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Science and Religion (PowerPoint)


									Religious Method
     How does the Religious person come to
            know about the world?

  Religious method
• Observe - collect data
• Form an opinion / hypothesis
• Faith in holy book
• Faith in religious people
• personal   experience / revelation

Christians believe that throughout history God has shown
what he is by what he does.

God in Hebrew = YHWH (Yahweh)


“I Am” or “I will show you what I am by what I do”
General and Special
       Many people say they will only
          believe in God when God
       reveals itself (himself) to them.
        They say there is no evidence
               that God exists.

        Although there are thousands
         of people who claim to have
        ‘met’ God in some way – they
           are not believed by non-
           believers who find many
           reasons to say that their
              account is untrue.

        Think about this though – if you met
             God, could you prove it?
    Special Revelation
Special revelation is
when God reveals
Himself directly to a
person or group in a
dream, vision or a

 God has chosen those
people „especially‟ to
communicate to them.
 Examples of Special Revelation: St
• Saul had a vision of a
  bright light on his way to
• A voice asked why Saul
  why he was hunting down
  Christians. Saul was
  convinced that the light
  and voice were God.
• He changed his name to
  Paul and travelled the
  world telling people about
• He wrote most of the
  books in the New
 Example of Special Revelation:

• Moses had a vision of a burning bush
  and a voice that told him to return to
  Egypt to free the Hebrew slaves.
      Strengths and limitations of Special
Strengths                    Limitations
Miracles and supernatural    Could be just exaggerated
events point to a god who    stories or misunderstandings
had control over physics
The voice of God             When people hear voices in
                             their head we don‟t usually
                             think of it as God
Jesus was god in Human       Jesus was just a good man,
form – ultimate revelation   maybe he thought he was
                             god – no solid proof.
Gods appearance in human Appearances have become
history show desire to reveal less dramatic over recent
himself                       years.
  Visions of God?
Religious Experience
• A crowd inside the Florida Hospital
  Medical Complex in Orlando snapped
  photos of the image apparently showing
  the profile of Jesus Christ crying
• Cloud like image appears in photo taken at
  apparition in Medjugorie on April 7th 2005
 CHICAGO -- A marking on a Kennedy
Expressway underpass is creating a stir in
• Cross of light in San Francisco Church
• For more than a year, starting on the eve of Tuesday, April 2, 1968,
  the Blessed Holy Virgin Saint Mary, Mother of God, appeared in
  different forms over the domes of the Coptic Orthodox Church
  named after Her at Zeitoun, Cairo, Egypt.
Tears show
   up on
picture was
        Strengths and limitations of
           Religious Experience
Strengths                         Limitations
Life changing experiences for     People lives change for all sorts
those whose life is troubled,     of reasons
(The Buddha, Muhammad's
The people who have them feel     Some people do bad things e.g.
they are real                     cult leaders etc
Happen “by chance” often to       Why does God let some people
least likely person               have them and not others.
They have happened all            Maybe they happen to
throughout history and all over   suggestible people
the world
General Revelation
General revelation is
how people generally
come to know about God
and believe in God.

They don’t have any
special experience, but
they gradually come to
faith through a variety of
      Examples of General
                      • People learn about
                        God through reading
                        the Bible. It teaches
                        them how God has
                        acted in human
                        history, the laws that
                        God expects humans
                        to follow and gives
                        people comfort in
• Knowing God           times of trouble.
  through Scripture
   Revelation of God through
Different views
• Divinely inspired
• Divinely guided
• Influenced by God
• A Human Book
 Different ways of looking at the
• Literally True – word for word, no
  arguments. (Biblical literalists)
• Symbolically true - pointing to truths,
  metaphors and allegories (Biblical liberals)
• Part literal, Part Symbolic.
What we need to remember about
• The history it was written in
• The culture it was written in
• The language and the use of language.
    Strengths and limitations of
        Scripture revelation

         Strengths                 Limitations
Anyone can read it         It‟s complicated
We have Gods direct word   It also involves human
Reliable way of getting    Open to interpretation
God‟s word
      Examples of General
                   • People learn about
                     God through their
                     response and
                     appreciation of the
                     wonders and beauty
                     of the world around
                     them. Nature is
                     beautiful, clever and
                     complicated. They
                     feel that it is so
• Knowing God        awesome and
  through nature     wonderful that God
                     must have created it.
    Strengths and limitations of
         nature revelation
Strengths                    Limitations
Looking at nature we can     Nature could point to
infer God                    science (evolution)
Nature points to god‟s power But destruction power of
A conscience might point to Could just be the workings of
the existence of God         the brain
        Examples of General
                         • People learn about
                           God through the lives
                           and example of
                           religious people they
                           admire. Martin Luther
                           King was a Christian
                           Baptist Minister
                           (vicar) who stood up
                           for black rights in
• Knowing God              America.
  through the lives of
  Inspirational people
      Examples of General
                      • People learn about
                        God through the lives
                        and advice of
                        religious leaders like
                        the Pope who study
                        the Bible and tell their
                        followers how they
                        feel God would want
                        them to live today.
• Knowing God
  through religious
  leaders/ church
    Strengths and Limitations of
        Rev through Church
Strengths                        limitations
The church has maintained        The church has changed a
it‟s traditions for 2000 years   lot
The Church is full of people     Humans are flawed.
whom God has “called” to         Teaching are mixed up with
represent him                    politics, culture and history
      Examples of General
                    • People learn about
                      God through going to
                      church and worship
                      services. They listen
                      to someone reading
                      from the Bible and
                      giving a sermon (talk)
                      that tells them about
                      God. The experience
                      of worshipping
• Knowing God         together can be very
  through worship     powerful for some
Do you know what this is?
What is a shroud?

 A shroud is a burial cloth
 that Jews would have used
 to wrap a dead body in
 before burial rather like
                     Is this the face of Jesus?

Is there anything on the image that suggests that this could be the
face of Jesus?
The full length of the shroud.

                Secondo Pia's (photographer
                who was allowed to
                photograph the shroud)
                negative of the image on the
                Shroud of Turin has an
                appearance suggesting a
                positive image.
 Close examination of the shroud reveals the following:

Multiple rivulets of blood run down the forehead. What could
have caused this?
Forensic examination of the Shroud by pathologists reveal the abrasion to
the tip of the nose. There is also bruising of the right cheek, almost
certainly caused by beating and punching.
Examination of the area of the hands on the Shroud shows the left hand
over the right hand (remember the image is transposed in a photo -
negative image). There is also a puncture wound in both wrists, from which
blood is seeping, draining up both forearms on the Shroud.
The image below left is the probable position in which the feet where
nailed. The image below right is an X-ray showing the probable position of
the nail, between the 2nd and 3rd Metatarsal spaces.
The image below left shows the blood red colouration on
the Shroud where the feet were positioned. The image
below right shows the same area photographed, with the
blood as a photo-negative white colouration.
Multiple lacerations can be seen over
the back, upper and lower aspects of
both legs, and the anterior chest wall.
According to pathologists, there are
over 120 separate lashes, performed
by two separate soldiers. Each single
lash produced multiple lacerations,
with severe injuries to the skin and
underlying soft tissue. This was a
most severe Scourging, and Jesus
Christ was nearly scourged to death.
On the photograph of the dorsal
image can be clearly seen the
scourge marks over the back, and
lower limbs.
On both images can be clearly seen
the profuse bleeding from the
wounds in the scalp, and from both
wounds in the feet, in white photo-
negative. This is because the blood
actually stained the Shroud, before
the Image was created on it.
To summarise, the body in the shroud sustained the
following injuries:

•one wrist bears a large, round wound, apparently from piercing (the
second wrist is hidden by the folding of the hands)
•upward gouge in the side penetrating into the thoracic cavity
•small punctures around the forehead and scalp
•scores of linear wounds on the torso and legs consistent with the
Roman style of scourging (distinctive dumbbell wounds of a flagrum
are present)
•swelling of the face from severe beatings
•streams of blood down both arms that include blood dripping from
the main flow in response to gravity at an angle that would occur
during crucifixion
•no evidence of either leg being fractured
•large puncture wounds in the feet as if pierced by a single spike
The Holy Shroud of Turin is more famous and more controversial now
than at any time in its long history. The precise length of that history
is of course one of its most hotly contested secrets. Measuring almost
4.5 metres in length, this linen cloth, bearing the clear imprint of a
dead, crucified man, was brought to Turin, Italy in 1578, but reliable
documents tell us that it was known in France over 200 years earlier.
The image on the shroud is believed to have been created
by heat caused by radiation, rather like an X-ray. What
do you think could have caused this sudden burst of heat?
    The impact of revelation
It is important to remember that however
people say they have experienced God –
it has a massive impact on the life of that

Often, the experience will completely
change them.
Proof?   There is no scientific
         evidence of a person‟s
         experience being true – we
         cannot prove it happened by
         scientific means.

         All we can do is listen to
         someone‟s testimony
         (account of the experience)
         and judge the impact it had
         on them.
 Exam questions: have a go!
 What is the definition of revelation?

 What is the difference between special and general

 Write one account of special revelation and
  say what religion it comes from.

 Give an example of general revelation and explain
  how it reveals something about God.

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