1.Which is the lowest level of biological organization that evolutionary change can occur?
2.The internet has been used as a rapid means to obtain information, including scientific
ideas, but generally is less reliable than print media because
A.Anyone can post “scientific” information, regardless of whether the information is
misleading or not true.
B.Individuals and/or groups may post information to promote their own personal interests
rather ideas that have been tested through the scientific process.
C.at present, the Internet is less regulated than broadcast and print media.
D.All of the above are correct
3.Which of the following statements regarding scientific theory is FALSE?
A.A hypothesis that has been repeatedly tested over time, and found to be true, usually
becomes a scientific theory.
B.A scientific theory is a speculation as to the possible outcome of an experiment.
C.As new information is gained over time, scientific theories can be modified.
D.A scientific theory explains scientific facts with a high degree of reliability.
E.The highest status that a hypothesis can achieve is becoming a scientific theory.
4.Which of the following is true regarding the structure of the atom?
A.All electrons are located at the same distance from the nucleus.
B.Neutrons carry a negative charge.
C.The nucleus is composed of equal numbers of positively charged particles and negatively
D.In small elements, such as carbon, electrons have a positive charge; in larger elements,
such as barium, electrons have a negative charge.
E.Most of the mass of an atom is due to its protons and neutrons.
5.Oxygen has an atomic number of 8 and an atomic mass of 16. Therefore, oxygen has
______ electrons and ______ neutrons.
6.Which of the following is TRUE concerning hydrogen bonds?
A.They are weak bonds that form between water molecules in liquid form.
B.Hydrogen bonds hold strands of DNA together.
C.The bonds break when water enters a vapor state and remain broken as long as water
molecules remain in the gas phase.
D.All of the above are correct.
7.Body fluids in humans have a high buffering capacity because
A.shifts in blood pH are required to maintain homeostasis.
B.even modest shift in pH can severely alter the physiology of cells.
C.it is the natural result of water as a solvent.
D.it promotes hydrogen bonding between water molecules in biological fluids.
8.Over the course of evolutionary time, animal body sizes have gotten larger, yet cell sizes
have not. Cells have stayed proportionally the same size to remain efficient, which is due to
the fact that
A.if cells got larger, the demand for energy and raw materials would greatly increase.
B.larger cells would become limited by the ability to move materials across the plasma
C.there would be limitations of the composition of the plasma membrane.
D.the inability of the nucleus to produce sufficient DNA for larger cells.
E.both A and B
9.A student is designing an experiment to show the effects of the movement of water across
a selectively permeable membrane. He places a highly concentrated saltwater solution into
a bag that is permeable only to water. He then submerges the bag into a beaker of pure
water. Which of the following can be expected?
A.The net flow of water will be from the beaker into the bag, causing the contents of the
bag to increase in volume.
B.The net flow of water will be from the bag to the surrounding water.
C.The pH of the contents of the bag will increase over time.
D.In this situation, the flow of water into the bag will never equal the flow of water out of
E.The volume of the bag will decrease over time.
10.To move solutes like amino acids into a cell by active transport, the cell
A.must possess appropriate transport proteins in the plasma membrane.
B.“burns” ATP as an energy source for active transport.
C.maintains a lower concentration of the amino acids in the cytoplasm.
D.both A and B
11.Which of the following is NOT true regarding metabolism?
A.Metabolism involves thousands of different chemical reactions occurring in a living
B.An anabolic reaction is one in which a large molecule is broken down into smaller
C.Catabolic pathways result in the release of energy.
D.Some metabolic pathways form a repetitive cycle.
E.Linear metabolic pathways occur when the product of one reaction is used as the
substrate of the next reaction.
12.Glucose is the most commonly used energy source by human cells because
A.this is the most abundant macromolecule available for cellular respiration.
B.this monosaccharide yields the most energy of all macromolecules.
C.fats and proteins yield too much energy for the cells to process.
D.the breakdown of other macromolecules can be more energy demanding than that of
E.both A and D
13.Which of the following is NOT associated with an equilibrium?
A.flattened, plate-like cells
C.presence of collagen and elastic fibers
D.presence of tight junctions
14.A connective tissue differs from an epithelial tissue in that connective tissue
A.is composed primarily of a nonliving extracellular material which is located between the
B.is composed of cells supported by a basement membrane.
C.is composed of cells interconnected by gap junctions or adhesion junctions
D.can produce and secrete products into the bloodstream.
E.is composed of cells that can be described as squamous or cuboidal
15.In a negative feedback system, which statement below is true?
A.Homeostasis cannot e re-established until the effector is turned off.
B.A sensor is not needed because the body anticipates the coming change.
C.The body counters the disturbance with a response that restores homeostasis.
D.A sensor detects a stimulus, which in turn amplifies the original disturbance.
E.The effector activates the sensor.
16.During which phase of the cell cycle is DNA replicated?
C.G1 of interphase
D.G2 of interphase
17.During DNA replication, the “original” DNA serves as a template for new synthesis
A.replication of DNA can begin anywhere along the length of the strands.
B.one of the original strands of DNA serves as a template for new DNA; the other strand is
broken down to release nucleotides for the synthesis of new DNA.
C.replication of DNA occurs at multiple locations on the original strands as the DNA is
D.the two original strands are first broken down to release nucleotides fro the synthesis fo
E.each strand of the original DNA is first separated from the other.
18.Unlike a normal healthy cell, a cancer cell will
A.potentially migrate to other locations in the body.
B.no longer perform their speciali9zed functions prior to becoming cancerous.
C.have an enlarged nucleus.
D.loose the ability to control cell division.
E.all of the above.
19.How does a proto-oncogenes differ from an oncogene?
A.Proto-oncongenes cause cells to self-destruct when damaged; oncongenes cause
damaged cells to repair themselves.
B.Proto-oncogenes code for proteins that regulate expression of structural genes;
oncogenes code for nucleic acids involved in cell division.
C.Proto-oncogenes control normal cell division; oncogenes contribute to the development of
D.When oncogenes become damaged, they become proto-oncogenes.
E.Oncogenes activate tumor suppressor genes; proto-oncogenes repress tumor suppressor
20.Free radicals produced during biochemical reactions can serve as carcinogens if they are
not neutralized by
21.Which of the following is NOT true regarding the immune system and cancer?
A.Because cancer cells are the individual’s cells, there is no way for the immune system to
differentiate between normal cells and cancer cells.
B.Many cancer cells do not display “self” proteins.
C.Some cancers can suppress the immune system.
D.Cancer cells can be killed by immune system cells.
E.Some cancer cells produce abnormal proteins on their cell surfaces that the immune
system can use to detect these cells.
Given the information below, answer the following three questions, assuming complete
“In humans, the ability to roll the tongue is a dominant trait;
The inability to roll the tongue is a recessive trait.”
22.If two individuals heterozygous for this trait have a child, what is the chance that the
child will not be able to roll his tongue?
23.If two individuals homozygous dominant for this trait have a child, what is the chance
that the child will not be able to roll his tongue?
24.If an individual homozygous dominant for this trait has a child with a person who cannot
roll his tongue, what is the chance that the child will have a heterozygous genotype?
25.Bacteria are very important to the genetic engineering industry because
A.they reproduce very quickly.
B.they are identical in structure to viruses which are often used as vectors.
C.they cannot become transgenic organisms.
D.they readily take up plasmids containing foreign genes.
E.A and D
26.Key components to the concept of evolution include
A.as one generation of organisms give rise to the next, the population will undergo gradual
change, making them distinct form their ancestors.
B.changes in environment do not influence populations overtime.
C.the process of change depends on changes to the genes of the organisms in a population
E.A, B and D are correct.
27.Movement of individuals into or out of the population, called gene flow, impacts evolution
of populations because
A.it leads to a redistribution of alleles.
B.a founder’s effect will occur.
C.adaptive radiation results.
D.the movement of individuals may cause genetic drift.
E.it can lead to extinction of one or more populations.
28.Which of the following best represents the order of self-replication in living cells?
1 - formation of RNA
2 - enclosure of small organic molecules within a membrane
3 - formation of simple organic molecules from atmospheric gases
4 - formation of a lipid-protein membrane
A.4, 1, 3, 2
B.3, 4, 2, 1
C.3, 1, 4, 2
D.1, 3, 4, 2
E.4, 2, 3, 1
29.A scientist is studying the flow of energy into and out of a rain forest as well as the
usage of energy by the organisms that inhabit that area. This study would be at the level of
30.Creation of sustainable ecosystems can be achieved through
A.developing practices of recycling reusable materials.
B.a reduction in the world population growth.
C.decreasing poverty so that people are not consumed of immediate needs (food, shelter)
and can focus more on human’s long-term impact on the environment.
D.decreased human consumption of everything, and thus a lower production of waste.
E.all of the above
31.Which of the following is NOT true regarding carbon?
A.is capable of forming strong covalent bonds with other elements
B.is an ideal structural component of living systems
C.is most stable when its outermost shell is filled with seven electrons
D.is found in organic molecules
E.can form molecules that branch in many directions
32.A simple epithelium would not function in
A.hormone release into blood.
B.protection against abrasive foods.
C.secretion of proteins.
E.exchange of gases in lung tissue.
33.If during DNA replication, a nucleotide is skipped on the template, this may result
A.the gene not being functional.
B.in a mutation.
C.the gene being functional but the resulting protein is not.
D.the double strands not winding tightly together.
E.all of the above
34.A scientist is working in a lab sequencing DNA. After reading the results from a column
of gel scanned in a fluoroscope, she determines that the sequence of bases in the newly
synthesized DNA is AATTCCCGG. Which of the following would represent the sequence of
bases on the complementary strand?
35.Which of the following is true regarding the water of Earth?
A.Some semiarid and desert regions of the world have reached carrying capacity for
humans due to shortage of water.
B.Most of the water on Earth is frozen in glaciers and ice caps.
C.Water is considered a renewable resource because it is plentiful in all regions of Earth.
D.When humans divert water from one region to another, they always ensure that it does
not have an effect on normal migration patterns of other species.
E.Residents of the less industrialized countries typically use more water than residents in