals
while staying within the bromate limit of 10 µg/L. Due to improvement in downstream processes, particularly
filtration, the ozone process has become an integral process in maintaining high finished water quality under a
wide range of operating conditions.
Keywords: Ozone; Ozonation; Disinfection, Disinfection Byproducts; Bromate.




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                          21
  Session 1 – Disinfection and Disinfection Byproducts                                                     S1-3


                 Disinfection Byproducts in Wastewater Effluent and
               Technology Approaches to Meet Developing Regulations
              Christopher S. Carr1, Larry Schimmoller2, Mike Witwer3, and Jenny Reina4
                                          1. CH2M HILL, Altanta, GA
                                           2. CH2M HILL, Denver, CO
                                         3. CH2M HILL, Gainesville, FL
                                          4. CH2M HILL, Oakland, CA

As total water management continues to be key for sustainable infrastructure, new regulations affecting
wastewater effluent and reuse water are directing water utilities to consider alternative disinfection treatment
technologies. Whether the application is surface water discharge, ground water injection, indirect potable
reuse, or irrigation, regulators across the country are monitoring and/or permitting disinfection by-product
levels. While other technologies can provide an effective solution to DBPs, there are options to consider with
regards to chlorine use. The ways in which existing chlorination systems can potentially be modified to manage
DBPs includes; Optimizing Chlorine Contact Time and Dose, Control Chlorination pH, Utilize Ammonia for
Chloramination, and Sequential Chlorination.
If through evaluation it is determined that the use of chlorine as a disinfectant cannot meet the DBP
requirements, several alternate disinfectants or disinfection combinations can be implemented; Ultraviolet
Disinfection, Ozonation, Ozone with UV, Chlorine Dioxide, Peracetic Acid, and Ferrate.
Keywords: Ultraviolet; Ozone; Chlorine; Chloramination; Disinfection; DBPs; THMs.




  Session 1 – Disinfection and Disinfection Byproducts                                                     S1-4


     Comparison Between Conventional Treatments and Advanced Oxidation
             Processes Used in Disinfection of Treated Wastewater
         Rodriguez-Chueca J., Sarasa J., López A., Miguel N., Mosteo R., and Ormad M.P.
       Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technologies, University of Zaragoza
                         12, Pedro Cerbuna Street , 50009, Zaragoza, Spain

This paper shows the inactivation results obtained on Escherichia coli present in treated urban wastewater
using a conventional treatment like chlorination, and Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) such as ozonation,
UV light, H2O2/sunlight radiation and Fenton process. All of the studied treatments are able to remove
Escherichia coli in greater o lesser level. The total inactivation (6.5-7.5 log) is reached by mean of chlorination.
AOPs achieve significant levels of inactivation using ozonation (3.40 log) and UV light (3.80 log), and closer to
5 log using Fenton reaction. The aim of this research work is to study the application of different disinfection
treatments such as chlorine, O3, UV, H2O2 / sunlight radiation and Fenton technology in the inactivation of
Escherichia coli present in treated wastewater, and show the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment.
Keywords: Wastewater; Chlorination; AOPs; Ozonation; UV Radiation; Fenton; Disinfection; Escherichia coli.




22                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 2 – UV Validation and Monitoring I                                                               S2-1


       Use of a High-Resistance Challenge Organism for Validation of Low
            Pressure, High Output UV Reactors for Virus Inactivation
               Brian Petri1, Stewart Hayes1, Adam Festger1, P. Chan, O. Karl Schieble2,
                        C. Shen2, P. Patil2, C. Odegaard3, and I. Gobulukoglu4
                                 1. Trojan Technologies, London, ON, Canada
                                     2. HydroQual Inc., Mahwah, NJ, USA
                                 3. GAP EnviroMicrobial, London, ON, Canada
                                  4. Aquafine Corporation, Valencia, CA, USA

The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment
Rule (LT2) defined UV dose requirements for inactivation of viruses based on the relatively resistant adenovirus
(USEPA, 2006). Further, LT2 requires virus treatment for unfiltered public water systems and systems that
utilize uncovered finished water storage reservoirs. Subsequently, EPA’s Groundwater Rule (GWR, 2006)
requires that groundwater systems provide 4-log inactivation of viruses or demonstrate through monitoring that
source waters are free from fecal indicators. According to the GWR, 4-log virus treatment can be accomplished
with a variety of technologies including chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone and membranes. However, in the
absence of existing validations demonstrating UV’s ability to deliver a dose of 186 mJ/cm2, the GWR did not
explicitly allow for UV to meet virus treatment requirements. Instead, discretion was left to the states. For
utilities and bottling companies wishing to utilize UV for virus inactivation, the lack of existing validation and
regulatory clarity has led to challenges in implementing UV.
Water bottlers, bulk haulers, and retail water providers may also be impacted by LT2 and GWR regulations
regarding virus treatment. The potential exists for state agencies to interpret the GWR to require 4-log
inactivation of viruses for such systems. As the addition of chlorine or other chemical disinfectants is
undesirable and, in fact may jeopardize “spring water” status, bottlers are understandably reticent to utilize
chemical disinfectants to achieve virus treatment. UV presents an attractive non-chemical option.
With respect to the UV dose required for inactivation of adenovirus, recent data demonstrates that in a given
water, a medium pressure lamp generating polychromatic UV light is able to inactivate adenovirus at doses
lower than 186 mJ/cm2 (Linden et al., 2005, Linden et al., 2009). A virus inactivation benefit associated with
medium pressure lamps, from the perspective of state regulatory agencies, may not be sufficient to meet federal
regulatory requirements. Further, the effectiveness of medium pressure polychromatic light for inactivation of
adenovirus is reported to be partly the result of low wavelength absorbance (i.e. <240 nanometers) by
adenovirus (Linden et al., 2005; Linden et al., 2009). This would therefore lead to the conclusion that a
medium pressure benefit is a function of the water absorbance, and for example, highly-absorbing waters such
as high-nitrate groundwater, which absorbs strongly at wavelengths below 240 nm), would mitigate this benefit
by absorbing low wavelengths. The loss of polychromatic benefits for Adenovirus has been demonstrated in
waters of increasing absorbance (Petri et al., 2009). For this reason, validation using live adenovirus for
demonstrating 4-log reduction is likely to be water-specific and would therefore be valid only for the water tested.
The availability of a surrogate organism that is similarly resistant to UV is one challenge associated with
validating UV reactors for high doses. As stated in the USEPA UV Disinfection Guidance Manual (UVDGM,
2006) “Because handling of the target pathogen during validation testing is neither practical nor in the best
interest of public health, a challenge microorganism whose sensitivity to UV light is similar to the target
pathogen should be used in all experiments.” Options for suitable challenge microorganisms (surrogates) are
limited. One option is the spore known as Aspergillus niger (Petri et al., 2008). A. niger meets the
requirements of a suitable surrogate organism as outlined by the UVDGM in that it is easily cultured to high
concentrations, results are repeatable, it is stable over long periods of time, and it is non-pathogenic.

2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                            23
Session S2-1 continued
Validation of a family of low pressure high output lamp-equipped UV reactors for beverage and drinking water
disinfection applications was performed at the UV Validation Center in Johnstown, NY by HydroQual Inc.
A. niger was cultured at sufficient volumes and concentrations to complete the full scale challenge. Results of
the full scale UV validation testing demonstrated that A. niger is an effective surrogate for adenovirus. Its
resistance to UV was greater than adenovirus, and measured REDs were as high as 400 mJ/cm2. This
validation allows utilities and bottlers to install UV to meet federally-prescribed virus treatment requirements,
up to and including 4-log inactivation at a required dose of 186 mJ/cm2.
Keywords: UV Disinfection; Adenovirus; Aspergillus niger; Surrogate; Validation; Low Pressure High Output;
Groundwater.




  Session 2 – UV Validation and Monitoring I                                                               S2-2


                              How Low Can You Go:
            Impact of UV Turndown Capabilities on Operating Efficiency
      Bryan Townsend1, Donnie Ginn2, Andrew Schipper3, Adam Westermann4, and Xi Zhao5
              1. Black & Veatch, 8520 Cliff Cameron Drive, Suite 210, Charlotte, NC 28269
         2. Black & Veatch, 5750 Castle Creek Parkway North, Suite 245, Indianapolis, IN 46250
             3. Fort Wayne City Utilities, One Main Street, Room 480, Fort Wayne, IN 46802
               4. Black & Veatch, 4555 Lake Forest Drive, Suite 310, Cincinnati, OH 45242
                      5. Black & Veatch, 8400 Ward Parkway, Kansas City, MO 64114

In order to comply with the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, the Fort Wayne City
Utilities is constructing a UV disinfection facility at the Three Rivers Filtration Plant (TRFP) for inactivation of
Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Due to the wide range of flows and UVTs that the TRFP is expected to encounter,
the evaluation of proposed UV system designs needed to address the validated limits, dose-monitoring strategy,
turndown capabilities and the UV system operating efficiency specific to each UV reactor. While the primary
focus of a UV system design is to create a UV facility that provides the necessary level of disinfection to protect
public health, the importance of selecting the proper equipment that can efficiently dose-pace and avoid over-
dosing throughout the entire flow and UVT range should not be overlooked.
Keywords: Disinfection; Efficiency, Energy, Validation; Ultraviolet; UV.




24                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 2 – UV Validation and Monitoring I                                                          S2-3


                         Wastewater UV Disinfection Systems –
                      Lessons Learned During Performance Testing
                     Cody L. Charnas1, Katherine Y. Bell2, Ph.D., PE, BCEE
         Dale Adams , PE, Jed Chambers3, Dean Cohrs3, Dan Hammer3, and Pat Schmidt3
                      3


                        1. CDM, 555 17th Street, Suite 1100, Denver, CO 80202
                   2. CDM, 210 25th Avenue North, Suite 1102, Nashville, TN 37203
            3. Colorado Springs Utilities, 1521 S. Hancock Expy, Colorado Springs, CO 80903

As many new ultraviolet (UV) systems are being designed and constructed for disinfection of secondary
wastewater effluent, it is important to confirm both the design and the system’s ability to meet the discharge
permit requirements through performance testing. Performance testing is recommended for all wastewater UV
disinfection system projects and should include evaluation of the UV system under “worst-case” conditions.
Additionally, it is important to confirm the actual headloss through the reactors and verify the power
consumption to confirm that the system can meet the required design specifications. This case study presents
the test protocols and the results of the testing.
Keywords: Ultraviolet Disinfection; UV; Wastewater Disinfection; Total Suspended Solids; Performance Testing.




  Session 2 – UV Validation and Monitoring I                                                          S2-4


                 Operation, Maintenance, and Reporting Activities for
                 Municipal Drinking Water UV Disinfection Facilities
                       Todd Elliott1, Alex Chen2, David Euler3, Andrew Niblock4,
                          Eric Kiefer5, Enoch Nicholson6, and Paul Swaim7
                               1. CH2M HILL, Mendota Heights, MN, USA
                               2. Seattle Public Utilities, Seattle, WA, USA
                                 3. City of North Bay, North Bay, ON, CAN
                                  4. City of St. Johns, St. Johns, NL, CAN
                           5. North Shore Water Commission, Glendale, WI, USA
                                     6. CH2M HILL, Seattle, WA, USA
                                     7. CH2M HILL, Denver, CO, USA

Over the last 10 years, the implementation of UV disinfection in the municipal drinking water industry has
grown rapidly with most installations focused on Cryptosporidium inactivation in response to the USEPA’s
Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR). Despite the widespread use of UV
disinfection, operation and maintenance requirements are an area of interest for those contemplating the
implementation of UV disinfection, and practical information can be difficult to locate. The reporting
requirements to regulators may not be well understood, or even overlooked, until the UV system has been
commissioned. Although the EPA’s UV Disinfection Guidance Manual (UVDGM) provides excellent guidance in




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                       25
Session S2-4 continued
general, it allows for state, provincial, or other site specific requirements to over-ride UVDGM requirements,
and in some cases, detailed conversations with regulators are needed to identify their specific preferences.
This presentation will summarize general operation and maintenance requirements for municipal drinking
water UV disinfection installations based on utility experiences. Site specific information from operating UV
facilities including Seattle Public Utilities Cedar Water Treatment Facility, in operation for over 6 years, and
Ketchikan Public Utilities UV Disinfection Facility, in operation for 1 year, will be included. State or provincial
requirements that deviate from the UVDGM will be identified as applicable. For example, the Cedar facility
must operate at a MS2 Reduction Equivalent Dose of 40 mJ/cm2 or greater at all times and the Ketchikan UV
facility must base the UV dose on the minimum S/So. Types of routine operations and maintenance activities
that will be discussed include monitoring and recording frequency of required operational parameters, lamp
and sleeve replacement frequency, intensity sensors and UVT analyzers calibration requirements, sleeve
cleaning, and lamp intensity checks. Costs associated with replacing spare parts and energy consumption will
also be provided. Types of regulatory reporting requirements that will be discussed include monthly reporting
requirements, daily operating logs, calibration logs, and off-specification worksheets. Specialty topics like
mitigating the consequences of lamp breaks or addressing off-specification water with operational controls will
be included as well.
This presentation will benefit water utility managers, plant operators, and regulators by providing real-world
examples of operation, maintenance, and reporting requirements for UV disinfection facilities. This information
will prepare water utilities for what to discuss with regulators and what to expect once their UV facility is
brought online.
Keywords: Drinking Water Treatment; UV Disinfection; UV Design Guidance Manual; Long-Term 2 Enhanced
Surface Water Treatment Rule; Operation and Maintenance.




26                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 3 – AOP Methods                                                                               S3-1


              Catalytic Ozonation of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid in
                                Water Using Ni/SiO2
        J.L. Rodríguez S1,2, T. Poznyak1, H. Tiznado3, M.A. Valenzuela2, and D. Magallanes1
                 1. Lab. Ing. Química Ambiental. ESIQIE – Instituto Politécnico Nacional.
                                  Zacatenco, 07738 México, D.F. México.
                  2. Lab. Catálisis y Materiales. ESIQIE – Instituto Politécnico Nacional.
                                  Zacatenco, 07738 México, D.F. México.
    3. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Km. 107
              Carretera Tijuana a Ensenada, C. P. 22860, Ensenada, Baja California, México

Catalytic ozonation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) in aqueous solution has been carried out in a
semi-continuous laboratory reactor where SiO2 and Ni/SiO2 have been used as the catalysts. The presence of
the two catalyst significantly improve the degradation of 2,4-D and the generation of intermediate species
compared to the results from non-catalytic ozonation. Adsorption of 2,4-D on the two catalytic surfaces have
no remarkable influence on the degradation.
The preparation method is a fundamental step in the heterogeneous catalysts so that, the catalysts were
synthetized by wet impregnation and liquid phase photo-deposition methods. The results show that only 30%
of the 2,4-D was removed in the conventional ozonation during 1 h. The catalytic ozonation with Ni/SiO2
increases the herbicide decomposition for two catalysts: impregnation and photo-deposition. However, the best
activity and stability are observed for the catalysts prepared by the impregnation method, this due to the strong
interaction of nickel with SiO2. Glycolic, fumaric, maleic and oxalic acids were some intermediates formed in
the catalytic ozonation.
Keywords: Ozone; Ni/SiO2; Impregnation and Phodeposition Methods; 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid
Decomposition.




  Session 3 – AOP Methods                                                                               S3-2


     Composite Titania Photocatalytic Coating for Vacuum UV Photoreactor
                                 C. Duca, G. Imoberdorf, and M. Mohseni
            Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia,
                            2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3 Canada

The main objective of this research was to compare Vacuum UV (VUV) process and photocatalysis. Different
sol-gel techniques were used to prepare TiO2 coatings, which were evaluated using a small photocatalytic
reactor irradiated with 254 nm radiation (UV). The catalyst that presented the highest photocatalytic activity
and the highest attrition resistance was used to compare photocatalysis with VUV in an annular flow-through
reactor. The degradation of 2,4-D in Millipore water was tested using immobilized TiO2 /UV, slurry Degussa
P25/UV, and VUV, under the same operating conditions. The conversions obtained were 2.5%, 38%, and
100%, respectively, showing that the efficacy of photocatalysis is significantly lower than that of VUV.
Keywords: Vacuum UV; Photocatalysis; Photoreactor; 2,4-D; Micropollutants.


2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                            27
  Session 3 – AOP Methods                                                                                 S3-3


        Advanced Oxidation of Drinking Water Using Ultraviolet Light and
                 Alternative Solid Forms of Hydrogen Peroxide
                       Zachary Monge1, MS, EIT, and Erik Rosenfeldt2, PE, Ph.D.
                           1. CH2M HILL, 430 East Genesee Street, Syracuse, NY
                                          2. Hazen and Saywer

With the increasing focus on removing emerging, unregulated drinking water contaminants, the use of
advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) has become more prevalent. A commonly used AOP is the ultraviolet
light/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) AOP. This process utilizes the formation of hydroxyl radicals to oxidize
contaminants to less harmful forms. In this analysis, two alternative solid forms of H2O2, sodium perborate (SPB)
and sodium percarbonate (SPC) were used as sources of H2O2 in the UV/H2O2 AOP. The potential advantage
of SPB and SPC is that they are solids in nature, and as a result, the shipping costs and shipping energy
requirements can be reduced significantly compared to that of liquid H2O2.
The yields of active H2O2 via SPB and SPC were investigated in deionized (DI) water and three natural water
sources from the Northampton, MA Water Filtration Plant. In DI water, the active yields of H2O2 via SPB and
SPC were much higher than in the natural water sources. The findings of this analysis indicate that both SPB
and SPC are viable sources of H2O2, especially in waters that are treated to reduce the background carbonate
concentration.
In highly finished waters similar to DI water, it is expected that the use of SPB and SPC will result in reduced
oxidation rates of drinking water contaminants. Therefore, the use of SPB and SPC as H2O2 sources in the
UV/H2O2 AOP in highly finished waters is not encouraged. In natural water sources, SPB and SPC appear to be
viable alternatives to liquid H2O2 for use in the UV/ H2O2 AOP up to active H2O2 concentrations of 5mg/L.
Using SPB and SPC has the potential for significant cost savings depending on the source of the water used
in the drinking water treatment process. For facilities with surface waters as the source water, significant cost
savings are possible. However water reclamation and reuse facilities have high purity source waters and SPB
and SPC as sources of H2O2 are more costly alternatives. The reduction in treatment facilities carbon
footprints’ associated with shipping H2O2 is largely dependent on the location of the chemical production
facilities of each reagent.
Keywords: UV Advanced Oxidation; Hydrogen Peroxide.




28                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 3 – AOP Methods                                                                            S3-4


               Development of an Integrated UV/Self-Generated Ozone
                  Advanced Oxidation Reactor for Water Treatment
  Jingyun Fang1, Hai Liao1, Chii Shang1, Minzhen Zeng1, Zhi Chen1, Menglin Ni1, and Wei Liu2
     1. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, the Hong Kong University of Science and
                            Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong
     2. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

UV irradiation or ozone alone has been widely used for water disinfection and/or oxidative destruction of
pollutant for decades. The combination of UV and ozone has been proved to have a synergistic effect on
micro-pollutant destruction and pathogen disinfection. However, the cost is prohibitive for sustaining the two
energy-intensive processes. Using conventional low-pressure Hg Lamp, which emits two principal wavelengths:
254 nm and 185 nm, to generate ozone and achieve UV/ozone coexposure has been considered in earlier
work. However, the development is rather limited, likely due to the low ozone generation rate. Recent
advancement in UV lamp tube design and manufacturing, nevertheless, enables the possibility to realize the
concept by increasing the output intensity and the penetration of light at 185 nm. We therefore revisit the
concept of using the 185 nm UV light to produce ozone from air circulated between the UV lamp and the
quartz sleeve. The produced ozone can then be pumped into the UV system in the water phase to create a
scenario of the UV/ozone process to enhance micro-pollutant oxidation and/or disinfection by ozone and/or
hydroxyl radical attack. This study focused on the development of a flow-through, integrated UV/self-generated
ozone advanced oxidation reactor using low-pressure, high-intensity Hg lamp made with synthetic quartz. The
development and evaluation of the reactor consists of the following three aspects: 1) how to enhance ozone
production in the gas phase by changing the gas flow rate, pressure and reactor configurations; 2) how to
enhance the mass transfer of the produced ozone into the water phase by using different diffusers; and 3) how
to better design the reactor to maximize pollutant destruction and pathogen disinfection in the water phase by
changing the combining sequences and the reactor configurations. The combination of UV and the low levels
of ozone give a higher rate and efficiency in destruction of micropollutants (i.e., nitrobenzene and N-
nitrosodimethylamine) and disinfection of E. coli and coliphage MS-2. This integrated reactor is energy- and
space-saving, compared to the combining use of a conventional UV irradiator and an external ozone generator.
It is a promising process to be used in households, swimming pools, and drinking water treatment plants. More
details will be available in the presentation.
Keywords: UV; Ozone Advanced Oxidation.




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                      29
  Session 4 – Ozone in Drinking Water Treatment                                                          S4-1


       Seven Years of Using Ozone as a Cost Effective Treatment Strategy
                                        Gord Devine, and Bill Mundy
           Regional Municipality of Halton, 1151 Bronte Road, Oakville, ON, Canada, L6M 3L1

The Regional Municipality of Halton (Halton Region) is located south west of Toronto, Ontario, Canada and is
located on Lake Ontario. Lake Ontario is the source water for all three of Halton Region’s surface Water
Treatment Plants which serves an approximate population of 400,000 people for the City of Burlington, the
Town of Oakville and Town of Milton.
Lake Ontario is influenced by significant urbanization with approximately 5.6 million people living in the greater
Toronto area which makes the source water potentially contaminated by Cryptosporidium. Through
surveillance sampling that Halton Region had conducted, Cryptosporidium has been detected. As a result of
this potential risk, Halton Region chose to adopt an internal cryptosporidium inactivation goal which is beyond
the current regulations established by the regulatory authority. Additionally, Lake Ontario does have seasonal
taste and odour events that can be quite significant, making the case for selection of ozonation as a primary
disinfectant, and taste and odour removal.
With seven years of operating with ozone on Lake Ontario water, ozone has been successfully integrated as a
must-have operational tool. This paper will discuss the process design, operational issues, taste and odour
removal, bromate control, and an operating cost comparison between diffuser and sidestream installations.
Keywords: Ozone; Taste; Odour; Cryptosporidium; Diffuser; Sidestream; Bromate; Costs; Capital; Retrofit.




  Session 4 – Ozone in Drinking Water Treatment                                                          S4-2


                Designing Ozone Systems for Great Lakes Water –
       State of the Art and Lessons Learned from 10 Years of Experience
                             Helen Jin1, Quirien Muylwyk2, and Ed Minchew3
               1. CH2M HILL Canada, 255 Consumers Road, Toronto, ON, M2J 5B6, Canada
                                       2. CH2M HILL Canada
                                           3. CH2M HILL

In the past ten years, CH2M HILL has designed ozone systems for four agencies (Windsor Utilities Commission,
Region of Halton, Peel Region, and Toronto Water), providing an installed capacity of over 6,000 kg/d ozone
production to treat more than 2,000 ML/d water. This represents over a decade of experience and lessons
learned when ozone is used as an integral role to protect public health. Why – and how – ozone is used on the
Great Lakes will be summarized, with specific design details described based on these installations.
Keywords: Ozone; Design.




30                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 4 – Ozone in Drinking Water Treatment                                                         S4-3


 Upgrading the Largest WTP in the Czech Republic – Experiences Gained in
   Design, Start Up and Operation of a State of the Art Ozonation System
            Radka Hušková1, Jiri Benes2, Philip Page3, Florian Axt4, and Michael Ziegler4
                        1. Pražské vodovody a kanalizace, a.s., Praha, Czech Republic
                                      2. DISA, v.o.s, Brno, Czech Republic
                    3. Statiflo International Ltd, Macclesfield, Cheshire, United Kingdom
                              4. ITT Water & Wastewater Herford GmbH, Germany

Since 1991 the City of Prague relies on ozone for sanitation and disinfection of its drinking water within WTP
Želivka. With a maximum flowrate of 7 m3/s it is the largest DWTP in the Czech Republic. Before 2009, 36 kg/h
of ozone was generated from dry air, then introduced to the water through porous diffusers. Because of its low
efficiency and increasing demand for maintenance, this system needed replacing.
In the autumn of 2009 this old ozonation system was replaced with a new ITT Wedeco system, consisting of
2 x PDO 1000, each with a 16kg/h capacity. The new ozonation system which was commissioned in the spring
of 2010 generates ozone from oxygen at a concentration of 12 wt% and above and uses a custom engineered
STATIFLO Gas Dispersion System (GDS).
The content of this presentation is focused on comparison of the old and the new ozonization technology and
describes the first experiences gained from the operation of the new installation. The good results of the ozone
transfer efficiency are illustrated from continuous measurement.
Current analyses of the new technology have shown a significant improvement on the drinking water quality,
the ease of operation and the process economy.
Keywords: Water Treatment Plant; Ozone; Ozonization; Mixing; Dissolving; Gas Dispersion System.




  Session 4 – Ozone in Drinking Water Treatment                                                         S4-4


          Implementing Ozone at the F.J. Horgan Water Treatment Plant
              Liza Ballantyne, P.Eng., Alex Vukosavljevic, and Gordon Mitchell, P.Eng.
          City of Toronto, F.J. Horgan WTP, 201 Copperfield Road, Toronto, ON M1E 5G7, Canada

The F.J. Horgan Water Treatment Plant is one of four water treatment facilities in the City of Toronto. It is
currently undergoing a 230 ML/d capacity expansion to increase its overall capacity to 800 ML/d. A major
component of the expansion will be the conversion to ozone for primary disinfection and taste and odour
control for the entire 800 ML/d process stream. Construction is currently on-going and the commissioning is
anticipated to begin in the first quarter of 2012.
The paper will focus on the steps that were undertaken to implement ozone at this facility including factors that
lead to the selection of ozone, technical consideration during the design phase, contractual considerations that
lead to the pre-purchasing of the ozone equipment and the importance of leveraging the experiences and
lessons learned from other municipalities.
Keywords: Lessons Learned; Value Engineering; Peer Review; Pre-Purchase; Sampling System; Liquid Oxygen;
Dissolution System; Residual Quenching.

2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                           31
  Session 4 – Ozone in Drinking Water Treatment                                                         S4-5


           Implementing Ozone Training and Maintenance Integration at
                  the Frank J. Horgan Water Treatment Plant
                         Alex Vukosavljevic, Liza Ballantyne and Gord Mitchell
               City of Toronto, F.J. Horgan WTP, 201 Copperfield Road, Toronto, ON, Canada

Toronto Water has embarked on an aggressive capital work program which includes the expansion and
major process upgrades to the F.J. Horgan Water Treatment Plant, one of four municipal treatment facilities.
A key aspect of the 230 ML/day capacity expansion is the incorporation of an ozone treatment system for
primary disinfection and taste & odour control. Ozone treatment for potable water is a totally new process for
Toronto Water.
This paper will describe Toronto Water’s research, contractual requirements and implementation plan for
replacing chlorine with ozone for primary disinfection from the perspective of operations and maintenance
staff preparation, health & safety knowledge and comprehensive training. In addition, the processes involved
in incorporating a host of new ozone related equipment into the facility Computerized Maintenance
Management System (CMMS) will be detailed. The paper will summarize the steps being taken to make the
transition to a fundamentally new treatment process a smooth and painless one with broad based buy-in and
acceptance by critical staff.
Keywords: Training, Ozone; Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS); Continuing Education
Units (CEU); Expansion; Upgrade; Modernization.




32                      2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 4 – Ozone in Drinking Water Treatment                                                           S4-6


  Mitigation of Anoxic Hypolimnetic Water in a Drinking Water Reservoir by
                 Bottom Water Withdrawal and Treatment –
           Bench-Scale Ozone Test and Full-Scale Water Treatment
                     Keisuke Ikehata1, Andrew T. Komor1, and Philip F. Bogdanoff2
                                 1. Pacific Advanced Civil Engineering,
                   17520 Newhope Street, Suite 200, Fountain Valley, California 92708
                            2. Public Utilities Department, City of Anaheim,
                    201 S. Anaheim Boulevard, Suite 601, Anaheim, California 92805

Due to thermal stratification followed by the development of anoxic hypolimnion, accumulation of reduced
constituents, including sulfide, manganese, ammonia, as well as phosphate, was noticed in the Walnut
Canyon Reservoir (WCR), a drinking water reservoir in the city of Anaheim, in the summer of 2010. In order
to minimize the risks associated with these constituents, withdrawal of the anoxic water and its treatment using
an existing ozonation facility in the Lenain water treatment plant (LWTP) was considered as an effective
mitigation option. First, a bench-scale ozone test was conducted to determine the ozone demand and the
mass ratio between ozone and sulfide to achieve treatment targets based on the odor threshold of sulfide
(0.05 mg/L) and the secondary maximum contaminant level for manganese (0.05 mg/L). An ozone to sulfide
mass ratio of 2:1 was found to be sufficient to reduce the sulfide concentrations to below 0.05 mg/L, which is
lower than published values (3:1 to 4:1). In order to remove manganese, more ozone was required
(ozone:sulfide ≈ 2.6:1), although over-oxidation of manganese occurred when a higher ozone-to-sulfide mass
ratio, such as 3:1, was used. Based on these results, the anoxic bottom water was withdrawn from the lowest
intake (30 m below the water level) in the WCR, blended with bypass water (5% bottom + 95% bypass) and
treated by a treatment train consisting of pre-chlorination, coagulation, flocculation, clarification, intermediate
ozonation, filtration, and post-chlorination in the LWTP. Majority of sulfide was removed or volatilized during
coagulation, flocculation, and clarification. Sulfide was not detected (<0.005 mg/L) after ozonation. The
applied ozone dose was 0.75 mg/L. Manganese was removed by about 40% by clarification, and an additional
manganese removal (up to 20%) was achieved by ozonation. In finished water, manganese concentration was
around 0.03 and 0.04 mg/L. Bromate was not detected (<0.005 mg/L) in ozonated water or finished water.
Keywords: Ozone; Hydrogen Sulfide; Manganese; Bromate; Drinking Water Treatment; Reservoir Water Quality.




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                           33
  Session 4 – Ozone in Drinking Water Treatment                                                           S4-7


            Assessing Raw Water Ozonation for Taste and Odor Removal,
                  Manganese Oxidation, and DAF Preconditioning
     Joseph Huang1, P.E., Robert Biehler2, P.E., Dean Gregory3, Ph.D., and Alan G. LeBlanc4, P.E.
         1. Camp Dresser and McKee Inc., 2295 Gateway Oaks, Suite 240, Sacramento, CA 95833
              2. New Jersey American Water, 120 Raider Boulevard, Hillsborough, NJ 08844
                             3. 3235 Field Street, Wheat Ridge, CO 80033
                            4. Camp Dresser and McKee Inc., Jefferson Mill,
                      670 N. Commercial Street, Suite 201, Manchester, NH 03101

New Jersey American Water Company (NJAW) owns and operates the Canoe Brook Water Treatment Plant
in Short Hills, New Jersey. The plant experiences algal blooms in the raw water reservoir that result in taste
and odor issues with the treated water. To control these taste and odor elements (such as geosmin and
2-methylisoborneol) ozonation will be installed as part of water treatment plant improvements currently
under construction.
To determine the ozone design dosages, the project team relied on historical ozone usage at a nearby
treatment plant treating similar water. To confirm these dosages for the Canoe Brook plant, the project team
undertook a battery of laboratory tests to determine such factors as ozone demand and geosmin and
2-methylisoborneol (MIB) removal at various ozone doses, as well the effectiveness of manganese oxidation.
Other factors to be examined were the effect of pH adjustment and PEROXONE.
The laboratory testing revealed the ozone demand to be greater than anticipated, and the ozone design
dosage had to be increased, and indicated that pH adjustment ahead of ozone addition would be beneficial.
Ozone also showed to be effective in removal of geosmin and MIB, while PEROXONE did not have an effect
on the treatment.
The laboratory testing proved very beneficial because it allowed the design team to confidently size the ozone
components for the anticipated water quality conditions at the Canoe Brook Water Treatment Plant, and to
include pH adjustment as part of the design.
Keywords: Taste; Odor; Geosmin; MIB; Canoe Brook; Drinking Water; Raw Water.




34                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 5 – UV Validation and Monitoring II                                                                S5-1


           Yikes! What the UVDGM Does Not Address on UV Disinfection
                               Harold Wright1, Mark Heath2, and Jeff Bandy1
                                      1. Carollo Engineers, Boise, ID, USA
                                    2. Carollo Engineers, Portland, OR, USA

The USEPA UV Disinfection Guidance Manual (UVDGM) provides guidance for the design, validation and
operation of UV systems in the United States for disinfection under the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water
Treatment Rule. The UVDGM was prepared over the course of six years with drafts released in 2001 and 2003
and a final version released in 2006. The preparation of the UVDGM was challenged by the limited experience
in the US with full-scale UV system implementation and validation. During the drafting of the UVDGM and over
the course of a decade of full-scale experience, our understanding of UV disinfection has significantly
progressed. This paper describes nine issues that impact UV dose delivery and monitoring by installed systems
but that are not fully addressed by the UVDGM. Solutions to each issue are proposed.
Keywords: UV; Disinfection; UV Dose Delivery.




  Session 5 – UV Validation and Monitoring II                                                                S5-2


                 Evaluating Piping Layout Impacts on UV Dose Delivery
                    Christopher Schulz, P.E.1; Mike Hyland, P.E.2; Mark Allen, P.E.1,
                      David Werth Ph.D., P.E.3, and Inder Singh, M.A.Sc. P.Eng.4
                                         1. CDM Denver, Colorado
                                        2. CDM Seattle, Washington
                      3. Clemson Engineering Hydraulics, Inc., Anderson, South Carolina
                               4. Metro Vancouver, Burnaby, British Columbia

The Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidance Manual (UVDGM) provides technical information and guidance on design
and operation of UV systems for receiving disinfection credit under the Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water
Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR). An important topic in the UVDGM relates to inlet and outlet piping configurations
installed in the full-scale UV facility and how they relate to the piping configuration used during validation testing
and associated impacts on UV dose delivery. Several design approaches are cited in the UVDGM to ensure that
“the inlet and outlet piping to the UV reactor in the UV facility results in a UV dose delivery that is equal to or
greater than the UV dose delivered when the reactor was validated.” The purpose of this paper is to present an
alternative method for meeting the UVDGM dose delivery objective, while allowing for flexibility in the design of
UV piping systems to meet project-specific design constraints. The proposed method involves use of physical or
computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to evaluate and optimize inlet hydraulics to the UV reactor until
acceptable velocity profiles are achieved, and then verification of actual performance by taking measurements
of inlet velocity profiles during validation and start-up of the full-scale UV facility. Conservative “acceptance”
criteria for comparing these results are proposed to ensure improved UV dose delivery at full-scale. This method
was applied to the design of a new UV disinfection facility for the Coquitlam Water Treatment Facility – an
unfiltered gravity-fed water system owned and operated by Metro Vancouver in British Columbia, Canada.
Keywords: UV Disinfection; Hydraulics; Velocity Profiles; UVDGM; UV Dose Distribution; Physical Modeling.


2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                              35
  Session 5 – UV Validation and Monitoring II                                                               S5-3


            UV System Checkpoint Bioassays: Challenges from the Field,
                 Comparison Methodology, and Proof of Scale-Up
                             B. Petri1, J. An1, Y. Lawryshyn2, and V. Moreland3
                   1. Trojan Technologies Inc., 3020 Gore Rd., London, Canada, N5V 4T7
                   2. University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Canada, M5S 3E5
                                 3. Moreland Consulting LLC, Honolulu, USA

The NWRI/AwwaRF “Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidelines for Drinking Water and Water Reuse” (the Guidelines)
require that UV systems be sized based on bioassays. Although not expressed in the Guidelines, the California
Department of Public Heath has adopted the practice of requiring a Checkpoint Bioassay for installed systems
producing recycled water. A Checkpoint Bioassay is a term for a small bioassay (typically 8 tests) of a full scale
system where the intent is to measure disinfection performance and verify that the system is operating properly.
Verification comes by comparing measured performance to expected performance based on the original product
bioassay validation. Various approaches for comparing and judging installed systems have been employed.
Bioassay validations of UV reactors are typically executed with high accuracy, using a test centre that has been
setup to do biological validations with all of the required considerations (e.g. wide ranges of flow capacity and
water quality, good control of variables, accurate measurement of variables, proper mixing of injected
constituents, proper placement of sample ports to collect representative samples). For closed-vessel reactors,
UV reactor performance cannot be scaled to different sized reactors, because the flow and UV light fields will
differ between them. The performance of tested units must be added in series or in parallel to achieve the
design for systems requiring higher doses or higher total flows, respectively. Open-channel UV reactors are a
special case of reactors that can be scaled due to modularity, given certain constraints. Thus, Checkpoint
Bioassays serve to answer two questions: does performance scale-up for modular UV systems; are there any
site-specific issues that change the performance of the UV system.
We have completed Checkpoint Bioassays on 7 sites in California and 2 in Hawaii, and have verified the
scaling of modular UV reactors in all cases. In some cases, site-specific issues were identified that were the
cause of lowered performance, including civil works that were out of tolerance and constrained hydraulics.
When corrected, UV system performance increased to expected levels. In almost all cases, the sites were
difficult to test accurately because they were not designed, built or instrumented with the intention of testing.
Challenges included unsteady flows, interrupting operations to produce maximum and minimum flows, large
reservoirs as part of the tested system that increased residence volumes to unmanageable levels, lack of
suitable sampling sites due to mixing, contamination, and access issues, lack of accurate flow instrumentation
or flow instrumentation not monitoring the UV system itself. Taken together, it is diffult to assign a high level of
accuracy to Checkpoint Bioassay data, and although useful for verification we have encountered situations
where that data was assumed to be of high quality and system de-ratings were proposed.
In terms of comparing Checkpoint Bioassay data to product validation data, and judging the performance for a
site, we have encountered a number of approaches. Criteria such as 7 of 8 tests must have performance
greater than expected (expected performance is the perforamnce predicted from the product validation data at
the Checkpoint Bioassay test conditions) violate the concept that the expectations are based on a regression
that describes the “average” trend in a dataset. Ratios of measured to expected performance have been
calculated and de-ratings applied based only on the tests that had ratio values less than 1, not weighting in the
performance from tests that exceeded expected levels. Most importantly, the Checkpoint Bioassay results have
been used without any consideration of accuracy. The paper will discuss approaches that consider confidence
bands both for Checkpoint Bioassay data and product validation data, and comparison methods that are
mathematically and statistically justifiable.


36                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
Session S5-3 continued
Checkpoint Bioassays have been useful for identifying a number of issues that can lead to lowered
performance for installed UV systems. However, they are difficult to execute properly and have inherently low
accuracy. For modular UV reactors that have undergone a number of these commissioning tests, we can
confidently say that their scale-up has been verified and that Checkpoints Bioassays are no longer required to
prove the same point. The second question that Checkpoint Bioassays address is whether any site-specific
factors can impact performance. We have now identified main causes which are out-of-tolerance civil works
and constrained hydraulics. These causes can be identified without Checkpoint Bioassays. Civil works can be
evaluated through standard measurement of dimensions, and remedies can be made through epoxying (to
decrease dimensions) or grinding (to increase dimensions). Ultimately, adhering to stated tolerances during
construction can avoid the need for any remedies. Hydraulics can be designed to produce regular velocity
fields for the UV reactor, and these velocity fields can be measured through velocity profiling (a technique
actually described in the Guidelines for commissioning tests). Thus, Checkpoint Bioassays are useful as a one-
time check of a new UV reactor product to verify scale-up, but are not required for every installation. Site-
specific issues can be identified with more practical techniques. The use of Checkpoint Bioassay data to
de-rate UV systems without considering the accuracy of the measurements, can lead to unneccesary and
costly capacity reductions or power increases.
Keywords: UV Disinfection; NWRI/AwwaRF Guidelines; Checkpoint Bioassays; Field Experiences; Scale-Up.




  Session 5 – UV Validation and Monitoring II                                                           S5-4


 Impact of Low Wavelength UV Light on UV Dose Monitoring and Validation
                  H. Wright1, J. Bandy1, M. Heath1, C. Bokermann2, and R. Bemus2
               1. Carollo Engineers, 12592 West Explorer Drive, Suite 200, Boise, ID 83713
                     2. ITT-WEDECO, 14125 South Bridge Circle, Charlotte, NC 28273

The USEPA UV Disinfection Guidance Manual states that UV dose monitoring by polychromatic UV systems
should account for bias affects caused by 1) differences in the spectral response or action spectra of the test
microbes used during validation and the target pathogen, 2) spectral changes in UV lamp output due to lamp
and quartz sleeve aging and fouling, and 3) differences in the spectral UV absorbance of the water used
during validation and the water treated at the water treatment plant.
The 2006 UVDGM states that the relative impact of the action spectra can be assessed by calculating the
germicidal output of polychromatic UV lamps using:




where PG is the germicidal output of the lamps, P(λ) is the UV output of the lamp as a function of wavelength,
λ, and G(λ) is the action spectra of the microbe. The UVDGM states that the ratio of the germicidal output of
the UV lamps calculated using the action spectra of MS2 to that calculated using the action spectra of
Cryptosporidium is 1.04. While the 2006 UVDGM does not provide details on the action spectra and lamp
output used to determine this ratio that data is provided in 2003 draft UVDGM (EPA 815-D-03-007). The ratio
was determined using the MS2 action spectra from 225 to 320 nm as shown in Figure F.9 of the 2003 draft
UVDGM and a medium pressure lamp output data given in Figure F.12 of the 2003 UVDGM. That lamp had
negligible UV output below 230 nm. In contrast, medium pressure UV lamps currently used by UV vendors


2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                         37
Session S5-4 continued
have notable UV output at wavelengths down to and below 200 nm. This UV output creates a significant
polychromatic bias that impacts UV dose delivery and monitoring.
First, the action spectra of MS2 is much greater than that of Cryptosporidium at wavelengths below 240 nm.
Depending on the reference, the ratio is a factor of 8 to 12 at 215 nm, and is likely greater at lower wavelengths.
Hence, if the lamp has significant UV output below 240 nm, validation using MS2 can overestimate UV dose
delivery to Cryptosporidium by as much as a factor of 2.
Second, many UV sensors used with medium pressure UV systems have a low wavelength cutoff around 230
to 240 nm, and hence do not measure germicidal UV light below these wavelengths. If these wavelengths
have a significant contribution to UV dose delivery, the UV sensor will not indicate if that contribution is
occurring at the water treatment plant. This can occur with lamp aging or sleeve fouling where lower
wavelength UV light below 240 nm is reduced more than higher wavelength UV light or changes with the UVT
spectra at lower UVT. Under these conditions, the RED estimated using the UV sensor could be much greater
than the actual RED.
The impact of low wavelength light on UV dose delivery and monitoring is also impacted by the quartz sleeves
used by the lamps and the UVT spectra of the water used during validation. UV vendors use three types of
quartz sleeves. Type 219 sleeves absorb most of the UV light below 240 nm. Synthetic quartz sleeves have a
high UVT for wavelengths down to 200 nm, with a UVT of 90% at 200 nm. Type 214 sleeves transmit less,
with a UVT of 55% at 200 nm. With UV systems sold in North America, there has been a trend by UV vendors
towards using synthetic quartz sleeves. The UVT spectrum of the water used during validation can also have a
relatively low UVT at wavelengths below 240 nm, depending on the spectra of the raw water and UV absorber.
These issues also impact UV dose monitoring for adenovirus credit, since the action spectra of adenovirus
below 240 nm is much greater than that of MS2 phage (e.g. a factor of 8 at 230 nm). Recent work has shown
that benefits of low wavelength light with the inactivation of adenovirus are eliminated if the spectra UVT of the
water below 240 nm drops.
The solution to these issues is to validate medium pressure UV systems using Type 219 sleeves or apply a
safety factor to UV dose monitoring. This paper provides a detailed discussion of these impacts supported by
validation data.
Keywords: UV Dose; Monitoring; Validation.




38                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 5 – UV Validation and Monitoring II                                                           S5-5


                      Practical UV Light Source Diagnostic Tools for
                       Measuring Uniformity, Intensity and Fluence
                                               Todd E. Lizotte
                  Lizotte Tactical Development, LLC, 21 Post Road, Hooksett, NH 03106

Industry leaders within the UV disinfection marketplace and the customers, who purchase their systems,
understand that the majority of costs to a water treatment facility is spent on system maintenance and is
typically the largest single controllable expenditure in a production plant. Reducing costs in this economy is a
driving factor, towards improving in-situ predictive and proactive, not reactive maintenance of UV based water
treatment and industrial disinfection systems. With practical and cost effective diagnostic tools UV disinfection
system developers can develop further proactive approaches to reduce system down time, safe guard
operational performance and reduce premature or catastrophic failures during plant operations. A critical
aspect of UV disinfection systems is that it is the last line of defense for making water and air safer to the
general population. Analytical analysis (computational) provides quantifiable results on performance that are
more precise than qualitative standards, but each have a role in determining overall performance of the system
when taking into consideration issues or variables that tend to emerge within a dynamic and operational
system. This paper highlights the need for alternate diagnostics to cover variables that cannot be factored into
the analytical analysis. The paper will provide an overview of potential diagnostic tools which could be used
during research, design and manufacture of UV reactors and by the end customer or field service engineers to
diagnose problems or monitor key process performance indicators.
Keywords: UV Lamp Diagnostics; UV Lamp Homogeneity; Intensity Uniformity; Profilometry; UV Disinfection
Diagnostics; UV Delivery; UV Beam Shaping.




  Session 5 – UV Validation and Monitoring II                                                           S5-6


    Understanding Evaluation, Testing and Certification of UV Systems for
             Drinking Water and Recreational Water Treatment
                                               Richard Martin
                                               NSF International

NSF International (NSF) has several standards and programs involving the testing and certification of
performance and health effects of water treatment and distribution products for many end uses such as
residential drinking water treatment, industrial and waste water, ballast water treatment, public or municipal
drinking water treatment as well as the pool, spa, and recreational water treatment. NSF/ANSI Standard 50:
Equipment for Pool, Spa, Hot Tub and Other Recreational Water Facilities is the all encompassing product and
system evaluation criteria for evaluation of products and materials used at recreational water facilities. This
presentation will discuss harmonized testing and certification requirements, new developments and criteria
that have been developed for the Recreational Water and Aquatics Markets, specifically evaluation, testing and
certification of ultraviolet (UV) light systems.
Keywords: Ultraviolet Disinfection; Cryptosporidium; MS2 Phage; Testing; Certification, Validation; Water
Quality; RED-Reduction Equivalent Dose; LTSESWTR Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rules;
USEPA UVDGM United States Environmental Protection Agency Ultra Violet Disinfection Guidance Manual.

2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                         39
  Session 5 – UV Validation and Monitoring II                                                              S5-7


                 Using Microbial Surrogates for the Wrong Reasons:
               The Risk in T1 as UV Challenge Microbe for Waste Water
                                 Brian Petri, Wayne Lem, and Mike Shortt
                                   Trojan Technologies, London, ON, Canada

Bioassay validation of UV disinfection reactors has become standard practice for municipal drinking water and
waste water reuse applications. It is also now finding acceptance in municipal waste water applications,
borrowing from the experience gained in the former applications. However, some of the translated experience
is being mis-applied, namely the unqualified use of T1 bacteriophage as a validation challenge surrogate for
waste water.
The use of challenge surrogates such as T1 bacteriophage, MS2 bacteriophage, and QB bacteriophage, for
validating UV reactor performance, has gained acceptance as an industry best practice. One of the reasons for
this is that in municipal drinking water and waste water reuse applications, indigenous microbe populations are
very low, and are thus not useful for validating UV reactor performance. Municipal waste water applications
typically have highly populous indigenous microbe communities that could be used to directly validate UV
reactor performance, but the between-site, between-day and within-day variability in the population levels and
resistance kinetics limit their usefulness in these applications as well. Thus challenge surrogates are also the
best choice for validating UV reactor performance in municipal waste water applications. However, the right
choice of the specific surrogate is paramount to a system design that protects public health. Ideally, a
microbial challenge surrogate should match the resistance of the target pathogen. This single statement is key
to understanding why T1 can be an unsuitable choice for waste water, while it may be very suitable for
municipal drinking water.
It is intuitive that a surrogate with the same resistance as a target pathogen, is the ideal choice for validating
performance of any disinfection system (UV or other technologies). If the surrogate has a lesser resistance than
the target pathogen, demonstration of surrogate inactivation cannot guarantee similar levels of inactivation of
more resistant microbes. Conversely, if the surrogate is more resistant than the target pathogen, demonstration
of surrogate inactivation will guarantee at least the same level of inactivation of the target pathogen. A caveat is
that resistant surrogate inactivation may not guarantee proportionately more inactivation of a less resistant
pathogen, due to the real-life finite efficiency of all disinfection systems. The safest approach from a public
health perspective, is to validate disinfection systems with challenge surrogates of equal or higher resistance
than target pathogens. Additional tests with a low-resistance surrogate, can be used to demonstrate that the
disinfection system has or does not have finite limitations for disinfecting any microbe to given limits (due to
finite efficiency limitations). In particular, T1 bacteriophage is a common choice for validating UV reactors for
drinking water, because it is similar in resistance (but still slightly more resistant) than the often-targeted
pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia. In these cases, T1 is an excellent choice. Similar rationale has been
applied to the choice of T1 as a waste water UV reactor surrogate, because it’s resistance is similar to the
resistance of “free” coliforms. In this case, this is not a good choice for two main reasons: T1 is much less
resistant than the coliforms of concern, those that are not “free” but rather particle-associated; and, coliforms
themselves are pathogen indicators, and T1 is much less resistant than the true pathogens of concern in waste
water, namely resistant viruses such as Polio, Hepatitis, and Rotavirus.
In this paper we will present data to support this rationale. From a large database of UV dose-response curves
for coliforms in various types of waste water treatment trains, we will show that resistant particle-associated
coliforms are the rightful targets when considering typical inactivation goals. We will also show a sensitivity
analysis based on measured variability in coliform levels and UV resistances in waste waters, and how they



40                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
Session S5-7 continued
translate into increased UV design dose requirements that make the use of T1 even less appropriate. We
will also review whether MS2 is the most appropriate UV reactor validation surrogate. An example of sizing a
UV disinfection project will be given, using both T1 and MS2, that will show the disinfection risk when T1
is chosen.
Keywords: UV Disinfection; Surrogate; Validation; T1, MS2; Disinfection Risk.




  Session 6 – AOP Applications                                                                         S6-1


   Degradation of Carbamazepine during UV/H2O2 Treatment of Wastewater
             Olya Keen1, Seungyun Baik2, Karl Linden1, Diana Aga2 and Nancy G. Love3
                                          1. University of Colorado
                                           2. University of Buffalo
                                          3. University of Michigan

Carbamazepine is an antiepileptic drug that has been detected in wastewater effluents and wastewater
impacted streams in many parts of the world. It has been shown to persist in the wastewater treatment plants
using traditional treatment methods and even advanced treatment methods such as membrane bioreactors
(Clara et al. 2005). Advanced oxidation processes (AOP) are one of the technologies used for addressing
pharmaceutical contamination in drinking water and water reuse applications. Currently, AOP application for
wastewater treatment is gaining interest, especially for treating recalcitrant compounds such as
carbamazepine. This study investigated degradation of carbamazepine in wastewater during UV/H2O2
advanced oxidation via direct photolysis and hydroxyl radical oxidation followed by biological treatment.
Polychromatic medium pressure UV was used in the study. A combination of UV fluence and H2O2 dose
(1800 mJ/cm2 and 10 mg/L respectively) was used to achieve 1-log degradation of the carbamazepine spiked
into wastewater. The compound was labeled with carbon-14. Treated water was then subjected to bench scale
biodegradation with activated sludge culture in an aerated batch reactor connected to a carbon dioxide trap.
Using liquid scintillation counter it was determined that no mineralization of carbamazepine occurred after
AOP. However, subsequent biodegradation experiment showed a significant degree of mineralization in
samples treated with AOP and no mineralization in untreated samples. This indicates that the products of
carbamazepine produced during AOP are more biodegradable than the parent compound. The authors also
observed that nitrate present in wastewater at the nitrifying treatments plants can be a significant source of
hydroxyl radicals when medium pressure UV is used. In wastewater from a nitrifying plant (10 mg/L nitrate),
80% degradation of the parent compound was observed at 2000 mJ/cm2 with no H2O2 added. In clean water
with no nitrate carbamazepine was only 3% degraded at the same UV fluence. The results of this study
suggest that coupling AOP with biofiltration at wastewater treatment facilities is a promising technology for
addressing pharmaceuticals in the effluent. Using nitrate present in the wastewater for hydroxyl radical
generation can make the process economically appealing to wastewater treatment facilities.
Keywords: Advanced Oxidation; Carbamazepine; Pharmaceuticals; Ultraviolet; Wastewater Treatment;
Biodegradation; Activated Sludge.




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                          41
  Session 6 – AOP Applications                                                                            S6-2


     Removal of Cylindrospermopsin from Water by Photochemical Oxidation
                   Xuexiang He1, Armah A. de la Cruz2 and Dionysios D. Dionysiou1
                            1. Environmental Engineering and Science Program,
                        University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0012, USA
                                   2. Office of Research and Development,
                     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA

The cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms are a growing threat to human health and ecosystem viability. Among
the cyanotoxins that are currently receiving great attention is the potent inhibitor of protein synthesis,
cylindrospermopsin (CYN). In this study, we investigated the photochemical fate of CYN in water environments
by UV 254 nm advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), namely UV/H2O2, UV/S2O8 2- and/or UV/HSO5-. It was
found that the degradation efficiency of CYN generally followed UV/S2O8 2- > UV/HSO5- > UV/H2O2. UV/H2O2
process was inhibited much more significantly in the presence of natural organic matter and alkalinity.
Keywords: Cylindrospermopsin; Advanced Oxidation Process; AOPs; UV; Hydrogen Peroxide; Persulfate;
Peroxymonosulfate.



  Session 6 – AOP Applications                                                                            S6-3


      Fate and Residual Toxicity of Pharmaceuticals in Oxidation Processes
              Viviane Yargeau, Deniz Nasuhoglou, Simone Larcher, and Angela Rodayan
                                   Department of Chemical Engineering,
              McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3A 2B2

The risk associated with pharmaceuticals in the environment is a rising issue of global concern. Our research
focuses not only on the removal of these compounds during biological and advanced oxidation treatment of
municipal and industrial wastewaters but also on the identification of products as well as the residual toxicity of
treated water. The fate of a variety of pharmaceuticals including sulfamethoxazole (SMX), levofloxacin (LEVO),
17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), clofibric acid (CA) and ibuprofen (IBP) have been studied during oxidation
processes including: biodegradation, ozonation, sonolysis/ozonation as well as photolysis and photocatalysis.
Although SMX was rapidly degraded in the presence of ozone, sulfanilamide was produced as an intermediate
and products were shown to have an effect on mammalian culture cells (HepG2). Surprisingly, similar ozone
doses were required in a secondary effluent to obtain the SMX removal observed in reverse osmosis water.
Faster removal was obtained by photolysis than in presence of TiO2. However, a more complex mixture of
persistent products was obtained when using UV exposure alone. When a low dose of ozone (0.5 mg/L) was
applied to SMX-containing water a significant increase in the biodegradability of the compound was obtained.
LEVO and its antibacterial activity were completely removed when exposed to ozone but the maximum
mineralization attained was less than 60%. Photocatalysis treatment of LEVO resulted in a residual COD that
decreased monotonically with increasing irradiation time. As a last example, ozonation of EE2 led to the
formation of products with an intact phenolic ring and resulted in a decreased testosterone production in
cultured fetal rat testes. These results demonstrate the importance of an improved understanding of the fate of
pharmaceuticals and provide insight on ways to control their transformation in order to convert these agents to
non-toxic, biologically less active or more biodegradable species.
Keywords: Pharmaceuticals; Ozonation; Photolysis; Photocatalysis; Transformation Products; Residual Toxicity.


42                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 6 – AOP Applications                                                                        S6-4


  Methylene Blue Bleaching by a Solar-Driven Advanced Oxidation Process
                     Po Yee Chan, James R. Bolton and Mohamed Gamal El-Din
                           Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
                          University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2W2, Canada

Organic dyes are one of the common contaminants in industrial wastewaters. Color removal is always one of
the challenges during the treatment of dye wastewaters. Ultraviolet light (UV)-based Advanced Oxidation
Processes (AOPs) have been developed for decolourization of dye wastewater; however, the application cost is
usually high because it often involves the use of intensive energy for the UV system. Instead, this research
investigated the possible application of a sunlight-driven AOP for the decolorization of dye wastewaters. This
study takes advantage of the overlap between the absorption spectrum of the hypochlorite ion (OCl–) and the
UV region of solar spectrum as the initiator of the UV/chlorine AOP. Methylene blue (MB) was selected as a
model organic dye for the evaluation of the possibility of the photobleaching by this solar-driven AOP.
This research demonstrated that photobleaching of MB occurs with the UV/chlorine AOP at 303 nm and pH
10 in bench-scale experiments; the MB photobleaching reaction obeyed a pseudo first-order rate law. The
bleaching rate constant for a specific concentration of MB was estimated when the UV was completely
absorbed by an infinitely high concentration of OCl– at 303 nm. By concdutcing the theoretical calculations
with the reference spectrum air mass 1.5 from Renewable Resource Data Center, this estimation indicated that
less than 6 h of solar exposure would be required for 99 % color removal for the chosen MB mixture.
Keywords: Methylene Blue; Bleaching; Solar; Chlorine; Advanced Oxidation Process.




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                       43
  Session 6 – AOP Applications                                                                         S6-5


                        Micropollutant Degradation in Tap Water by
                           UV, Ozone and UV/Ozone Processes
                Jingyun Fang1, Zhi Chen1, Minzhen Zeng1, Chii Shang1, and Wei Liu2
     1. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, the Hong Kong University of Science and
                            Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong
     2. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

UV irradiation or ozone alone has been widely used for water disinfection and oxidative destruction of
pollutants for decades (Legrini et al., 1993; von Gunten, 2003). Micropollutant degradation either by direct UV
photolysis or ozone is selective (Meijers et al., 1995; Karimi et al., 1997; Schwarzenbach et al., 2003), while
the combination of UV light with ozone (UV/ozone) can produce hydroxyl radicals, which are a non-selective
oxidant with a high oxidation potential (Hoigné, 1998). However, less is known about their performance on
micropollutant degradation in point-of-use device setups, where tap water can be further treated with UV
and/or low levels of ozone.
The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of direct UV (254 nm) photolysis, ozonation and UV
and ozone (UV/ozone) coexposure processes in degrading micropollutants and disinfection byproducts (DBPs),
which are the main non-biological, health-related contaminants in tap water. Nitrobenzene (NB) and N-
nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) were selected as the model compounds. The former has been detected in
different water bodies and found highly toxic, and the latter is an emerging DBP found in chlor(am)inated
water and wastewater (Latifoglu and Gurol 2003). Destruction of chlorine residuals and several common DBPs
in tap water was also studied.
Keywords: Ozone; UV Irradiation; Advanced Oxidation Process.




44                      2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 6 – AOP Applications                                                                         S6-6


               Pesticides Removal by Advanced Oxidation Processes in
                           the Water Reclamation Process
                      Natividad Miguel, Judith Sarasa, Jorge Rodríguez-Chueca,
                             Isabel García-Suescun, and María P. Ormad
                   Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technologies,
                    University of Zaragoza. Pedro Cerbuna, 12. 50009 Zaragoza, Spain.
                           Institute of Environmental Sciences of Aragon, Spain

The main objective of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of several Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs)
in the degradation of the 9 pesticides detected in effluents of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) analysed
for the purpose of improving the water quality to be reused.
The AOPs applied are: ozonation treatments (O3, O3/H2O2, O3/UV), UV treatments (UV, UV/H2O2), photo-fenton
treatment (Fe/H2O2/UV) and photocatalytic treatments (TiO2/UV, TiO2 / H2O2/UV). Studied pesticides are:
chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos, 3,4-dichloroaniline, dimethoate, isoproturon, metholachlor, simazine,
terbuthylazine and terbutryn.
Most effective treatments in order to degrade studied pesticides in effluents of WWTPs are UV treatments,
mainly the treatment UV/H2O2, for which the average degradation of pesticides is almost complete. Good
degradation percentages are achieved with O3 /H2O2/UV and TiO2/H2O2/UV. However, by O3 and O3/H2O2 the
degradation of pesticides in WWTPs effluents is very low.
Keywords: Pesticides; Advanced Oxidation Processes; Water Reclamation.




  Session 6 – AOP Applications                                                                         S6-7


                 Cresols Oxidation with Fenton’s Reagent, Ozone and
                        Combination Ozone-Fenton’s Reagent
                Clementina Rita Ramírez-Cortina1, Ma. Ángela Sánchez-Aguilar2 and
                                 María Soledad Alonso-Gutiérrez1
1. Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Azcapotzalco. División de CBI, Departamento de Energía,
 San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, Delegación Azcapotzalco, México D. F., C. P. 02200 México
                                 2. Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo.

Research work’s objective: evaluation of oxidation effectiveness of ozone (O3), Fenton’s reagent (H2O2 – Fe)
and Ozone-Fenton’s reagent on cresols solutions. Experiments were carried out in glass reactor of 750 mL,
equipped with porous glass diffuser of fine bubble, with pores of 100 µm, heating-cooling system, pH
indicator, at environmental temperature (22-25°C). Cresols (o, m and p) concentrations were used at 250, 500
and 1000 mg/L, with 4 h oxidation time. Cresols oxidation tests were sampled every 30 minutes and COD was
analyzed. Reaction products were analyzed by chromatography. Results show the highest COD reduction
achieved with Ozone-Fenton’s reagent, secondly the ozonation and finally Fenton’s reagent. Conclusion, at
these experimental conditions, the Ozone-Fenton’s reagent can be used for cresols oxidation.
Keywords: Cresols; Oxidation; Ozone; Fenton’s Reagent.

2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                        45
  Session 7 – Ozone in Wastewater Treatment                                                               S7-1


                 Treatment of Irrigation Return-Flow Water Containing
                                Pesticides Using Ozone
                 Pamela Chelme-Ayala, Daniel W. Smith, and Mohamed Gamal El-Din
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Markin/CNRL Natural Resources Engineering Facility,
                      University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2W2

The treatment of irrigation return-flow water containing two pesticides, bromoxynil and trifluralin, was
investigated using ozone (O3) and O3 combined with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in batch reactors. The results
indicated that these pesticides could not be completely degraded during ozonation, achieving degradation
levels lower than 50%. An enhancement of the level of degradation was observed using O3/H2O2 process.
A biphasic behaviour of O3 was also observed. Acute toxicity analysis performed using Microtox® showed a
decrease in the toxic effects of the samples on the luminescent bacteria during the first few minutes of
treatment, followed by an increase of the toxic effects at the end of the reaction. The quantification of oxidation
by-products generated during treatment was also addressed.
Keywords: Ozone; Hydrogen Peroxide; Irrigation Return-Flow Water; Pesticides; By-product; Toxicity.




  Session 7 – Ozone in Wastewater Treatment                                                               S7-2


                   Study of Anaerobic Effluent Disinfected with Ozone
                 G.H. Ribeiro da Silva1, L.A.Daniel2, H. Bruning3, and W.H. Rulkens3
             1. Unesp – Univ. Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Engenharia Campus de Bauru,
                 Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube,
                         s/nº Vargem Limpa, CEP 17033-360, Bauru – SP, Brazil.
          2. Universidade de São Paulo (USP-EESC), Departamento de Hidráulica e Saneamento,
               Av. Trabalhador Sãocarlense, 400, CEP: 13566 -490, São Carlos, SP, Brazil
       3. Wageningen University and Research Centre, Sub-department of Environmental Technology,
                         P.O. Box 8129 6700 EV, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, to verify the effectiveness coliform inactivation and
evaluate the formation of ozonation disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent
treated with ozone applied at doses of 2.4 – 3.3 mg L-1 with contact time of 10 min and 6.8 – 9.0 mg L-1 with
contact time of 20 min. The mean chemical oxygen demand (COD) reductions were 7.50 and 9.40% for mean
ozone consumed of 1.18 and 4.74 mg L-1, respectively. The Escherichia coli (E. coli) inactivation range was
1.36 – 3.06 log10 and the total coliform inactivation range was 0.96 -3.51 log10. The aldehydes formation
investigated was very low.
Keywords: Ozone; Byproducts; Sanitary Wastewater; Anaerobic Effluent; Disinfection.




46                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 7 – Ozone in Wastewater Treatment                                                            S7-3


     Examining the Role of Effluent Organic Matter Components on the
  Decomposition of Ozone and Formation of Hydroxyl Radical in Wastewater
                    Sarah Gonzales1, Andria Peña2, and Fernando L. Rosario-Ortiz1
                 1. Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering,
                         University of Colorado, Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309
   2. Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Mayaguez, PR 00681

The impact of wastewater derived effluent organic matter (EfOM) on the long-term decomposition of ozone and
formation of hydroxyl radicals (HO●) was evaluated for four wastewaters (sites A, B, C1 and C2). The reactivity
of EfOM was assessed by fractionation into four apparent molecular weight (AMW) fractions (< 10 kDa, < 5 kDa,
< 3 kDa, and < 1 kDa). The RCT, defined as the ratio of HO● exposure to ozone exposure (∫HO●dt / ∫O3dt), was
measured for all fractions and bulk waters (at times greater than 5 seconds), with an initial ozone dose equal
to the total carbon concentration of EfOM (ozone:DOC ratio of 1). The RCT of all the samples and ozone first
order decay rates of two of the waters increased significantly (95% confidence) from the bulk sample to the
< 10 kDa fraction, and decreased with AMW. This indicates that the intrinsic capacity of different molecular
weight fractions of the EfOM have different reactivity with ozone.
Keywords: Ozone; AOP; Effluent Organic Matter; Hydroxyl Radical; RCT.




  Session 7 – Ozone in Wastewater Treatment                                                            S7-4


                           Enhanced Coagulation Pretreatment to
                          Improve Ozone Efficiency in Wastewater
           Eric C Wert1, Sarah Gonzales2, Jeff Neemann3, and Fernando L. Rosario-Ortiz2
     1. Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA), P.O. Box 99955, Las Vegas, NV 89193-9955, USA
                  2. Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering,
                     University of Colorado, Boulder, 428 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309
                                3. Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO, USA

The application of ozone to wastewaters for the oxidation of organic contaminants is influenced by the
concentration and reactivity of the organic matter present in solution, commonly referred to as effluent organic
matter (EfOM). The presence of EfOM at high concentrations can result in greater ozone demand, faster ozone
decay rates, and scavenging of hydroxyl radicals. As a result, greater concentrations of ozone may be needed
to meet specific treatment objectives. Enhanced coagulation presents a pretreatment alternative to remove
EfOM ahead of ozonation. This study evaluated the use of ferric chloride coagulation as a pretreatment strategy
for the ozonation of three secondary treated wastewaters. The addition of ferric chloride dosages of 10, 20, and
30 mg/L as Fe were demonstrated to remove anywhere between 10-46% of the total organic carbon (TOC)
present in the wastewater. The TOC reduction also reduces the ozone dose requirements to achieve a similar
O3:TOC ratio. Results will be presented regarding the effect of enhanced coagulation pretreatment on ozone
exposure, hydroxyl radical exposure, trace organic contaminants, bromate, and organic characterization.
Keywords: Ozone; Wastewater; Effluent Organic Matter (EfOM); Enhanced Coagulation; Ferric Chloride;
Pharmaceuticals.


2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                        47
  Session 7 – Ozone in Wastewater Treatment                                                                   S7-5


            Degradation of the Lignin Derivatives in Pulp and Paper Mill
                       Effluent with Conventional Ozonation
                                          J. Amacosta, and T. Poznyak
     Superior School of Chemical Engineering, National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico (ESIQIE-IPN,),
                           Edif. 7, UPALM, Z.C. 07738, Mexico D.F., Mexico

In the present work the degradation of lignin derivatives in pulp and paper mill effluent from the Kraft process
by conventional ozonation was investigated. The purpose of this study was to degrade the toxic organic
compounds in residual water. The treatment of this wastewater was carried out by ozone in different dilution
(1 to 1, 1 to 10 and 1 to 20) during 60 minutes in a semi batch reactor to control of the degradation. The
ozonated samples were analyzed by a Spectrophotometer UV-Vis with the absorbance in a wavelength of
254nm and 465nm to study the behavior of the effect of the ozonation conditions on the decoloration
dynamics and by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) degradation kinetics. As well as its show,
the reduction of color and the diminution of the wavelengths 210 and 254nm is significant for the three
dilution (11.66, 76.23, 89.39%).
Keywords: Ozone; Lignin Derivatives; Non Biodegradable; Chlorinated Phenolic Compounds; Discoloration;
Degradation.




  Session 7 – Ozone in Wastewater Treatment                                                                   S7-6


             Ozone-Enhanced Biological Treatment of Landfill Leachates
                           Claudio Di Iaconi1, Antonio Lopez1, and Achim Ried2
                                  1. Water Research Institute, CNR, Bari, Italy
                                       2. ITT W&WW Herford, Germany

Municipal landfill leachates, resulting from the percolation of water through solid waste, are considered one of
the types of wastewater with the greatest environmental impact because of high content of organic matter,
ammonia, salts and metals. The composition of landfill leachates, however, varies depending on the nature of
deposited wastes, soil characteristics, rainfall patterns and largely landfill age (Chen, 1996; Kjeldsen et al., 2002).
Usually, young landfill leachates are treated more easily as compared to the medium-old ones since the
biodegradable organic matter decreases with landfill age as a result of the anaerobic decomposition that takes
place in the site. Therefore, usually a combination of physical, chemical and biological methods is required for
effective treatment of medium-old landfill leachates (Irene, 1996; Ehrig, 1989; Wiszniowski, 2006). In the
present study, an innovative process based on ozone enhanced biological degradation, carried out in an
aerobic granular biomass system (SBBGR – Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor), is tested at lab-
scale for treating a typical medium-age landfill leachate.
Keywords: Landfill Leachates; Biological Degradation; Ozonation.




48                        2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 7 – Ozone in Wastewater Treatment                                                           S7-7


The BISCO Concept: Biological-Compatible In-Situ Chemical Oxidation with
          Coated Microbubble Ozone (Gas Exchange) Sparging
                                             William B. Kerfoot
                  Kerfoot Technologies, Inc., 766-B Falmouth Road, Mashpee, MA 02649

Ozone sparging can be optimized for cleanup of petroleum and solvent spills in aquifers by operating within
the ideal optimal conditions for enhancing bacterial growth. The chemical oxidation should be targeted at
certain contaminants with which it is highly reactive (targeting kinetics). The chemical agent must be
transported efficiently to the target (adsorbed compounds) through the soil capillaries to establish good
contact. The pH and Eh (ORP) must be maintained within a suitable range which does not break down the
tissue (soil mineral matrix). Gaseous exchange (sparging) must be maintained to carry off waste gases (CO2)
which would accumulate to slow metabolic efficiency of the responding bacteria and products of chemical
degradation. An efficient means of pulsing is performed to allow sufficient time for contact and later gas
exchange consistent with the volume of saturated soil to be treated. Nutrients can be added to maintain and
control growth of oxidative bacterial populations as a time-varying coating on the supplied gases.
The presentation discusses the critical ranges of ORP and pH, gaseous exchange, and pulsing to optimize
removal of target hydrocarbons. Examples include fuel oil and solvent spills. With this approach, MCLs are
commonly achieved without hexavalent chromium concerns from mineral matrix attack. Rebound has been
found to be a rare event since the procedure of operation adjusts delivered oxidant mass spatially and
temporally to remaining contaminant mass and avoids buildup of CO2 which can slow aerobic bacterial action.
The BISCO concept has proved efficient at treating both source areas and large plume regions at reasonable
costs per cubic yard. An historic cost curve is presented and the current breakthrough region achieving below
$10/cubic yard. Two case studies will be profiled: 1) oxidative/reductive with Perozone® for removal of DCE and
use of dehalococcoides ethenogenes, and 2) oxidative/oxidative with Perozone® for petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)
and BTEX removal and use of pseudomonas sp.
Keywords: Petroleum Hydrocarbon Decomposition; Microbubble Ozone and Peroxide; Ozone and Total
Oxygen Needs.




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                         49
  Session 8 – UV Design                                                                                       S8-1


                           Design, Commissioning, and Operation of
                            Cedar Rapids UV Disinfection Facilities
                               Todd Elliott1, Bruce Jacobs2, and Tony Myers3
                                   1. CH2M HILL, Mendota Heights, MN, USA
                       2. City of Cedar Rapids Water Department, Cedar Rapids, IA, USA
                                       3. CH2M HILL, Milwaukee, WI, USA

The City of Cedar Rapids, Iowa recently commissioned two 40 million gallon per day (mgd) UV disinfection
facilities designed to provide at least 0.5-log virus inactivation. These were one of the first UV facilities in the
United States designed to provide virus inactivation to meet the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR). Due to
the presence of high levels of ammonia in the source water, achieving adequate levels of virus inactivation was
not feasible using free chlorine. Therefore, the City conducted both bench-scale and full-scale testing of
various disinfection alternatives. Based on the test results, the City selected UV disinfection to provide partial
virus inactivation coupled with chloramine contact time, low turbidity and lime softening virus credit. This
approach gained regulator acceptance. In addition, provisions for a future UV advanced oxidation process
(AOP) were provided to protect the City against future disinfection by-product regulations on compounds like
Nnitrosodimethylamine (NDMA).
In 2006, the Cedar Rapids Water Department began design of UV disinfection facilities and selection of the UV
equipment. The April 2006 Interim Draft of the UVDGM was used for the basis of design for “pre-validated” UV
reactors. The UV equipment was pre-purchased by the City utilizing an evaluated bid approach which included
both economic and noneconomic criteria. Among the non-economic criteria considered was the UV system’s
ability to deliver higher levels of virus inactivation during periods of lower flows in order to provide more
operational flexibility. In addition, the ability of the UV reactors to be upgraded into a UV AOP system easily was
strongly considered. Guaranteed costs for electrical consumption and replacement parts were also obtained.
Construction of the two UV facilities began in 2007 and was completed in 2010. Each UV facility consisted of
four, 30-inch diameter, 10 medium-pressure lamp UV reactors. The project had unique and challenging
design aspects, such as integrating the UV building between a filter building and reservoir while maintaining
plant operations. Also, coordinating fabrication, delivery, storage, installation, and performance testing of the
UV reactors was critical.
Issues addressed during commissioning included optimization of the flow distribution between UV trains to
reduce energy consumption, integration into the plant control system, updating the biodosimeter to match
Final UVDGM calculations, minimizing loss of chloramines residual through UV disinfection, and modifying the
minor/major alarm set points. Training was provided for all plant operators to gain understanding of routine
maintenance, emergency operations, regulatory requirements, and lamp break procedures.
As a result of this project, the City was able to meet drinking water regulations before the State regulatory
deadline of July 1, 2010. The UV system provides the disinfection needed now, but is also designed for easy
expansion for much higher UV doses and the addition of hydrogen peroxide to control micro-constituents
(pharmaceuticals, endocrine disrupters, etc.) in the future. Operating costs and maintenance requirements
have so far met the City’s expectations.
This presentation will summarize the key aspects of the project encountered during design, commissioning,
and operation of the City of Cedar Rapids UV facilities. It will provide useful, real-world insights for water utility
managers, regulators, design engineers, and operators who are considering UV disinfection or are in the
process of implementing UV disinfection to meet current or future treatment objectives.
Keywords: Drinking Water Treatment; UV Disinfection; UV Design Guidance Manual; Cedar Rapids Iowa;
Virus Inactivation.

50                        2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 8 – UV Design                                                                                    S8-2


                               Sensor-Based Control –
               The Way for Safe, Energy-Efficient UV System Operation
                                       Mike Newberry, and Paul Ropic
  ITT Water & Wastewater U.S.A. / WEDECO Products, 14125 South Bridge Circle, Charlotte, NC 28273

Ultraviolet disinfection systems for wastewater have been widely implemented and accepted over the last two
decades. They are proven to provide reliable reduction of pathogens in the effluent if sized and operated correctly.
In recent years discussions in the UV industry were often dealing with the subject of the most appropriate
sizing model. For water reuse applications the NWRI/AwwaRF 2003 Guidelines for Drinking Water and Water
Reuse describe a design method utilizing biological verification (bioassay). Calculated ultraviolet sizing models,
such as point source summation, have been largely used for secondary discharge installations.
Top priority for the successful operation of a UV system is to stay in compliance under all design conditions.
Therefore sizing is usually based on conservative estimations for peak flow conditions, water quality, and
design UV dose. As a result underperformance is seen very rarely. However, in the light of recent discussions
about reliability and sustainability, the challenge is to operate the UV equipment with the highest level of
energy-efficiency. The goal is the smallest carbon footprint possible without putting the safety of the
disinfection process at risk.
In order to accomplish safe disinfection at minimum cost, sophisticated disinfection units are calculating the
operational UV dose based on real time sensor readings. This sensor-based control methodology allows observing
worse or better fouling conditions during operation, reducing the number of lamps and / or the UV lamp output
with better water quality or less fouling than expected, and saving energy without compromising safety.
Keywords: UV Intensity Measurement; Optimised Operation; Energy Efficiency.




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                            51
  Session 8 – UV Design                                                                                S8-3


     The Role of UV Disinfection in Meeting U.S. Regulatory Requirements
                         at an Existing Ozone Facility
         Paul D. Swaim, P.E.1, Joseph Zalla, P.E.2, Brad Johnson, P.E.3, Joe Pomroy, P.E.3,
                           Harvey Johnson3, and Wayne Pearson, P.E.4
                   1. CH2M HILL, 9193 South Jamaica Street, Englewood, CO, USA 80112
             2. CH2M HILL, 215 South State Street Suite 1000, Salt Lake City, UT, USA 84111
     3. Incline Village General Improvement District, 1220 Sweetwater Road, Incline Village, NV 89451
                        4. CH2M HILL, 2525 Airpark Drive, Redding, CA, USA 96001

The Incline Village General Improvement District owns and operates the Burnt Cedar Water Disinfection Plant
located on the north shore of Lake Tahoe in Nevada. The plant currently produces 32.2 MLD of drinking water
from an unfiltered supply with ozone followed by free chlorine residual disinfection. The facility now requires
improvements and modifications to continue reliable operation, as well as additional treatment to comply with
the EPA’s Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. An alternative consisting of the continued
use of ozone and the implementation of UV disinfection is under construction as the preferred treatment
approach.
Keywords: UV Disinfection; Ozone; Retrofit; LT2ESWTR; Advanced Oxidation; UV and Ozone Synergy; Project
Implementation.




52                      2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
    Session 8 – UV Design                                                                                 S8-4


                    New Design Lamp Drivers for Low Pressure Lamps
                       Tonnie Telgenhof Oude Koehorst, and Gerhard van Eerden
                    Nedap Light Controls, PO Box 10, 7140 AC Groenlo, The Netherlands

Increasing worldwide interest for Ultra Violet disinfection systems and the continuous drive to use energy
efficient solutions, have positioned the low pressure UV lamps back in the spotlight. So it’s time to redefine and
redesign the electronic lamp drivers (ballasts) for these low pressure (LP) UV lamps.
The low pressure lamp technology has proven to be 2.5 to 3 times more energy efficient in their capabilities to
convert electrical energy to the needed UV light, compared to medium pressure lamps. Despite the drawback
of this lower efficiency, the medium pressure lamps have unsurpassed power capabilities at small dimensions.
We have seen medium pressure UV lamps at 35kW used in very compact disinfection systems.
The “green quest” for more energy efficient systems has led to new low pressure lamps with power handling of
800 to 1000 Watt per (amalgam) lamp. These lamps need new, high efficient and intelligent lamp drivers to
preheat, ignite and power the lamp at various power levels.
Following aspects will become more important for new designs of UV disinfection systems:
•    Dimming capabilities, without lowering specified lamp lifetime expectations
•    Allow longer distances between lamp driver and lamps
•    Protect lamp driver for leakage currents, shorts to ground and End of Life (EOL) effects of lamps
•    Optimal preheat and starting sequence
•    Full control and monitoring of UV lamps
Over the last years many different types of low pressure UV lamps have been used in the disinfection market,
requiring lamp drivers that will offer a broad range of electrical characteristics like lamp voltages, currents,
preheat times, preheat currents and starting voltages, resulting in the same high number of different lamp
driver types.
A totally new lamp driver design (the UVineo product range) for low pressure lamps is available now, using the
latest technology for high efficient power conversion in combination with intelligent controls and communication
protocols. Smart printed circuit board design allows building multiple-lamp drivers for lamp voltages of 67V up
to 220V and power levels between 120W to 440W per lamp, all within one lamp driver platform. A single lamp
design is made for lamp power rating of up to 800W. For the most commonly used lamps, their characteristics
are stored within the lamp driver firmware and can be selected by the customer. The intelligent lamp converters
are specially designed for optimal ignition, maximal dimming capabilities and allowing longer lamp cables
without compromising lamp performance and life expectancy.
Also state of the art detection and protection circuits are integrated for sleeve leakage, shorts to ground and
lamp End of Life effects. Without these protective circuits, these effects could damage the lamp driver.
Together with the comprehensive software and communication tools, that allow full monitoring of most of the
parameters, this new generation of lamp drivers will further expand the application area of the low pressure
UV lamps.
Keywords: Low Pressure Lamp; Design.




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                             53
  Session 8 – UV Design                                                                                  S8-5


     Scale Up of UV AOP Reactors from Bench Tests Using CFD Modeling
             Keith Bircher1, Mai Vuong1, Brad Crawford1, Mark Heath2, and Jeff Bandy2
           1. Calgon Carbon Corporation, 7100 Woodbine Ave., Markham, ON, L3R5J2, Canada
             2. Carollo Engineers, 12592 West Explorer, Suite 200, Boise, Idaho, USA 83713

A method for scale up of UV/AOP reactors that uses bench scale testing to determine the UV Dose required
per log destruction of a particular contaminant (DL) that can be used to define water quality. This can then be
used in CFD Modeling to size a full scale reactor and in performance testing. Results from full scale testing of
this method are presented.
Keywords: Advanced Oxidation; AOP; Pilot Testing; Scale up; CFD; Geosmin; MIB; Ultraviolet; UV; Dose per
Log; DL




  Session 8 – UV Design                                                                                  S8-6


        Assessing the UV Dose Delivered from Two UV Reactors in Series:
              Can You Always Assume Doubling the UV Dose from
                        Individual Reactor Validations?
                                    Joel J. Ducoste1, and Scott Alpert2
                         1. Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering,
                          208 Mann Hall CB 7908, Raleigh, NC, 27695-7908
          2. Hazen and Sawyer, 4944 Parkway Plaza Boulevard, Suite 375, Charlotte, NC, 28217

A study has been performed to quantify the UV dose delivery from multiple UV reactors in series. As part of
this assessment, simulations were performed on open channel reactors and closed conduit reactors that were
physically placed end to end or separated by a significant number of pipe diameters or open channel widths.
Simulations were also performed with microorganisms that had different UV response kinetics. Results showed
that UV dose delivery from multiple reactors in series may not consistently follow the sum of the individual UV
dose delivered by each reactor. The results of the numerical simulations suggest that the summation of UV
dose delivery from multiple reactors in series can only be achieved when sufficient mixing is accomplished
upstream from each subsequent individual reactor.
Keywords: UV; Disinfection; Dose Delivery; Reactors in Series; Validation, CFD.




54                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 8 – UV Design                                                                                 S8-7


               Point-of-Use Ultraviolet Disinfection: Shedding Light on
                Appropriate Technologies for Developing Communities
                      Christina K. Barstow, Aaron D. Dotson, and Karl G. Linden
Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado
Point-of-use (POU) disinfection systems have the ability to provide safe drinking water to the millions who lack
access to an improved water source. While many POU systems exist in developing communities, there are
several concerns creating low user acceptability. Concerns include low flow rates, taste and odor issues, high
cost, recontamination and ineffectiveness at treating common pathogenic organisms. In response to these
concerning issues, an ultraviolet (UV) POU system has been developed consisting of developing community
appropriate materials (recycled plastics, recycled aluminum, etc.) and simple construction techniques based
around the use of a 3-watt low pressure UV bulb. The current prototype has the ability to inactivate 4-log
bacteria and protozoa, and 1-2 log viruses, with future prototypes being designed to achieve greater than 4-log
inactivation of most waterborne pathogens of public health concern.
Keywords: Ultraviolet Disinfection; Drinking Water Treatment; Developing Communities.




  Session 9 – AOPs in Drinking Water Treatment                                                          S9-1


     Removal of Pharmaceuticals, Personal Care Products and Endocrine
   Disrupting Compounds and Reduction of Disinfection By-products Using
                    Ozone/H2O2 and UV/H2O2 Processes
         Devendra Borikar1, 2, Saad Jasim3, Madjid Mohseni2, Leslie Bragg4, Mark Servos4,
                             Souleymane Ndiongue1, and Larry Moore1
                        1. Walkerton Clean Water Centre, Walkerton, ON, Canada
       2. Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of BC, Vancouver, Canada
          3. Great Lakes Regional Office, International Joint Commission, Windsor, ON, Canada
                 4. Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and
disinfectant by-products (DBPs) have several health implications, requiring their elimination during drinking
water treatment. In 2009 and 2010, a total of 12 experiments were conducted using the dual train pilot scale
treatment plant with advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) such as ozone/H2O2 and UV/H2O2, located at the
Walkerton Clean Water Centre, Walkerton, Ontario, Canada using raw water from two surface water sources
and one groundwater source under direct influence of surface water.
When chlorine dosages were applied during uniform formation condition-trihalomethanes (UFC-THMs) tests,
average THMs reduction by conventional treatment was 28.1%. Ozone/ H2O2 and ozone (alone) treatments,
along with conventional treatment provided average 20.5% and 18.3% reduction of THMs, respectively as
both compared to conventional treatment. On the contrary, UV/H2O2 was found to increase average THMs by




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                         55
Session S9-1 continued
68.2%. The results of the study demonstrated that conventional treatment was able to partially (average
29.9%) degrade the selected PPCPs and EDCs which is slightly higher than expected. Ozone/ H2O2 was found
to be the most effective (average 96.9%) method to remove the selected PPCPs and EDCs, followed by ozone
which was also very effective, however it has a slightly lower (average 94.5% removal) than ozone/H2O2.
Ozone/ H2O2 and ozone treatments were very effective irrespective of the raw water quality. UV (higher
dosages)/H2O2 along with conventional treatment also resulted in good (average 86.3% for higher UV dosages)
removal. However, UV/H2O2 AOPs efficacy was relatively lower for water, having higher dissolved organic
carbon (DOC) and turbidity.
Keywords: Ozone; Ultraviolet; Hydrogen Peroxide; Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products; Endocrine
Disrupting Compounds; Trihalomethanes; Advanced Oxidation Processes.




  Session 9 – AOPs in Drinking Water Treatment                                                         S9-2


            Advanced Oxidation Treatment of Drinking Water: Part I.
     Occurrence and Removal of Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine-Disrupting
                     Compounds from Lake Huron Water
       Mohammad Feisal Rahman¹, Earnest K. Yanful¹, Saad Y. Jasim¹,², Leslie M. Bragg³,
             Mark R. Servos³, Souleymane Ndiongue², and Devendra Borikar²
                          1. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
                       The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
                  2. Walkerton Clean Water Centre, Walkerton, Ontario, Canada, N0G 2V0
              3. Department of Biology, The University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

Increased interest in the fate of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal
care products (PPCPs) in the environment has been triggered by the discovery of trace concentrations
(ng/L to mg/L) of these compounds globally in the aquatic environment. The issue of possible human health
impacts garnered considerable concern after it was confirmed that EDCs and PPCPs are capable of causing
hormonal disruption in wildlife. Many of these chemicals have the potential to generate biological responses
within the human body as they are designed that way.
A joint study between the Walkerton Clean Water Centre and the University of Western Ontario was conducted
to focus on the occurrence of selected endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care
products in Lake Huron Water and their removal using ozone/hydrogen peroxide based pre-coagulation,
advanced oxidation process (AOP).
The experimental work was conducted at the pilot scale treatment facility at the Walkerton Clean Water Centre
(Centre), Walkerton, Ontario, Canada. Raw Lake Huron water spiked with nine target compounds was treated
in a dual train pilot scale treatment plant. None of the target chemicals showed any significant removals
following conventional treatment processes (coagulation, sedimentation and filtration). Five of the nine target
pollutants plummeted to concentrations below the method detection limits following AOP. For all the target
compounds AOP treatment provided higher removal compared to conventional treatment.
Keywords: Ozone; Hydrogen Peroxide; Advanced Oxidation Process; Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care
Products; Endocrine Disrupting Compounds.




56                      2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 9 – AOPs in Drinking Water Treatment                                                         S9-3


                Combination of O3 /H2O2 and UV for Multiple Barrier
             Micropollutant Treatment – An Economic Attractive Option
            Jens Scheideler1, Karin Lekkerkerker-Teunissen2,3, Ton Knol2, Achim Ried1,
                               Jasper Verberk, and Hans van Dijk3
                           1. ITT W&WW GmbH, Boschstraße 6, 32051 Herford
                          2. Dunea, PO 34, 2270 AA, Voorburg, The Netherlands
               3. Delft University of Technology, PO 5048, 2600 GA, Delft, The Netherlands

The presented data are extracted from extended pilot trials carried out at DUNEA in 2009 and 2010. Dunea
(The Netherlands,The Hague) produces drinking water from the Meuse River, which contains a variety of
organic micropollutants as a result from upstream activity. Dunea is performing research to extend the current
multiple barrier treatment (e.g. pre-treatment, artificial recharge and recovery (ARR), post-treatment) with an
advanced oxidation processes (AOP), situated at the pre-treatment location in Bergambacht, before ARR. The
degradation of organic micropollutants as a result of advanced oxidation using different combinations of
hydrogen peroxide, ozone, low pressure (LP) UV lamps has been assessed by means of pilot-scale (5 m3/h)
experiments. The influent was pre-treated river water, with an yearly average UV-transmission of 80% and a
DOC concentration of 4 mg/L. The peroxide doses were varied as 0, 5 and 10 ppm, the ozone doses were
varied as 1, 2 and 3 g ozone / m3. The UV doses were varied between 300 and 650 mJ/cm2. The installed
power for the LP reactor was 0.26 kWh/m3. Atrazine, bromacil, ibuprofen and NDMA were spiked (10-20 µg/L)
and used as model compounds.
Bromacil was completely (>99%) removed by ozone/peroxide. Atrazine and Ibuprofen were good (58% and
85% respectively) removed by O3/H2O2 and NDMA was not (9%) removed by this technique, whereas NDMA
showed good (82%) removal by UV/H2O2. Atrazine, Bromacil and Ibuprofen were degraded by UV/H2O2 at 53,
46 and 59 %, respectively. In addition also combined AOP was tested; spiked water was treated by O3 /H2O2
first and followed by a LP-UV reactor downstream. All four compounds showed high degradation rates (> 80%)
during for this combined AOP treatment. This process combination results in the lowest opex and capex cost
for a reduction rate of > 80% for the investigated compounds atrazine, bromacil, ibuprofen and NDMA. In
addition the formation of bromate was limited to 1 µg/L.
Keywords: Advanced Oxidation; AOP; Organic Micropollutants; Low Pressure UV; Ozone; Bromate Formation;
CAPEX & OPEX Calculation.




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                       57
  Session 9 – AOPs in Drinking Water Treatment                                                             S9-4


          Advanced Oxidation for Surface Water Treatment in Cornwall –
                     A New Lighthouse Project in Europe
              Chris Rockey1, Andreas Kolch2, Alan Royce3, Colin Tinkler1, and Tim Ball1
                    1. South West Water, Peninsula House, Rydon Lane, Exeter, Devon, UK
                                   2. Hytecon GmbH, Hereford, Germany
                                3. Trojan Technologies, London, ON, Canada

In this pilot study, Advanced Oxidation (AOP) denotes the combination of ultraviolet irradiation (UV) utilising
low pressure lamps and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This technology undergone a rapid development in the US
where numerous projects have been installed, consisting mostly of standalone pump and treat technology,
predominantly in the ground water remediation area.
In contrast, Europe has not yet embraced the trend towards this form of AOP technology. However, one of the
most prominent projects of this type has been pioneered by PWN in the Netherlands, where the UV/H2O2
AOP is used within a surface water treatment plant to provide a universal barrier for a range of organic
micro-pollutants.
South West Water, UK (SWW), is currently working on an AOP project to realise one of the most modern
treatment trains of this type in Europe to ensure compliance with the UK pesticide standard. The new
treatment units will consist of an AOP prior to Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) contactors. Other significant
treatment benefits, are likely to include an improvement in the acceptability (taste and odour) of supplies, an
additional treatment barrier for cryptosporidium, reduced disinfection by-product formation and improved
biological stability. This is likely to have a huge impact on the course of water treatment plant design over the
UK in the next 5 -10 years.
During the AOP/GAC pilot investigation, SWW worked with Trojan Technologies, who also supplied the UV
system, and PWN, who provided piloting and operational expertise. The piloting work was conducted to
provide proof of concept of the emerging technology for the treatment of the acid herbicides 2,4-D, mecoprop,
MCPA and triclopyr and the neutral herbicide linuron. In addition, work has also been conducted targeting
treatment of the taste and odour causing compounds of geosmin and 2-methyl-isoborneol (MIB).
From the pilot evaluation Electrical Energy per Order of destruction (EEO) values were calculated and
compared to those predicted by Trojan’s models. The use of low pressure lamp technology and good quality
water (high UV-Transmittance (UVT) and low scavenging potential) has resulted in an energy efficient and low
peroxide use barrier against the target range of organic micro-pollutants.

         Parameter              Trojan EEO prediction (kWh/m3/order)             Measured EEO (kWh/m3order)

          Geosmin                               0.14                                         0.17
            MIB                                 0.18                                         0.22
           2,4 D                                0.33                                         0.20
           MCPA                                 0.19                                         0.13




58                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
Session S9-4 continued
GACs of different ages were assessed in terms of their ability to quench peroxide and remediate any potential
by-products when subjected to different empty bed contact times (EBCT) and surface loading rates (SLR).
Peroxide was suitably quenched in all situations and the limited data available indicates that no significant by
products would pass forward into supply.
In summary it can be concluded that the combination of AOP and biologically active GAC will achieve effective
removal of all of the above mentioned substances enabling SWW to proceed as planned; upgrading the
existing plant to one of the most sophisticated surface water treatment streams in Europe.
Keywords: Drinking Water Treatment; Advanced Oxidation; Organic Micropollutant Control; Pesticides; Neutral
Herbicides; Acid Herbicides; Geosmin; 2-Methyl-iso-borneol (MIB); Earthy Musty Tastes and Odours.




  Session 9 – AOPs in Drinking Water Treatment                                                           S9-5


                   UV Advanced Oxidation for Taste and Odor Control:
                    Understanding Life-Cycle Cost and Sustainability
            Paul D. Swaim, P.E.1, Matt Ridens1, Adam Festger2, and Alan Royce, P.Eng.3
                 1. CH2M HILL, 9193 South Jamaica Street, Englewood, CO, USA 80112
                 2. Trojan Technologies, 7001 N. Edgewood Pl., Tucson, AZ, USA 85704
                  3. Trojan Technologies, 3020 Gore Road, London, ON, Canada N5V 4T7

Taste and odor is a problem faced by many drinking water utilities. Although taste and odor represents
primarily an aesthetic issue, problems are readily observed by customers, are often a source of complaints,
and can erode consumer confidence in the quality of the treated water. Among taste and odor control
treatment options, ozone, biological filtration, UV advanced oxidation, and powdered activated carbon (PAC)
are readily implementable at many WTPs. This work compares treatment technologies for taste and odor
control in terms of capital cost, operation and maintenance (O&M) cost, and greenhouse gas footprint.
Keywords: UV Advanced Oxidation; Ozone; Taste and Odor Control; Technology Cost Comparison; Technology
Greenhouse Gas Comparison; Sustainability.




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                          59
  Session 9 – AOPs in Drinking Water Treatment                                                         S9-6


                            Inactivation of Adenovirus Using
                      Low-Dose Ultraviolet/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation
                              Sarah Bounty, Luke Martin, and Karl Linden
                     Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering
                          University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, 80309

Advanced oxidation using hydroxyl radicals developed by the exposure of ultraviolet light (UV) to hydrogen
peroxide (H2O2) is a proven technology for the degradation of many contaminants found in water and
wastewater. Research on the disinfection capacity of hydroxyl radicals has been limited in scope thus far. Most
microbes are sensitive to UV disinfection alone and can be easily disinfected from absorbing the wavelengths
of UV light alone. Adenovirus is a human pathogen found in water and wastewater that has shown significant
resistance to conventional UV disinfection. Regulations for disinfection of viruses in the EPA Long Term 2
Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule set high dose requirements for UV disinfection based on this
resistance of adenovirus. This research aims to determine the disinfection kinetics of adenovirus in a
combined UV/ H2O2 system using UV doses typical of a UV disinfection system. Experiments currently
underway are using a collimated beam apparatus for UV exposures and adenovirus type 2 (Ad2). Cell culture
infectivity assays are being performed on the treated virus. UV doses from 0 to 120 mJ/cm2 and peroxide
concentration of 10 mg/L are being examined. OH radical exposure is measured using methods previously
developed with para-chlorobenzoic acid.
Further experiments will focus on using different water types and H2O2 concentrations. In addition, polymerase
chain reaction (PCR) will be performed on samples treated with UV and UV/H2O2 to determine the extent of
DNA damage from each disinfection method. Typical UV disinfection is mainly achieved by damage to the viral
genome that inhibits replication, but it is possible that the hydroxyl radicals may damage parts of the virus
capsid structure and inactivate the virus via a different mechanism than UV alone. Results from PCR will
indicate any differences in DNA damage between UV alone and UV-peroxide treatments and provide insight
into other possible inactivation mechanisms by UV/H2O2. Initial experiments have shown a difference in the
inactivation of adenovirus by UV/H2O2 and UV alone. For example, In the presence of 10 mg/L peroxide, a UV
dose of 40 mJ/cm2 resulted in more than double the log inactivation of Ad2 compared to a dose of 40 without
any peroxide added. This research is expected to be complete in Spring 2011.
Keywords: Virus; Disinfection; Advanced Oxidation Process; Hydroxyl Radical; Ultraviolet Light; Low Pressure.




60                      2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 9 – AOPs in Drinking Water Treatment                                                            S9-7


                      The Effectiveness of UV+Chlorine Treatment of
                           Trichloroethylene in Drinking Water
         Ding Wang1, Tim Walton2, Leigh McDermott3, Susan Andrews1, and Ron Hofmann1
                                     1. Department of Civil Engineering,
               University of Toronto, 35. St. George St., Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 1A4
             2. Region of Waterloo, 2069 Ottawa St. S., Kitchener Ontario, Canada, N2E 3K3
            3. Stantec Consulting Ltd., 49 Frederick St., Kitchener, Ontario, Canada, N2H 6M7

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a relatively common groundwater contaminant. It can damage the human nervous
system, liver and kidney, and has been proven to be carcinogenic to animals. As such, it is often regulated,
typically at concentrations in the order of 5 μg/L. UV light photolysis alone can destroy TCE, but the efficiency
can be increased by operating a UV system as an advanced oxidation process (AOP), such as by adding
hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The UV photolysis of chlorine is also known to produce hydroxyl radicals, and may
be a practical AOP, but there is little prior experience with this form of treatment.
A full-scale study at the Middleton Water Supply System in Cambridge (Ontario, Canada) compared
UV+chlorine treatment to UV+ H2O2 to destroy TCE, and found its performance to be slightly superior when
using similar mass concentrations of chlorine and H2O2. These results are being presented at the 2011
IOA-IUVA World Congress in Paris. Preliminary reaction kinetic modeling, however, contradicts the full-scale
results and suggests that while UV+chlorine is an effective AOP, UV+H2O2 should be slightly superior under
the conditions at the Middleton system (pH 7.55, 0.65 mg-C/L dissolved organic carbon, 88 mg/L alkalinity
as CaCO3). It is hypothesized that some of the previously-reported reaction parameters describing chlorine
photolysis, such as the yield of hydroxyl radical formation, may not be properly understood, and can be
contributing to the difference between full-scale observations and the reaction models.
This presentation will report on laboratory work that has been undertaken to learn more about the UV+chlorine
system. In particular, the destruction of TCE using UV+chlorine in parallel with UV+H2O2 or UV alone is being
monitored using a medium pressure UV collimated beam system, to ensure greater control over analytical and
operational conditions than at full-scale. A greater range of conditions is also being explored in this work than
has been tested at full-scale, including different pH values, and different concentrations of inorganic carbon,
which serve as radical scavengers. A comprehensive examination of potential disinfection by-products will also
be reported, including THMs, HAAs, total organohalides, and various organonitrogen species that have been
shown to be promoted by medium pressure UV lamps.
The data obtained from these laboratory tests will be used to improve our chemical model of the UV+chlorine
system, so that we can more confidently assess the potential to use UV+chlorine as a viable treatment process.
Keywords: Advanced Oxidation; UV; Chlorine, Trichloroethylene; Hydroxyl Radical; Disinfection By-Products.




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                          61
  Session 10 – UV Case Studies and Research                                                           S10-1


                            Energy Efficient UV Upgrade at the
                       Arrowhead Ranch Water Reclamation Facility
                Gary L. Hunter1, P.E., Andrew J. Mally1, P.E., Dan Buhrmaster1, P.E.,
                                 Larry Broutman2, and Arif Rahman2
                                        1. Black & Veatch Corporation
                                              2. City of Glendale

Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection has emerged as a viable alternative to traditional disinfection technologies. The
City of Glendale has received an Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) from the
Department of Energy (DOE) to implement cost saving measures at the Arrowhead Ranch Water Reclamation
Facility (ARWRF). The primary component of the project is replacement of the existing medium pressure UV
disinfection system with a more energy efficient low pressure high output UV disinfection system.
Keywords: UV Disinfection; Reclamation Facility.




  Session 10 – UV Case Studies and Research                                                           S10-2


                     Integrating Ozonation and UV Disinfection for
                    an Unfiltered System to Comply with LT2ESWTR
                Jeff Neemann1, Bryan Townsend1, Mario Francucci1, Kathy Moriarty2,
                          Rick Pershken2, Kevin Pottle2, and Dina Page2
                                  1. Black & Veatch, Boston, Massachusetts
                                   2. Bangor Water District, Bangor, Maine

The Bangor Water District (BWD) has evaluated the treatment requirements for compliance with the US EPA’s
Long Term 2 Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2SWTR). The LT2ESWTR will supplement existing regulations
by mandating additional Cryptosporidium inactivation requirements for higher-risk systems. BWD is an
unfiltered water system that currently uses ozonation and chloramination. After an evaluation and selection
process, BWD is in the process of adding UV disinfection to meet the LT2ESWTR treatment requirements. The
UV transmittance (UVT) data collected to date demonstrates the significant impact of ozonation. The raw water
99th percentile for UVT was 70 percent, where as the 99th percentile for the ozonated water was 83 percent. It
was determined to put UV after ozone, however, there was a considerable difference between designing the UV
system with or without ozone, because of the difference in transmittance. In many cases it meant going from
two reactors (one duty and one standby) to 3 or even 4 reactors. It was decided to let the market decide the
true cost of being “conservative” and designing the UV system for the raw water transmittance. So the final
design of the UV system included pre-purchase of the UV system. The UV system bid included a based bid
with a “high” UVT assuming ozone is in service and an alternate bid with a “low” UVT assuming ozone was out
of service. The UV manufacturers were also required to submit detailed information on the operating envelope
of the base bid so it could be determined how much “extra” capacity the base bid had by using more power or
adding more lamps to the reactor. The allowed BWD to balance the initial cost savings of the base bid, while
having a contingency plan should the need to treat lower UVT water in the future
Keywords: Ozonation; UV; Transmittance; Unfiltered.


62                      2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 10 – UV Case Studies and Research                                                             S10-3


      Hurdles and Progress in UV-C LED Technology for Water Disinfection
                          Jennifer G. Pagan1, Oliver Lawal2, and Paolo Batoni1
      1. Dot Metrics Technologies, 9201 University City Blvd. Grigg Hall, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA
                   2. Aquionics Inc. 21 Kenton Lands Road, Erlanger, KY 41018, USA

Currently UV treatment of fluids is almost exclusively carried using Low and Medium Pressure lamp technology
that incorporate mercury as a generation source for UV photons. While UV treatment is replacing traditional
chemical treatment in many applications, it still has a number of drawbacks. UV light-emitting diodes (UV-
LEDs) provide solutions to most of these drawbacks.
UV-C LEDs which emit radiation in the germicidal wavelengths (200 nm-300 nm) are an emerging technology
with few manufacturers worldwide. Commercial adoption of UV-C LEDs is impeded by extremely low external
quantum efficiencies, typically below 3%. However, despite their inefficiency, UV-C LEDs continue to generate
interest for use in water disinfection applications. Low optical output powers of UV-C LEDs necessitate the use
of multichip packages to generate the power levels necessary to achieve disinfection. High device thermals
and UV emission combine to make multi-chip packages challenging and require the development of
packaging materials which would provide lower thermal resistance and UV stability than those currently used
in the high brightness (HB) LED market.
Data taken from a 265 nm LED from Sensor Electronic Technology (Columbia, SC) show that a 30°C jump in
ambient temperature results in a more than 43% drop in peak output power. This indicates, as is the case with
visible LEDs, that the cooling of a UV-C LED is essential to maintaining optical output power levels. In addition,
testing of 265 nm TO-39 packaged LEDs demonstrated that when the LEDs are convectively (fan) cooled with
a heat sink, the package temperature drops by 20°C. The operating lifetime of the cooled LEDs was
significantly increased over the as-packaged devices, indicating that optimized thermal management would
have a significant impact on UV-C LED device performance.
Multi-chip packages which are necessary to achieve power levels adequate for disinfection exacerbate the
heating issues. While a single LED in a TO-39 header maintained around a 41°C temperature, the same
package with 8 dice exceeded 111°C (the IR camera maximum).
In addition to output power concerns, there are technological roadblocks to understanding how to incorporate
UV-C LEDs into mercury heritage applications such as water disinfection. The inherent benefits of UV-C LEDs,
which are; mercury free, instant on/off, low voltage sources, create key drivers for market adoption.
In addition, recent results show that a UV-C LED treatment device can effectively disinfect up-to 12 gpm/watt
of water, compared to less than 1 gpm/watt for a conventional mercury lamp based system. On the cusp of
such a paradigm shift, a comprehensive understanding of UV-C LEDs from both a technological and biological
standpoint will be critical to implementing the technology effectively into disinfection systems.
Keywords: UV Light-Emitting Diodes; Water Disinfection.




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                          63
  Session 10 – UV Case Studies and Research                                                         S10-4


               12-Month UV Fouling Study on Unfiltered Source Water
                     Chad Talbot1, Mark Heath2, Harold Wright3, and David Peters1
             1. Portland Water Bureau, 1120 SW 5th Avenue, Room 600, Portland, OR 97204
              2. Carollo Engineers, 720 SW Washington St., Suite 550, Portland, OR 97205
               3. Carollo Engineers, 12592 West Explorer Drive, Suite 200, Boise, ID 83713

The Portland Water Bureau (PWB) undertook a study in 2009-2010 to investigate fouling tendencies of its
unfiltered source water with UV equipment. The 12-month study was conducted with three different UV
reactors; two medium pressure reactors and one low-pressure high-output (LPHO) reactor. Results showed
that the un-wiped medium-pressure lamp sleeves demonstrated significant amounts of fouling during the fall.
During the remainder of the year the un-wiped medium-pressure lamp sleeves showed little or no fouling. The
un-wiped LPHO sleeves demonstrated no significant fouling during any month of the year. PWB was able to
use the results of this study to aid in the pre-selection process of UV equipment for full-scale design.
Keywords: Design; Disinfection; Fouling; Pilot; Study; Ultraviolet; UV.




  Session 10 – UV Case Studies and Research                                                         S10-5


 Photochemical Fate of Oil Dispersants Used in the Gulf Oil Spill Clean-Up
         Austa M. Parker, Caitlin M. Glover, Fernando L. Rosario-Ortiz, and Karl G. Linden
                     Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering,
                          University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, 80309

Following the explosion of the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Rig in the Gulf of Mexico, the company utilized the
dispersants COREXIT 9500A and 9527A to separate the oil into smaller particles to both minimize the surface
oil from reaching land and make the oil droplets smaller to enhance biodegradability. Concern surrounding the
toxicity of these dispersant chemicals has arisen because they were used in quantities never before applied
and the fate of the dispersants in the deepwater environment and surface was not well known. One decay
pathway of the dispersants is the sunlight mediated photochemical degradation of the compounds found in
COREXIT. The photochemistry of this contaminant mixture is not well studied.
Analytical Detection: Following the United States Environmental Protection Agencies’ release of limited
information about the constituents of COREXIT (www.epa.gov/bpspill/dispersants.html), pure chemical
standards were ordered to develop analytical methods for the compounds. To accurately follow the decay of
the chemicals found in COREXIT, gas and liquid chromatography methods in combination with mass
spectrometry are being utilized. These methods are being used to study the fate of COREXIT dispersants in
synthetic ocean waters and laboratory grade water. The project started in Fall 2010 and is funded by the
National Science foundation under the RAPID Grant program. Photochemical fate studies are currently
underway at the time of this abstract submission. The experiments being performed are described below.




64                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
Session S10-5 continued
Direct Photolysis: Individual constituents of COREXIT are being exposed to ultraviolet light and their fate
followed in laboratory grade water, synthetic ocean water, and natural samples collected off the coast of Grand
Isle, Louisana, which include water from both oil impacted and clean beaches. The synthetic ocean water
results will be compared to the natural samples. The dispersant mixture, COREXIT, is dosed into all four water
types and the degradation via direct photolysis is being followed.
Photo-Initiated Oxidation: Oxidation via indirect photolysis of the water quality constituents will be investigated
by first testing the susceptibility of the constituents of COREXIT to oxidative damage and transformation using
hydrogen peroxide as a radical initiator under UV light. Transformation products will be investigated using
mass spectrometry methods and clean-water standards to assess the oxidative fate of these contaminants.
The oxidation reaction rates will be evaluated and used for modeling purposes.
Photochemical Dispersant Modeling: Both direct photolysis and photo-initiated oxidation data will be utilized in
a model that incorporates the radical reaction rates from photolysis and oxidation reactions to predict the fate
of the components of COREXIT. These data will track the decay of the chemicals and their decay products,
which will be useful for examining the ultimate toxicity of these dispersants.
We expect to have the photolysis studies and oxidation studies done by Spring of 2011 and the project
completed end of Summer 2011.
Keywords: Photochemistry; Dispersants; Surfactants; Photolysis; Indirect Photolysis; Oxidation; Toxicity.




  Session 10 – UV Case Studies and Research                                                               S10-6


    Algae Control Methods Compared: The Importance of Successful Algae
                  Control for Facilities with UV Disinfection
               David Drobiak1, Brent R. Gill2, Shawna Gill, D.C.2, and Joseph Nestico3
                   1. Jewett City WPCF, 52 Wedgewood Dr.,Jewett City, CT, USA 06351
           2. GillTrading.com, Inc., 6107 SW Murray Blvd., 321, Beaverton, OR, USA 97008
    3. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, 79 Elm Street, Hartford, CT, USA 06106

In Connecticut, with the changeover to UV from Chlorination for disinfection at some of the State’s WPCFs
(Water Pollution Control Facilities), it has been observed that an increase in attached algal growth along with a
proliferation of a dense population of “tiny” snails (Pouch Snails) is occurring in the UV chamber(s). The end
result appears to cause an “artificial” increase in Suspended Solids in the final effluent, and at some facilities
there is the need for filtration of the plant water in order to be able to recycle it back into the facility without
maintenance problems. Many of the facilities with these snail problems had followed the CT DEP’s
recommendation to implement a brush device to control algae growth in the secondary clarifiers. A pilot to
find a method to successfully manage algae and the resulting snail populations using spray control was later
conducted at the Jewett City WPCF. The results of the pilot and other local facilities also using spray algae
control will be reviewed.
Keywords: Algae; UV, UV Disinfection; Snails; UV Chamber.




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                             65
  Session 10 – UV Case Studies and Research                                                              S10-7


            Adopting and Adapting to Advanced Treatment Technologies
                              Jane Bonsteel, Andrew Farr, and Jeff Hennings
                Regional Municipality of Peel, 920 East Avenue, Mississauga, ON L5E 1W6

The Regional Municipality of Peel owns two surface water treatment plants which treat water from Lake
Ontario. Until 2006, both plants utilized conventional treatment technology; one plant was rated at 560 ML/d
and the other was rated at 347 ML/d for a combined capacity of 907 ML/d. Today, the two plants have a
combined treatment capacity of 1060 ML/d with another 640 ML/d under construction. While conventional
treatment trains are still in service, additional treatment technologies include ozone followed by biological
filtration, UV disinfection, UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation and membrane filtration. How did this change happen
in such a short period of time? How were the decisions made to adopt these advanced treatment technologies?
How did the plants incorporate the new technologies?
The Region of Peel’s Water and Wastewater Servicing Master Plan (as amended in 2002) established the
need for expansion of the treatment capacities of the surface water treatment plants. The Region of Peel was
experiencing growth and an agreement to provide water to a neighbouring municipality was reached. Also at
this time, the Ontario government was introducing new legislated treatment requirements and water quality
standards following the tragedy in Walkerton. The Region proactively developed its own set of water quality
objectives that surpass the regulations. These objectives provide specific targets for some parameters, but
also include the desire for flexibility in treating ’emerging’ chemical and biological contaminants.
To initiate the expansion of capacity of a water treatment facility in Ontario, a “Class Environmental
Assessment (EA)” is required. This process ensures that all alternatives are examined to determine technical,
social, natural and financial implications. It also requires two public consultations, firstly on the alternatives
being considered, and secondly on the preferred alternative. The preferred alternative includes a high level
description of the proposed treatment processes. Two Class EAs were completed, one in 2003 and one in
2007; the treatment trains developed included advanced technologies to meet the Region’s water quality
objectives now and into the foreseeable future.
The implementation of the advanced treatment technologies has precipitated a period of rapid change in water
treatment operations in Peel Region. With more than 40 years of conventional treatment experience at the
water plants and a large body of research history available, operations had been fairly predictable and routine.
During the last three years, however, staff have been on a steep learning curve. Both the owners and operators
of the WTPs have been challenged in learning to operate and to optimize the advanced treatment processes,
with little experience here or elsewhere to fall back on.
This paper will discuss the decisions made in the development of the advanced treatment trains and some of
the challenges in learning to operate these new processes.
Keywords: Ozonation; Bromate; Taste and Odour; Operations.




66                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 11 – Ozone Research and Design                                                                 S11-1


  Study of Ozone Application to Degradation of Paraquat Dissolved in Water
               Patricia Reynoso Quispe1, Roberto J. Carvalho1, and Wilfredo I. Urruchi2
          1. Department of Materials Engineering, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro,
                    Rua Marquês de São Vicente, 225 Gávea, RJ, 22451-900, Brazil
                            2. Taubaté University, Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil

The continuous use of pesticides generates many side effects, as toxicity, environmental persistence and
pollution of water resources. The contamination of waterways is produced directly by the application of
pesticides in water, in containers or equipment for washing and discharging of residues and waste. The
herbicide Paraquat is largely used around the world and undergoes various forms of contamination mentioned
above. Therefore, there is a need to develop new processes and technologies to treat aqueous effluents to
ensure efficient removal of toxic substances. In this regard, ozone is an oxidizing agent capable of degrading
organic and inorganic compounds. The objective of this paper was the study of Paraquat degradation by
ozone application into the water. The parameters analyzed were pH, oxygen flow and stirrer rotational speed.
It was shown a degradation of 51% of Paraquat, and was possible to determine the kinetic degradation
constant of 15.9 M-1 s -1.
Keywords: Ozone; Paraquat; Kinetics; Degradation.




  Session 11 – Ozone Research and Design                                                                 S11-2


 Decomposition Kinetics of Ozone Dissolved in Different Aqueous Solutions
                                   A. Pérez1, T. Poznyak1, and I. Chairez2
   1. Superior School of Chemical Engineering, National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico (ESIQIE-IPN,),
                            Edif. 7, UPALM, Z.C. 07738, Mexico D.F., Mexico
                          2. Professional Interdisciplinary Unit of Biotechnology,
                          National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico (UPIBI-IPN),
               Av. Acueducto s/n, Barrio La Laguna, Col. Ticomán, Z.C. 07340, Mexico, D.F.

The physiological solution has been widely studied by their therapeutically effect, using it as bactericidal agent.
Some researchershave established, the optimal conditions which these solution must be ozonated to obtain a
therapeutically effect. However, is important to know the proper concentration of dissolved ozone in the
solutions, besides of its decomposition kinetics. This parameter and the ozone residence time will be
determined and compared in injectable water andphysiological solution of NaCl at 0.9% at same operational
conditions. Finally, some microbiological proofs will be making on E.coli and P. auroginosa to observe and
compare their bactericidal effect.
Keywords: Ozone; Decomposition Kinetics; Physiological Solution; Bactericidal Effect.




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                           67
  Session 11 – Ozone Research and Design                                                              S11-3


                          Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis
                          Optimizes Pipeline Flash Reactor Design
                                      Celia Mazzei and Mike Spillner
                        Mazzei Injector Company, LLC, Bakersfield, California, USA

This study examines the use of single-phase and multi-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations
to optimize the design of Pipeline Flash Reactors™ (patented technology) by analyzing mixing uniformity
immediately following the nozzle discharge region. A Pipeline Flash Reactor (PFR) utilizes multiple sets of
Mazzei MTM™ Nozzles orthogonal to the mainline flow to blend a sidestream into a wastewater or potable
water mainline under constant or varying flow conditions with negligible mainline pressure loss.
This CFD parametric study discusses three design configurations with varying flow rates and obtains results in
agreement with university pilot tests, which also corroborate full scale installations. Optimized PFR design
subsequently reduces footprint and can eliminate the need for additional mixing devices downstream.
Our findings indicate that nozzle configuration has a consistent and predicable correlation to performance;
however, variation in flow rates and gas volume cause different ranges of performance variability within each
configuration study, so it is important to design each PFR based on all available information.
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics; Pipeline Flash Reactor; Transfer Efficiency; Mixing; Coefficient of
Variation; Sidestream Injection; Mazzei Injectors; MTM Mazzei Nozzles.




68                      2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
    Session 11 – Ozone Research and Design                                                             S11-4


                Ozone Sidestream Injection: Solving Start-Up Problems
                  Using Underwater Video and Engineering Creativity
                                    Alan Domonoske and Gardner Olson
            1. Carollo Engineers, 1265 East Fort Union Blvd., Suite 200, Midvale, UT 84047
       2. Metropolitan Water District of Salt Lake & Sandy, 3430 E. Danish Road, Sandy, UT 84093

The new 70 MGD Point of the Mountain Water Treatment Plant (POMWTP) was commissioned for the
Metropolitan Water District of Salt Lake & Sandy (MWDSLS) in August 2007. The POMWTP is a conventional
water treatment plant with enhanced processes of intermediate ozone and post-filtration UV disinfection.
During the initial ozone system testing, ozone and oxygen gas inexplicably migrated back into upstream
channel not designed for ozone service. This presentation will highlight the underwater diver investigations and
engineering creativity that were used to successfully identify the cause and remedy of this phenomenon.
The POMWTP intermediate ozone contactor was designed to take advantage of sidestream injection and
provided the following benefits:
•    An efficient, symmetric layout with a common ozone dissolution pipe underneath the two contactor trains
     eliminated flow split concerns and provided increased pressure in the dissolution pipe to achieve high
     ozone transfer efficiency.
•    The sidestream injection configuration allowed for a more efficient and less expensive horizontally baffled
     disinfection contactor.
•    High-maintenance diffusers were eliminated, and isolation gates were located outside of the contactor
     where they were more accessible.
•    The configuration included a convenient ozone system bypass which simplified startup of this brand new
     plant. The conventional plant was commissioned independent of ozone, postponing the more complicated
     ozone process until reliable plant flow could be established.
The mixed phase ozonated sidestream is injected to the main dissolution pipe prior to entering the
contactors. The configuration was designed so that the dissolution pipe slope, process flow velocity, and
injection nozzle orientation carried any undissolved gas towards the contactor inlet. However, during initial
system testing with oxygen gas, it was observed that at low process flows and/or high gas flows, free gas
migrated twenty-five feet upstream despite these elements. This free gas discharged into a channel that was
not designed for ozone service.
Neither the design engineer, owner, ozone manufacturer, construction management team, nor contractor could
initially explain the observed phenomenon. Several theories and potential solutions were identified, but the
lack of a plausible explanation made it difficult to move forward with confidence. The contactor arranged for
a SCUBA diver to enter the 78-inch mixing pipe during normal operations and video the sidestream injection
nozzle operations under a variety of conditions, document the air phenomenon, and test the preferred solution.
We will present the unique contactor design, discuss the unexplained air phenomenon, and present the
successful solution. The highlight of this presentation will be a rare, underwater video of an operating,
full-scale sidestream injection system discharging mixed phase flow through diffusers in a 60-inch pipe
flowing at 0.5 fps and 1.5 fps.
Keywords: Ozone; Sidestream; Injection; Startup; Construction; Diver Investigation; Ozone Contactor; Trouble
Shooting; Diffuser.



2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                           69
  Session 11 – Ozone Research and Design                                                              S11-5


              Development and Use of an Ozonation Process Simulator
                     at the F.J. Horgan Water Treatment Plant
            Gord Mitchell1, Liza Ballantyne1, Alex Vukosavljevic1 and Kerwin L. Rakness2
            1. F.J. Horgan Water Treatment Plant, 201 Copperfield Road, Toronto, ON M1E 5G7
        2. Process Applications, Inc., 2627 Redwing Rd., Suite 340, Fort Collins, Colorado 80526

The F.J. Horgan Water Treatment Plant (WTP) is one of four water treatment facilities in the City of Toronto and
is currently undergoing a 230 ML/d capacity expansion to increase its overall capacity to 800 ML/d. A major
component of the expansion will be the conversion to ozone for primary disinfection and taste and odour
control for the entire 800 ML/d process stream. Construction is currently on-going and the commissioning is
anticipated to begin in the fall of 2011.
The primary control strategy for ozone to be implemented as part of the expansion will be the innovative
“Hybrid Constant Concentration” method. As part of the development of this ozone process control strategy,
Process Applications Inc. (PAI) developed an “ozone simulator” to model the future ozonation process at F.J.
Horgan. The ozone simulator has been effectively utilized for process design, system demonstration, SCADA
programming validation, staff training and system optimization for both disinfection and taste and odour
control purposes.
Keywords: F.J. Horgan; Hybrid Constant Concentration; Disinfection; Ozone Decay; Ozone Half Life; GOX.




  Session 11 – Ozone Research and Design                                                              S11-6


     Ozone Retrofit Considerations at the Oakville Water Purification Plant
                                      Elia Edwards1, and Bill Mundy2
        1. Associated Engineering, Suite 800 – 304 The East Mall, Toronto, ON, Canada, M9B 6E2
          2. Regional Municipality of Halton, 1151 Bronte Road, Oakville, ON, Canada, L6M 3L1

In 2002, the Regional Municipality of Halton (Region) identified a need to upgrade the Oakville Water
Purification Plant (WPP) with the intent of producing a higher-quality drinking water that would satisfy the
existing requirements mandated by the Province of Ontario’s new Drinking Water Systems Regulation (DWSR)
while considering the impact of anticipated near-future treatment requirements such as those arising within the
more stringent United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) framework. A retrofit and staged
design approach was employed to provide Operations greater than 70% production capacity at all times
through the construction period. Construction was started in 2004 and completed in 2008. The Oakville WPP
is now a pseudo-conventional treatment plant with high-rate ballasted flocculation sedimentation using the
ACTIFLO® process, intermediate ozone using a side-stream injection system for both primary disinfection and
taste & odour (T&O) control, dual-media filtration for particulate removal, and chlorination for zebra mussel
control, secondary disinfection and as a backup primary disinfection strategy. The Oakville WPP treats Lake
Ontario surface water and is rated for a treatment capacity of 120 megalitres per day (ML/d) or 32 million
gallons per day (mgd). The construction assignment was completed at CAD$35M.




70                      2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
Session S11-6 continued
With respect to the ozone retrofit design and construction considerations, a number of lessons have
been learned:
•    Side stream injection system pump and VFD design considerations for optimum process/operational
     flexibility as well as power/LOX cost savings;
•    Ozone system design requirements for cold water climates (<2C) and seasonal turn down requirements;
•    Process equipment lessons related to fine gaseous oxygen (GOX) control, indoor installations, health and
     safety aspects, and ventilation requirements.
This presentation will provide an overview of the design and construction considerations related to the ozone
system as part of the retrofit upgrade of the Region of Halton’s 120 ML/d Oakville WPP. This presentation will
be beneficial to those that are involved in the retrofit design and construction of ozone treatment process
upgrades at municipal drinking water treatment facilities.
Keywords: Side-Stream; Retrofit; Design; VFD’s; Back Pressure; Redundancy; Savings



    Session 11 – Ozone Research and Design                                                            S11-7


                              Mastering Ozonolysis:
            Production From Laboratory to Ton Scale in Continuous Flow
                                Markus Nobis and Dominique M. Roberge
                                      Lonza AG, 3930 Visp, Switzerland

To enable the scalability of ozonolysis which is a gas-liquid oxidation process, Lonza has developed a novel
approach that combines microreactors with meso-scale reactors. With extensive process development know-
how, Lonza is able to provide a complete ozonolysis package, from laboratory feasibility studies and technical
transfer – including hazard evaluations and safety assessments – to successful large-scale manufacturing.
Keywords: Ozone; Ozonolysis; Oxidation; Scale-Up; Microreaction Technology; Microreactors; Continuous Flow
Technology; Green Chemistry; Sustainability.



    Session 12 – UV Treatment Research                                                                S12-1


         IUVA Uniform Protocol for Wastewater UV Validation Applications
                 G. Elliott Whitby, Ph.D. on behalf of the IUVA Manufacturers Council
      Calgon Carbon Corporation, 7100 Woodbine Ave., Suite 310, Markham, Ontario L3R 5J2 Canada

The IUVA Manufacturers Council determined that there was a need for a uniform protocol for validating the
UV dose of UV equipment that was being used to disinfect wastewaters that were not being used for reuse.
A standard protocol exists for disinfecting wastewater for reuse and this protocol uses a bioassay. The
Manufacturers Council examined all the available accepted protocols that used bioassays for validating the UV
dose for drinking water and wastewater reuse and developed a uniform protocol. This uniform protocol will
allow UV equipment to be compared by a common method and aid designers with the sizing of UV equipment.
This protocol was passed by the IUVA Board as an official IUVA Protocol.
Keywords: Uniform Protocol; Bioassay; UV; Wastewater; Disinfection; Dose; Fluence; IUVA.

2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                        71
  Session 12 – UV Treatment Research                                                                 S12-2


     Biodosimetry of a Full-Scale Wastewater UV Disinfection System Using
                       Multiple Surrogate Microorganisms
                                       Bruno Ferran, and Wei Yang
                      Ozonia North America, 600 Willow Tree Road, Leonia, NJ 07605

With the objective to anticipate on the possible implementation of an RED bias for wastewater UV disinfection
Ozonia North America (ONA) undertook a bioassay validation study of a low-pressure very high-output
(LPVHO) ultraviolet (UV) reactor using T1 phage as surrogate microorganism. This bioassay is an addition to
MS-2 phage bioassay work conducted in 2006 with the same LPVHO UV reactor.
Validation of the LPVHO UV reactor with T1 phage was designed to conform mainly the 2003 UV Disinfection
Guidelines for Drinking Water and Water Reuse(1), hereafter referred to as the UV Disinfection Guidelines. The
analysis of the combined MS-2 and T1 phage bioassay data was conducted in accordance with the principles
set forward in the US EPA UVDGM(2).
Curves of Validated RED versus flow rate and lamp effective output (EO) were obtained for wastewater effluents
at 55% and 65% UVT. These curves can be applied towards disinfection of common wastewater indicator
pathogens with UV sensitivities comprised between 4.9 and 19.7 mJ/cm2/logI.
Keywords: Wastewater; Bioassay; Surrogate Microorganism; UV Sensitivity; Validated RED.




  Session 12 – UV Treatment Research                                                                 S12-3


       When Dose is Not Dose. The Case of UV Disinfection of Adenovirus
                    Karl G. Linden1, Karl Scheible2, Phyllis Posy3, Gwy-Am Shin4,
                               Jeanette Thurston5, and Anne Eischeid6
                          1. Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering,
                        University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
                                              2. HDR-HydroQual
                                          3. Atlantium Technologies
                                         4. University of Washington
                                                5. USDA AFRI
                                              6. Duke University

Adenovirus, found in wastewater and both surface and ground water is a double-stranded DNA virus that
infects humans. Research has been shown it to be more resistant to UV disinfection from conventional low
pressure (LP) UV 254 nm light than other viruses and this has driven drinking water regulations. In fact,
Adenovirus’ resistance to UV is the sole basis for high dose requirements for viruses in the EPA Long Term 2
Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. Because there are no stable surrogates for such high doses, in 2006,
UV was not considered an economical or verifiable treatment for viruses in the US EPA Groundwater Rule.
Has the research that has focused on monochromatic UV (Low Pressure) missed the mark, and pushed public
policy in the wrong direction? This and other questions will be addressed while reporting on a multi-year


72                      2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
Session S12-3 continued
research effort that is underway to understand why adenovirus appears so UV resistant and how to properly
measure UV efficacy as a treatment for adenovirus. This includes our studies on the effectiveness of
polychromatic UV sources for inactivation of adenoviruses as assayed in cell culture, utilization of molecular
biology techniques for examination of nucleic acid damage and viral protein damage via Low Pressure and
Medium Pressure UV light exposure, validating 4-log virus inactivation in a flow-through UV reactor using
adenovirus directly, and current results from animal infectivity assays to examine UV disinfection effectiveness
toward adenoviruses outside of the traditional cell culture infectivity assay paradigm. Attendees will better
understand the facts behind the policy that is making UV a controversial alternative for some and the solution
of choice for others who don’t want to use chemical disinfection.
Keywords: Virus; Regulations; Ultraviolet Light, Medium Pressure; Pathogens.




  Session 12 – UV Treatment Research                                                                   S12-4


                        Ultraviolet Lamp Efficiencies:
      Modern Derivation of the Keitz Formula and Other Efficiency Issues
                                  Qing Sheng Ke1 and James R. Bolton2
     1. Present address: 600-4808 Ross Street, Stantec Consulting, Red Deer, AB, Canada T4N 1X5
                          2. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
                         University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2W2

The accurate measurement of the total UV output from a low pressure (LP) or low pressure high output (LPHO)
UV lamp is very important in assessing the energy costs of UV systems. This is a challenging task resulting,
since significant errors can arise from UV detector calibration, reflection of UV from surrounding walls, ambient
temperature variations, and the ballast performance (Sasges and Robinson, 2005; Severin and Roessler,
1998). In order to measure the LP or LPHO UV output accurately, the so-called Keitz formula (Keitz, 1971)
has been employed, which is now the basis for a recommended UV Lamp Efficiency Protocol adopted by the
International Ultraviolet Association (Lawal et al., 2008). The Keitz formula is




where PK is the Keitz-calculated total UV power emitted in all directions, E is the irradiance measured by a
calibrated radiometer and detector at a distance D m from the center of the lamp, L is the arc length (m) and


                                                     atan   ( )
                                                             L
                                                            2D
is the half-angle subtended by the lamp end at the detector position.
In this paper, the Keitz formula has been re-derived in terms of modern optical terminology, which gives a
better insight into its origin and applications.
In recent years some UV companies have reporting ‘direct line’ efficiencies. These are efficiencies that
assume that the UV lamp is a ‘point source’. The significant errors that are involved in this assumption will be
discussed in the paper, and comparisons will be made between efficiencies calculated using the Keitz formula
and the ’direct line’ efficiencies.
Keywords: UV Lamp Efficiencies; Keitz Equation.

2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                         73
  Session 12 – UV Treatment Research                                                                    S12-5


                  What is the Impact of UV Absorbing Particles on the
                          Inactivation of Indigenous Bacteria?
                                      R.E. Cantwell1 and R. Hofmann2
                                       1. CH2M HILL Canada Ltd.
                          2. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto

Previous research has shown that wastewater disinfection using ultraviolet (UV) light can be impaired by
attenuation of the UV light as it passes through particles to reach embedded and protected microorganisms.
This presentation consolidates and interprets results from two previous studies that explored whether a similar
phenomenon might occur when treating drinking waters. In the first study (Cantwell and Hofmann, 2008), the
UV absorption (λ = 254 nm) of particles present in 10 untreated surface waters was measured. The method
involved vacuum filtration of a sample through a glass-fiber filter (1.2 μm nominal pore-size). The absorption of
the filter and particles was then measured by spectrophotometry. This technique is commonly used for marine
ecology studies to determine the solids absorbance of visual light in aquatic samples. The measured UV
absorption of the surface water particles was similar to the absorption of wastewater particles. As such, it
provides evidence that UV disinfection of surface waters during drinking water treatment may conceivably be
impaired by the same mechanism if particles are present.
In the second study (Cantwell and Hofmann, 2011), the UV inactivation kinetics of indigenous coliform
bacteria in four of the surface waters were also monitored. Coliform bacteria were considered a surrogate for
common pathogens (e.g. Cryptosporidium) when assessing the vulnerability of UV system performance to
particulate matter. Tailing in the UV dose-response curve of indigenous coliform bacteria was observed in 3 of
the 4 water samples after 1.3- to 2.6-log of log-linear inactivation, even after the impact of scattered UV light
(using a integrating sphere spectrophotometer) was taken into account in the UV dose calculation. The impact
of particles was assessed by comparing coliform UV inactivation data with parallel filtered (11 μm pore-size
nylon filters) and unfiltered surface water. In samples from the Grand River (UVT: 65% cm-1; 5.4 NTU) and the
Rideau Canal (UVT: 60% cm-1; 0.84 NTU), a limit of ~2.5 log inactivation was achieved in the unfiltered
samples for a UV dose of 20 mJ/cm2 while both the filtered samples exhibited > 3.4-log inactivation of
indigenous coliform bacteria. The findings of this research suggest that particles, as small as 11 m, naturally
found in surface water with low turbidity (< 6 NTU) are able to harbour indigenous coliform bacteria and offer
protection from low-pressure UV light.
Keywords: Ultraviolet Light; Disinfection; Surface Water; Particle-Related Protection; UV Absorbance;
Coliform Bacteria.




74                      2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 12 – UV Treatment Research                                                                     S12-6


                     UV-LEDs for Water Disinfection – Are We Close?
                  Colleen Bowker1, Scott Alpert, PhD, PE1, and Joel Ducoste, Ph.D.2
           1. Hazen and Sawyer, PC, 4944 Parkway Plaza Blvd, Ste. 375, Charlotte, NC 28217
   2. North Carolina State University, Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering,
              North Carolina State University, 208 Mann Hall, Box 7908, Raleigh, NC 27695

 One of the main criticisms of current UV disinfection systems is the mercury content of UV-C lamps used by
all major manufacturers of UV water disinfection reactors. Thus, alternative sources of UV-C radiation continue
to be investigated. One such promising technology is UV light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs), which are beginning
to penetrate the electronics marketplace. UV-LEDs do not contain mercury, can offer design flexibility due to
their small size, and have the potential for a longer operational life than mercury lamps. But how relevant are
UV-LEDs to water disinfection currently and what are their potential market uses? This paper will present the
current availability of UV-LEDs, including UV-C emission technique and control, UV-LED costs, power output
and efficiency, and limitations to their wide spread use.
In addition to a “state-of-the-industry” review of UV-LEDs, the results of several studies that investigated using
UV-LEDs for water disinfection applications will be discussed. Chatterley and Linden (2010) compared the
inactivation of E. coli due to irradiation from UV-LEDs emitting at 265 nm and low-pressure mercury lamps.
Bowker et al. (2010) also compared microbial response to UV-LEDs (emitting at 255 nm and 275 nm) against
low-pressure mercury lamps, but the analysis was completed on E. coli, MS-2, and T7. Other research
studying the inactivation of E. coli due to UV-LED irradiation includes Mori et al. (2007), Vilhunen et al. (2009),
and Crawford et al. (2005). In general, these research studies have shown UV-LEDs to produce effective
microbial inactivation only after long exposure times. The necessity of long exposure times is caused by low
UV-LED power output due to the inefficiency of the new technology. This paper will review how the technology
and power output have changed over the past few years and the improvements that are projected in the
foreseeable future.
As UV technology becomes more and more relevant to the water, wastewater, and water reuse industries, the
development of safer and more efficient UV light sources is critical. Attendees of this presentation will learn the
current state of technology for UV-LEDs, their advantages and disadvantages, and the current and potential
future uses for UV-LEDs in water disinfection.
Keywords: Light Emitting Diodes; Ultraviolet Disinfection.




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                           75
  Session 12 – UV Treatment Research                                                                    S12-7


                  Degradation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by
                            222 nm and 254 nm UV light
     Hiroshi Sakai1, Tatsuro Takamatsu1, Koji Kosaka2, Naoyuki Kamiko3, and Satoshi Takizawa1
                   1. Department of Urban Engineering, The University of Tokyo, JAPAN
              2. Department of Water Supply Engineering, National Institute of Public Health
               3. Department of Environment Systems Engineering, Ritsumeikan University

This study demonstrated degradation of NDMA by 222 nm and 254 nm UV light. NDMA was degraded at the
rate of 2.6 cm2/J (254 nm), and 10.8 cm2/J (222 nm). Four times higher degradation rate was achieved by the
use of 222 nm UV light. Addition of hydrogen peroxide did not enhance degradation rate. 222 nm UV lamp
was found to be very effective to degrade NDMA.
Keywords: N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA); 222 nm KrCl Excimer Lamp; 254 nm Low Pressure Mercury
Lamp; Hydrogen Peroxide.


  Session 13 – Ozone Operation                                                                          S13-1


     Sustainability and Ozonation: Making the Case for Generator Upgrades
        Julie Herzner, P.E.1, Anni Luck, P.E.1, Ian Crossley, C.Eng.1, and Gerard Moerschell2
                    1. Hazen and Sawyer, P.C., 498 Seventh Ave., New York, NY 10019
                                       2. Town of New Castle, NY

The primary goal of most water utilities is to provide potable water that meets all regulatory requirements for
the protection of public health and is aesthetically pleasing. Unfortunately, many water treatment facilities are
not designed or operated with a goal of minimizing energy use. However, with energy costs on the rise and a
movement toward sustainable operation; improving energy efficiency at water treatment facilities is critical. The
purpose of this paper is to show how replacing ageing, high energy demanding equipment can save money
and increase sustainability.
The Millwood Water Treatment Plant (WTP) located in the Town of New Castle, NY has been in operation since
1992 and was one of the first ozonation plants in New York State. The plant has been well maintained and
operated and very little has needed to be repaired or replaced. However, although the ozonation system has
worked well, there are signs that it is reaching the end of its useful life. The three existing 110 lb/d air-fed
ozone generators are corroding along the welds in the cooling water jacket, particularly at the vessel invert and
it was decided to replace the existing generators with new, state-of-the-art units.
Ozone generators have undergone significant technological improvements in the years since the treatment plant
was designed; in particular, there has been a substantial increase in electrical efficiency for a given amount of
ozone generated. In addition to increased electrical efficiency, modern, more efficient generators operate at
higher ozone-in-air concentrations, which affects the compressor and dessicant dryer used in air-fed systems.
Less airflow is required to produce the same ozone output, which means the compressors use less electricity.
Examples will be presented which demonstrate how replacing existing ozone generators with more efficient
equipment can defray the costs of the plant upgrade for many utilities. A present worth analysis will be presented
based on firm costs as the new generators have been designed, bid and are currently under construction.
Keywords: Ozone Systems; Energy Efficiency; Sustainability.


76                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 13 – Ozone Operation                                                                           S13-2


                      Ozone Cost Implications from Oxygen Supply –
                             Advantages of VSA Technology
                                   David Schneider1 and Soeren Schmitz
                1. PCI Gases, 12201 Magnolia Ave., Riverside, CA, 92503, (951) 567-3177

Many ozone systems have chosen to supply their oxygen either by liquid oxygen (LOx) or by onsite oxygen
from a Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) system. Ozone production costs are heavily dependent on the supply
method chosen for oxygen which can be as high as 60 to 70% of the cost per pound of ozone delivered. An
analysis of an ozone project in North Dakota shows the effect on ozone costs based on the choice of oxygen
supply. Therefore, it is critically important that all available modes of oxygen supply be thoroughly investigated.
Within the oxygen requirements of 280 lbs/day to 40 tons/day, the traditional form of onsite oxygen generation
has been the PSA system. PSA system require a complicated set of valves and require twice as much power as
Vacuum Swing Adsorption (VSA) systems therefore their total cost of ownership is typically equivalent or higher
than liquid oxygen (LOx) deliveries. Hence, many customers who are presented an option between PSA
systems and LOx supply will choose the latter for reliability purposes. VSA’s are designed with a much simpler
approach to not only conserve ½ of the power of PSA systems but also significantly reduce maintenance costs.
Based on the analysis of this paper, LOx customers may be able to achieve a significant savings vs. their
current LOx supply by considering an onsite VSA solution. Further, customers with variable consumption
patterns still may be able to achieve a reasonable payback with significant savings due to the unique turn
down capabilities offered by the VSAs.
Keywords: Ozone Systems; Vacuum Swing Adsorption (VSA).




  Session 13 – Ozone Operation                                                                           S13-3


         The Ozonation Option for Private Onsite Wastewater Treatment –
                        The WATERCLEAN™ Solution
                                                Thomas W. Bain
        Great Lakes Clean Water - L.P., 11-1606 Sedlescomb Drive, Mississauga, Ontario, L4X 1M6

The use of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems (OWTS) is increasing in North         America. Collectively the
uncontrolled discharge from private OWTS will become the largest contributor of Compounds of Emerging
Concern to the environment. The WATERCLEAN™ OWTS has been developed to address this situation by
reducing pathogens, nutrients, and CECs. It is similar in operation to a washing machine with a fill cycle, a
wash cycle, a discharge cycle, it uses ozone in place of soap, and it washes wastewater instead of clothes.
This paper will provide an overview of the WATERCLEAN™ technology and the use of ozone injection
techniques to achieve remarkable results in reducing wastewater.
Keywords: Compounds of Emerging Concern; Uncontrolled Discharge; Wastewater Washing Machine; Ozonation.




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                            77
  Session 13 – Ozone Operation                                                                       S13-4


               Ozone Residual Meter Calibration Approach and Status
                                 Kerwin L. Rakness and Glenn F. Hunter
         Process Applications, Inc., 2627 Redwing Rd., Suite 340, Fort Collins, Colorado 80526

Many drinking water treatment plants with ozone achieve regulatory compliance for primary disinfection, which
is determined by measurement of “Ct” value (ozone residual times contact time). Ozone residuals are typically
collected at three or more locations within an ozone contactor. Most plants operate two or more ozone
contactors, and use continuous on-line residual measurement for monitoring and control. Some, not all,
regulatory agencies (e.g., States) permit on-line meter results for compliance reporting. When on-line
measurement is disallowed, grab samples are collected every 4-hr. Non-acceptance of on-line meter readings
might be due to regulatory agency staff inexperience with ozone and, until recently, lack of a “regulatory
standard” calibration protocol. In April 2010, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)
published the LT2ESWTR Final Guidance Manual that describes an ozone residual meter calibration protocol.
During the past several years, the authors of this paper have worked with several North American ozone
facilities in developing their approach for on-line residual analyzer calibration. The methodology implemented
generally follows recently published USEPA guidance. Specifically, meter readings are compared to grab-sample
results from “Standard Method” Indigo Trisulfonate (ITS) ozone residual tests. A grab sample is collected along
with the meter reading. From 3 to 5 grab-sample meter-reading comparative tests are completed at a sample
collection frequency of 15- to 30-sec. Analyzers are installed without signal dampening to ensure that analyzer
readings characterize grab-sample results. The grab-sample average is compared to the meter average.
Calibration adjustment is indicated when the meter average is beyond acceptable limits of the grab-sample
average results.
This paper discusses the calibration protocol for ozone that is contained in recently published USEPA
LT2ESWTR Guidance Manual and presents operating results from several utilities. USEPA guidance for on-line
chlorine residual analyzers is described for comparative purposes.
Keywords: Ozone Residual; Ozone; Ozone Disinfection; Residual Meter Calibration; Residual Measurement;
Indigo Trisulfonate Method.




78                      2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 13 – Ozone Operation                                                                          S13-5


                    Liquid Oxygen Specification for Ozone Generation
                                                  Derek Miller
         Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., 7201 Hamilton Boulevard, Allentown, PA 18195-1501

Ozone is increasingly used in water treatment due to its unique ability to treat a wide range of water qualities.
One of the largest operating expenses is liquid oxygen (LOX). In order to control costs, it is important that
municipalities take advantage of the most economical LOX supply, but many municipalities are potentially
limiting their choices by the way that they are specifying their LOX. Recently, AWWA revised B304-08
“Standard for Liquid Oxygen for Ozone Generation for Water, Wastewater, and Reclaimed Water Systems,”
which should help rectify this situation. In particular, the revision increases the acceptable level of Total
Hydrocarbon (THC) from 25ppm to 40ppm. In many cases, however, this standard has yet to be adopted.
This paper describes why THC level is important for ozone generation, what levels different municipalities are
currently specifying, and why different air separation plants make LOX with different THC levels. It concludes
by making recommendations for municipalities to ensure that they are getting LOX at the lowest cost that
meets the quality required for reliable ozone generation.
Keywords: Ozone; Liquid Oxygen; LOX; Hydrocarbons; Fouling; Nitric Acid.




  Session 13 – Ozone Operation                                                                          S13-6


                       Converting a Large Water Treatment Plant to
                      Enhanced Coagulation and Biological Filtration
                Mark Simon1, Michael Mikeska1, Peter Stencel1, Jennifer Cottingham1
                  Nick Burns2, Jeff Neemann, George Budd2, and Randy Romack3
                                    1. Dallas Water Utilities, Dallas, Texas
                                   2. Black & Veatch, Kansas City, Missouri
                                       3. Black & Veatch, Dallas, Texas

Dallas Water Utilities (DWU) is in the process of expanding its 1,670 MLD (440 mgd) East Side Water Treatment
Plant (WTP) and converting it from lime softening to enhanced coagulation and biological filtration. Major
project components include 1) flocculation and sedimentation basin improvements, 2) improvements to
optimize biological filtration, 3) residuals handling improvements, and 4) providing a backup disinfection
strategy for ozone. This presentation will provide a summary of the preliminary design phase and operations
plan for the conversion to enhanced coagulation and biological filtration. This presentation will benefit other
utilities considering enhanced coagulation or ozonation and utilities with ozonation that may be facing
similar issues.
Keywords: Ozonation; Biological Filtration; Enhanced Coagulation; Assimilable Organic Carbon.




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                           79
  Session 13 – Ozone Operation                                                                         S13-7


                             After the Dust Settles –
               Ozone System Operation and Optimization After Startup
                                               Glenn F. Hunter
          Process Applications, Inc., 2627 Redwing Rd., Suite 340, Fort Collins, Colorado 80526

During construction of municipal water treatment ozone systems, the main focus of utility staff, engineers,
and contractors is on construction and the complex task of keeping the plant operational during the various
stages of construction. Near the end of construction, plant staff may receive equipment specific training from
various equipment suppliers and process (treatment) oriented training to prepare plant staff for operation of
the ozone system.
During startup, plant staff begin ozone process operation with focus on maintaining reliable continuous
ozone process operation. Within several months, optimized ozone process operation may be a primary goal.
Experiences at several operating ozone water treatment facilities with optimizing ozone dose and ozone
production are reviewed in this paper.
Keywords: Ozone; Ozone Water Treatment Startup; Ozone Optimization; Ozone Process Training.




  Session 14 – General Session and Food Applications                                                   S14-1


  Source Area Treatment of a TCE Plume by Coated Microbubble Ozone and
               Sequential ERD at a Portland, Oregon, Facility
                          Paul Ecker1, Paul McBeth1, and William B. Kerfoot2
          1. PNG Environmental Inc., 6665 SW Hampton Street, Suite 101, Portland, OR 97223
                2. Kerfoot Technologies Inc., 766-B Falmouth Road, Mashpee, MA 02649

The PECO site is a machine shop and die-casting facility which has operated since 1930. Trichloroethene (TCE)
was used as a degreaser from 1950-1995, creating a groundwater plume of TCE ranging from 100,000 mg/L
at its source to 1,000 mg/L at the property boundary. Some source removal was tried with a carbonate ISCO
product, but it was not possible to distribute the compound through the saturated zone. After review of
alternatives and pilot test, full-scale Perozone® implementation began in October 2008. From November 2007
(with pilot test) to December 2009 with 950 pounds of oxidant mass delivered, 93% of TCE mass was
reduced. Advantages were the east of implementation, aggressive removal, gas-phase distribution and
relatively safe operations. Limitations were found to be heterogeneities in lithology control of the distribution
and rate/efficiency of reactions. There were some localized losses to carbonate scavenging from an early
treatment. Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination (ERD) was performed on a pilot scale at the tail end of the
plume in the relatively low concentration dissolved plume region. The combination of Perozone® oxidation
and enhanced biodegradation (BISCO) appears to be very capable of achieving full closure.
Keywords: TCE; Source Area; Groundwater Plume Treatment; Perozone®; Sequential ISCO/ ERD




80                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 14 – General Session and Food Applications                                                S14-2

  Photodecomposition Efficacy Validation of a Medium Pressure (MP) UV
Reactor for removal of Residual Free Chlorine and Monochloramine in Water
                                            Ismail Gobulukoglu
                                  Aquafine Corporation, Valencia, CA, USA

In beverage and pharmaceutical manufacturing plants, water treatment trains for purified water include reverse
osmosis (RO) units containing chlorine sensitive membranes. The addition of free chlorine or monochloramine
to city water may control bacteria levels, however they have undesirable effects on the degradation of RO
membranes and therefore, they need to be removed from the water stream feeding the RO membranes. In
conventional water systems, residual free chlorine or monochloramine is typically removed by either activated
carbon beds or by the addition of chemicals such as sodium metabisulfite. However, both these methods have
severe, inherent drawbacks. The powerful energy of UV light can be successfully harnessed to photodecompose
trace amounts of residual free chlorine or monochloramine present in the feed water. This non-chemical, novel,
innovative and environmentally friendly method offers significant inherent advantages and benefits compared
to conventional dechlorination technologies utilized thus far by the industry. Recent advancements in UV
technology have rendered this application practical and economically feasible.
In the present study, we report in-house experimental chlorine destruction test data obtained during the
validation of a medium pressure (MP) UV reactor. Source waters as received from DI tanks and tap water were
chlorinated to maintain free chlorine residuals up to 3 ppm and 7 ppm, respectively. UV doses when applied at
sufficient levels resulted in less than 0.02 ppm of free chlorine residuals downstream of the MP UV reactor at
various water quality conditions and operational parameters. It is also observed that for the similar percent
photodecomposition, monochloramine residuals required much higher UV doses than that of free chlorines
under similar water quality conditions and operational parameters. The experimental results were fitted to an
empirical chemical reaction rate model, and were used for determining photodecomposition efficacy of the MP
UV reactor at various chlorine concentrations and flow rates.
Keywords: UV Dechlorination; Photodecompsition; Free Chlorine; Monochloramine; Medium Pressure; UV
Lamp; Polychloramatic; Validation; DI Tanks, Tap Water; Reverse Osmosis; Carbon Bed; Sodium Metabisulfite.




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                      81
  Session 14 – General Session and Food Applications                                                    S14-3

UV Laser Based Longitudinal Illuminated Diffuser (LID) Beam Shaping System
                                                  Todd Lizotte
                   Lizotte Tactical Development, LLC, 21 Post Road. Hooksett, NH 03106

A novel laser beam shaping system was designed to demonstrate the potential of using high power UV laser
and solid state UV diode sources for large scale disinfection of liquids used in the production of food products,
such as juices, beer, milk and other beverage types. The design incorporates a patented assembly of optical
components including a diffractive beam splitting/shaping element and a faceted pyramidal or conically
shaped Lambertian diffuser made from compression molded PTFE compounds. The compact tubular
structure termed Longitudinal Illuminated Diffuser (LID) provides a unique UV disinfection source that can be
placed within a centrifugal reactor or a pipe based reactor chamber. This paper will review the overall design
principle, key component design parameters, preliminary analytic and bench operational testing results.
Keywords: UV Laser; DPSS; Lambertian Reflectance; Disinfection; UV Reactor; Computer Generated
Hologram; CGH; Diffractive Optical Element; Diffuser; Longitudinal Illuminated Radial Diffuser.




  Session 14 – General Session and Food Applications                                                    S14-4


                 Pulsed Light Inactivation of Foodborne Pathogens:
               Fundamentals, Applications and Potential for the Future
                                               Carmen I. Moraru
              Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Stocking Hall, Ithaca NY 14853

Pulsed Light technology uses very short, high power pulses of broad spectrum light emitted by Xenon lamps
to kill pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in foods, including bacteria, yeasts, molds, and viruses. This
presentation will offer an overview of the fundamental and practical aspects of Pulsed Light treatment, as well
as original research data regarding the mechanisms of action, microbial inactivation kinetics, and factors that
affect the effectiveness of the treatment. The main limitation of Pulsed Light treatment is its limited penetration
depth. Yet, a good understanding of light distribution and microbial inactivation by Pulsed Light can facilitate
the development of highly effective treatments. The presentation will illustrate how a numerical approach can
be used to identify process non-uniformities and accurately predict inactivation in liquid substrates of known
optical properties and geometry. Such an approach could be instrumental in developing highly effective Pulsed
Light based treatments ranging from water disinfection to the manufacture of safe, non-heat treated fruit
juices, surface treatment of foods and food contact materials, or the terminal antimicrobial treatment of foods
packaged in UV transparent materials. Overall, it can be concluded that Pulsed Light treatment brings exciting
new opportunities to the Food Industry, which might be able to use this treatment to increase the safety and
shelf life of foods, with no detrimental effects on their overall quality and sensory properties.
Keywords: Pulsed Light; Weibull Kinetics; Microbial Inactivation; Food; Packaging; Surface Decontamination;
Food Safety; Shelf Life.




82                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
  Session 14 – General Session and Food Applications                                                      S14-5


               Ultraviolet Light for Safety of Fluid Foods and Beverages
               Tatiana Koutchma, PhD, Marta Orlowska, PhD, and Cheryl Defelice, PE.
               Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 93 Stone Road West, Guelph, ON, N1G 5C9

Ultraviolet (UV) light has broad antimicrobial action providing effective inactivation of viruses, vegetative
bacteria, spores, yeasts, moulds, conidia and parasites. The application of UV light can also improve
toxicological safety and decrease allergenicity of foods. Challenges of application of UV-light for safety of
fluid foods, drinks and ingredients are due to their broad range of optical and physical properties, diverse
chemical compositions that influence UV transmittance (UVT), momentum transfer and consequently
microbial inactivation.
This paper is aimed to review some outcomes of the research program conducted in AAFC on applications
of UV light for foods. It will discuss critical properties of low UVT fluids foods along with the performance of
available and novel UV processing systems including continuous and pulsed UV sources for various
categories of foods.
The definitions and classification of three categories of fluid foods based on preservation requirements that
can be treated using UV light will be presented. The paper will also examine approaches to measure optical
parameters of low UVT fluids using integrated sphere. The examples of applications of the computational fluid
dynamics (CFD) to compare microbial inactivation performance of traditional annular laminar and turbulent UV
systems with novel static and dynamic mixers such as Dean and Taylor-Coutte (T-C) reactors will be presented.
T-C reactor design demonstrated superior microbial inactivation efficiency due to formed rotating vortices that
deliver all parts of the treated fluid to UV source. In terms of effects of UV light on nutritional, quality and
sensorial properties of fluid foods the emission spectrums and effects of continuous mercury UV lamps and
high intensity pulsed sources will be compared.
Keywords: Ultraviolet Light; Non-Thermal Food Processing; Fluid Foods; Low UV Transmittance; UV Dose
Delivery; UV Sources.




2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                              83
  Session 14 – General Session and Food Applications                                                      S14-6


                                  Ozone for Fresh Produce Transit
                                                  David J. Cope
                            Purfresh, 47211 Bayside Parkway, Fremont, CA 94538

Today the fastest-growing segment of the food industry is exports. Growing populations and regionalized food
production has resulted in longer times to market and increased multi-party handling. Unfortunately, these
conditions can lead to increased risk of losses and compromised food safety, especially with the increasing
occurrence of food-borne illnesses attributed to fresh produce, which cost the U.S. about $39 billion annually.
As much as 30 percent of all shipments are in some way adversely affected by microbial contamination before
reaching the consumer. This statistic does not account for potential loss from over-ripening, as well as the fact
that organic food is even more at risk because of the absence of traditional chemicals such as fungicides.
Mr. Cope will discuss how the use of ozone technology, coupled with load protection monitoring, can reduce
the risk of losses, enhance food safety, and ensure higher-quality arrivals by maintaining post-harvest
freshness throughout long distance voyages. Real-world examples and data will be presented.
Keywords: Ozone; Food Safety; Transport; Shipping; Supply Chain; Fresh Produce; Decay; Ethylene;
Pathogens; Marine Containers.




  Session 14 – General Session and Food Applications                                                      S14-7


             Plague Elimination and Ozone Effects on Types Stored Corn
                                   Jose G. LLanes O1, and Miguel Angulo2
               1. Water Research Laboratory, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences,
                                  Sinaloa Autonomous University (México)
               2. Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo A.C. Unidad Culiacán.
                                        Sinaloa, México C.P. 80129

Here its introduced a study about the impact of ozone on some types of stored corn (physical conditions), its
analyzed the effects that different contact times had with the elimination of plague, fungi, total aflatoxins, oily
free acids, index of peroxides and acidity, proximal quality and mineral of the grain. The research was done
under a completely experimental randomized design. The work was done in laboratory and pilot level
submitting corn to 4 treatments, one works as a witness and the rest of them received a fixed concentration
of ozone for 2, 4 and 8 hours. The ozonation was carried out in PVC columns simulating industrial silos. It’s
demonstrated that the level of mortality of the plague depends on the contact time and concentration;
nevertheless the characteristics of the grain have a special importance. The nutritional properties of the grain
did not suffer any significant changes and the total aflatoxins were reduced under the action of ozone.
Keywords: Ozone; Stored; Elimination; Pest; Grain; Corn; Consume.




84                       2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
Exhibitors

2B Technologies, Inc.                   Booth #117       City of Toronto                      Booth#106


                                     www.twobtech.com                                         www.toronto.ca

Airsep Corporation                      Booth #119       Clearwater Tech                      Booth #136



                                        www.airsep.com                                    www.cwtozone.com

Analytical Technology, Inc.                              Engineered Treatment Systems         Booth #104
                                        Booth #127



                                                                                             www.ets-uv.com
                          www.analyticaltechnology.com
                                                         Fuji Electric Corp of America        Booth #107
Aquionics Incorporated                  Booth #114


                                     www.aquionics.com

Astro Pak Corporation                   Booth #121
                                                                                         www.fujielectric.com

                                     www.astropak.com    Great Lakes Cleanwater, LLP          Booth #125

Atlantium Technologies, Ltd.            Booth #108



                                    www.atlantium.com                                    www.windsor.ijc.org

BMT Messtechnik GmbH                                     In USA Inc.                          Booth #115
                                  Booth #101 & 102


                                     www.bmt-berlin.de                                   www.inusacorp.com

Calgon Carbon Corporation               Booth #105       International Joint                  Booth #118
                                                         Commission of
                                                         the Great Lakes
                               www.calgoncarbon-us.com
                                                                                         www.windsor.ijc.org
Chart SeQual Technologies, Inc          Booth #135
                                                         ITT Corp (WEDECO)                    Booth #122


                                     www.chart-ind.com                                           www.itt.com



2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies                    85
Mazzei Injector Company                Booth #124        Pacific Ozone Technologies               Booth #120



                                                                                            www.pacificozone.com
                                       www.mazzei.net
                                                         PCI                                      Booth #128
Mitsubushi Electric Power              Booths
Products, Inc.                         #129 & 130

                                                                                                 www.pci-intl.com

                                                         Plasma Technics Inc                      Booth #123
                                       www.meppi.com

Nedap Light Controls                   Booth #116                                        www.plasmatechnics.com

                                                         Real Tech Inc.                           Booth #112
                                       www.nedap.com

OSTI, Inc.                             Booths
                                                                                                 www.realtech.ca
                                       #101 & 102

                                                         Severn Trent Services                    Booth #113

                                     www.osti-inc.com

Oxygen Generating                      Booth #126                                     www.severntrentservices.com
Systems International
                                                         Teledyne Adv. Pollution                  Booth #131
                                                         Instrumentation, Inc.
                                        www.ogsi.com

Ozone Water Systems                    Booth #133
                                                                                                www.teledyne.com

                                                         Tessenderlo Kerley, Inc.                 Booth #103


                            www.ozonewatersystems.com
                                                                                                  www.tkinet.com
Ozonia North America                   Booth #132
                                                         Trojan Technologies, Inc.                Booth #134



                                      www.ozonia.com                                            www.trojanuv.com




86                      2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies
Exhibit Floor Plan – Canadian Room

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2nd North American Conference on Ozone, Ultraviolet & Advanced Oxidation Technologies   87
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                                                                                    ISBN: 978-0-9818837-5-5

				
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