Understanding Unconscious Bias and Unintentional Racism by NR2wYa

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									 Understanding Unconscious
Bias and Unintentional Racism
               March 30, 2009
                Nassau Tract


Jean Moule, PhD
Oregon State University
Our Children Are Like Seedlings
Cared for by Parents
Planted in Homes
and Communities
Living in Families Who Nurture
 Their Early Areas of Strength
In Hopes That These Trees Will
   Grow to Their Full Potential
Balled up and sent to Us!
A Teacher's Revelation:

I've come to the frightening conclusion that I am the decisive
         element in the classroom.
It's my personal approach that creates the climate.
It's my daily mood that makes the weather.
As a teacher I possess a tremendous power to make a child's
         life miserable or joyous.
I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration.
I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal.
In all situations, it is my response that decides whether a
         crisis will be escalated or de-escalated, and a child
         humanized or de-humanized.

                            -- Haim Ginot, Child Psychologist
What kind of weather??
Surviving   maybe
Thriving
        Some Problems
 Achievement   Gap Persists
 Classrooms Becoming More
  Diverse
 Shortage of Teacher Diversity
 Racial/Ethnic Mismatch Between
  Students and Teachers
          Question
How does this mismatch between
students and teachers inform
the achievement gap?
                                                            3rd GRADE MATHEMATICS MULTIPLE CHOICE Percent of Students Meeting Standards
                                        100
                                                                                        1997 through 2006

                                                                                                                                                                                              90   Asian/Pacific Islander
                                          90                                                                                                                                                  90   White
                                                                                                                                                                                              87   Multi racial
                                                                                                                                                                                              86   All Students
                                          80                                                                                                                                                  81   Native American
Percent of Students Meeting Standards




                                                                                                                                                                                              79   African American
                                                                                                                                                                                              74   Hispanic
                                          70

                                                                                                                                                                                              65   Special Education
                                          60


                                          50


                                          40


                                          30


                                          20


                                          10


                                            0
                                                    1997           1998            1999            2000           2001            2002            2003           2004            2005   2006
                                            From 2002 to 2004, the percent students meeting the mathematics multiple choice standards climbed steadily for all race/ethnicities
                                            and special education. In 2005, all race/ethnicities posted increases.
                                        1996 through 2001 percents include only students tested under standard conditions at or above grade level.
                                        2002 through 2004 percents include ALL students tested.
                                        2005 and 2006 results differ from the 2004 results in the follow ing w ays:
                                        ·Test scores are aggregated to the school, district, and state level based on the student resident district as of May 2, 2005.                  In 2004,
                                        test scores w ere aggregated based on the resident district at the time the test w as taken.
                                        ·Regardless of w here the student took the test, the highest score available is reported.
                                        ·As per NCLB, beginning LEP students w ere not included in the results. In 2004, beginning LEP students w ere included in the results.
                                                        10th GRADE READING Percent of Students Meeting the Standards
                                                                            1997 through 2006
                                        100

                                         90
Percent of Students Meeting Standards




                                         80

                                         70
                                                                                                                                                                        60 White
                                         60                                                                                                                              Asian/Pacific Islander
                                                                                                                                                                        58
                                                                                                                                                                        55 All Students
                                         50                                                                                                                             52 Multi-racial


                                         40                                                                                                                              42 Native American

                                                                                                                                                                       32   African American
                                         30
                                                                                                                                                                       27    Hispanic
                                         20
                                                                                                                                                                       15    Special Education
                                         10

                                          0
                                                1997         1998         1999        2000         2001         2002        2003         2004         2005        2006
                                              From 2005 to 2006, the percent of students m eeting the reading standards increased for all categories except
                                                                   Multi-Racial. Native Am erican students posted the biggest increase.
                                         1996 through 2001 percents include only students tested under standard conditions at or above grade level.
                                         2002 through 2004 percents include ALL students tested.
                                         2005 and 2006 results differ from the 2004 results in the follow ing w ays:
                                         ·Test scores are aggregated to the school, district, and state level based on the student resident district as of May 2, 2005. In 2004,
                                         test scores w ere aggregated based on the resident district at the time the test w as taken.
                                         ·Regardless of w here the student took the test, the highest score available is reported.
                                         ·As per NCLB, beginning LEP students w ere not included in the results. In 2004, beginning LEP students w ere included in the results.
“Liberal educators believe themselves to be operating
with good intentions, but these good intentions are only
conscious delusions about their unconscious motives.”
                               ~Delpit, 1988, p. 285
      Definitions.

      .
    Re-fencing
   Absolution
   Reconstruct
   Aversive Racism
   Amygdala
   “Integrity”
   Stereotype
   Stereotype Threat
  Re-fencing

"When a fact cannot fit into a mental field,
the exception is acknowledged, but the field
is hastily fenced in again and not allowed to
remain dangerously open.”

                         ~Allport,1954, p. 23
  Absolution

I am absolved from racism because….

                      ~Thompson, 2003
Matt’s Story
    Reconstruction
In an ambiguous situation one may remember details in a
 way that confirms one’s stereotype.

                                 ~Diller & Moule, 2005
Ambiguous Image
Examples of Unconscious Biases


 Jamal and Keisha or John and Emily
 Co-worker Study
 Stereotype Threat
     Non-verbal
Lean forward a little less
Be less expressive
Maintain less eye contact
Stand a little further away
Smile a lot less
Hesitate and stumble over words a bit
Laugh at jokes a bit less
                           ~Gladwell, 2005, p.85
Unconscious Biases at Work

White member of pair              Time to Complete Task with a Black

                                  person

Unbiased in word and behavior
                                     4 minutes
Biased in word and behavior
                                     5 minutes
Unbiased by self-report,             6 minutes
behavior shows bias

                                     time to complete paire task.
Biased and unbiased White individualsÕ                    d



    Source: Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (Winter, 2005).
    Color blind or just plain blind. The Nonprofit Quarterly, 12(4).
   White response: Related to publicly
    expressed attitude
   Black response: Related to unconscious
    attitude
    Aversive Racism

“The contradiction that exists when the denial of
 personal prejudice co-exists with underlying
 unconscious negative feelings and beliefs.”
                          ~Dovidio & Gaertner, 2005, p. 2
“Although many white Americans consider
themselves unbiased, when unconscious
stereotypes are measured, some 90% implicitly
link blacks with negative traits (evil, failure)."
                            ~Begley, 2004, p. 1
  Doll “Studies”                   1954

      2006
                           2009
                   The demo doll




Look, Mommy,…..
   Amygdala

Part of the brain that has instant activity in a
“flight or fight” reaction upon encountering an
unexpected person or situation.
                            ~Begley, 2004
  Conscious Override

Changing that first reaction in a nanosecond in
order to overcome built-in biases and respond
as their better, undiscriminating selves.
    Integrity
Decreasing levels of control:
     Words
     Facial Expressions
     Body language
     Tone of voice
                    ~Benari, personal communication, 2009
We are far better off acknowledging our
possible biases and trying to work together
openly with that knowledge.
                         ~Moule, 2009
  Stereotype

A simplistic image or distorted truth about
a group based on a prejudgment of
habits, traits, abilities, or expectations.
                        ~Weinstein & Mellen, 1997
        Racial Identity Development

   Airport Story
       Denial
       Distraction
       Absolution
       Blame the Victim
       Guilt
We need to become less focused on feeling
very tolerant and good about ourselves and
more focused on examining our own biases.
                       ~Moule, 2009
       When Race Becomes an Issue

   When a person of color brings up race as an issue--listen
    deeply
   If the person indicates that he or she is offended, don’t be
    defensive
   Do not begin to talk quickly
   Do not explain why they are misinterpreting the situation
   Do not begin crying
                                 ~Dovidio & Gaertner, 2005. P. 5
     The IAT:            Implicit Association Test



   We make connections more quickly between
    pairs of ideas that are already related in our
    minds, as opposed to those that are unfamiliar
   May indicate "little or no bias" or a bias rated as
    "slight", "moderate" or "strong"
Implicit Association
Test
   Who took it?
   Who was surprised by the results?
“We would like to believe that when a person
has a conscious commitment to change, the
very act of discovering one’s hidden biases
can propel one to act to correct it.”
                   ~Teaching Tolerance, 2001, p. 4
“It may not be possible to avoid the
automatic stereotype or prejudice, but it is
certainly possible to consciously rectify it.”
                    ~Teaching Tolerance, 2001, p. 4
Teachers
Students
 Stereotype
 Threat
Refers to being at-risk of confirming, as self-
characteristic, a negative stereotype about
one’s group.

                          ~Steele & Aronson, 1995
Example:
   In several experiments Black college
    freshmen and sophomores performed
    more poorly on standardized tests than
    White students when their race was
    emphasized. When race was not
    emphasized, however, Black students
    performed better and equivalently with
    White students.


                                         47
Documented in a large number of groups
    Women on math tests                    Men on social sensitivity tasks
     (Spencer, Steele & Quinn,1999)          (Koenig & Eagly, 2005)

    African-Americans on                   Whites on tasks that require
     standardized tests                      being non-racist
     (Steele & Aronson, 1995)                (Richeson & Shelton, 2003)

    Hispanics on standardized tests        White men (compared with Black
     (Gonzales, Blanton & Williams,          men) on athletic tasks
     2002)                                   (Stone, Sjomeling, Lynch, & Darley,
                                             1999)
    Low SES students on
     standardized tests                     White men (compared with Asian
     (Croizet & Claire, 1998)                men) on math tests
                                             (Aronson, Lustinga, Good, Keough,
    Women on negotiation tasks              Steele, & Brown,1999)
     (Kray, Galinsky & Thompson, 2002)
                                         ~List from Block, Roberson & Merriweather   48
Stereotype threat:

  Occurs  when individuals are in a performance
   situation and are aware that there is a
   negative stereotype about their group that
   suggests they will not perform well

  Occurs  regardless of whether the individual
   believes the stereotype

  Occurs  regardless of the accuracy of the
   stereotype
                                                  49
Stereotype contexts:

   The task an individual is performing is
    relevant to the stereotype

   The task is challenging

   The context in which the task is being
    performed is likely to reinforce the
    stereotype

                                              50
Stereotype threat consequences:

   Decreased short term task performance

   Decreased achievement test performance




                                            51
Stereotype threat
changes performance:

 Physiological arousal
 Reduced working memory capacity
 Anxiety
 Excess effort
 Lowered performance expectations
    Source: www.ReducingStereotypeThreat.org


                                               52
                                        Intelligent, motivated student
                                   faces a difficult, stereotype relevant test
Chart from Block,
Roberson, &
Merriweather, 2008
                                          Search for explanation of difficulty



           Context                               Stereotype comes
          reinforces                                  to mind
          stereotype


                               Student performs test, but
                              performance is disrupted by
                                   stereotype threat




                 Others assume                            Student becomes
           that student performance                        frustrated and
            accurately reflects ability                      demotivated
What can we do?
Teach Persistence


        School




        Family




       Community
Suggestions for Overcoming Stereotype
     .          Threat
     •Reframing the task

     •De-emphasizing threatened social identities

     •Encouraging self-affirmation

     •Emphasizing high standards with assurances of capability

     •Providing role models

     •Providing external attributions for difficulty

     •Emphasizing an incremental view of ability

   Source: http://reducingstereotypethreat.org/reduce.html
Growing Strong,
  Moving On
Thriving
Growing as a TREE…
…Bringing Forth Fruit in Season

								
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