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					STINGS & BITES




    2 hours
Objective:

 Identify different types of stings,
 and bites and the medical
 treatment of each
Overview:
 General  signs & symptoms
 Spider bites
 Snake bites
 Stings (insects, scorpions &
  marine animals)
 Emergency medical care
 Dog and human bites
General Signs & Symptoms

Obtain history

  Determine type of spider, snake,
   or insect
General Signs & Symptoms
(Cont)
Obtain history
 Size            Color
 Markings        Shape
 Location        How
Spider, snake, insect, scorpion, or
 marine animal was captured
General Signs & Symptoms
(Cont)
 Readness   & heat
 Pain
 Swelling
 Weakness
     marks or stinger
 Bite
 Generalized weakness
General Signs & Symptoms
(Cont)
 Dizziness
 Chills
 Fever
 Pallor
 Nausea   & vomiting
Spider Bites

 Black   Widow Spider
  - Glossy black body
  - Red/orange hour glass on
    abdomen
  - Dry dim places
  - Poisonous to nerve tissue
  - Causes systemic symptoms
Signs & Symptoms

 Severe cramps
 Rigid Abdominal muscles
 Tightness in chest & difficulty
  breathing
 Skin rash
General Signs & Symptoms

 Dizziness
 Sweating
 Nausea
 Vomiting
Spider Bites (Cont)

 Brown   Recluse Spider
 -   Dull brown color
 -   Violin shape on back
 -   Lives in dark areas
 -   Causes local tissue damage
Signs & Symptoms

 Redness
 Swelling& tenderness
 Pale mottled cyanotic center
 Blister
 Scab
Snake Bites

Pit Vipers - rattlesnakes,
 copperheads, & cotton mouth
  - Rattlers
     • Usually have rattles on tail
     • Multicolor often with diamond
       pattern
Snake Bites (Cont)
 - Copperheads
    • Reddish or coppery
    • Brown or red cross bands
 - Cottonmouth (moccasins)
    • Olive brown/black cross bands
    • Yellow under surface
    • Aggressive
Signs & Symptoms

 Severe burning pain
 Swelling & discoloration
 Symptoms appear
Signs & Symptoms (Cont)

 Local  tissue destruction
 Interferes with clotting
 Causes bleeding
 No symptoms in 1 hour
  *NO ENVENOMATION*
Snake Bites (Cont)

Coral snakes - rare, small, colorful
 reptile. *NOT A PIT VIPER*
  - Bright red, yellow & black bands
  - Lives in Florida and southwest
    desert
Snake Bites (Cont)

  - Similar colored snakes in habitat
  - Coral snake’s/ red & yellow bands
    next to each other
  - Bites on small body parts
  - Paralyzes the nervous system


*Red on yellow will kill a fellow*
*Red on black venom lacks*
Signs & Symptoms

 Minimal or no local symptoms
 Strange behavior within hours
 Progressive paralysis
  - Eye movements
  - Respirations
Stings
Insects
Scorpions
Marine    animals
Stings (Cont)

 Insects
  - Bee, wasps, or hornets stinging
    organ comes from abdomen
  - Venom injected through spine
Stings (Cont)
 - Honey bee
    • Barbed stinger
    • Stings once
    • Inject up to 20 min
    • Common allergen
    • Can cause anaphylaxis
Stings (Cont)

 - Wasps or hornets
   • Unbarbed stinger
   • Stings repeatedly
Stings (Cont)
 - Ants
    • Can bite repeatedly
    • Irritating toxin
    • Attack legs & feet
Signs & Symptoms

 Sudden  pain
 Severe swelling
 Heat
 Redness
 Wheal
 Itching
Stings (Cont)

Scorpions
 - Rare
 - Live in southwest & deserts
 - Venom gland and stinger
Signs & Symptoms

 Very painful sting
 Usually not dangerous
 Local swelling
 Pain
 Discoloration
Signs and Symptoms

Arizona Scorpion
 -   Severe systemic reaction
 -   Circulatory collapse
 -   Severe muscle contractions
 -   Excessive salivation
 -   Hypertension
 -   Convulsion
 -   Cardiac failure
Stings & Bites

Marine animals
 - Mostly not aggressive
 - Injuries commonly caused by:
    • Jellyfish, anemones, corals, or
      hydras
    • Stepping on stingray’s back
    • Falling/stepping on sea urchin
    • Shock from electric eels
Emergency Treatment
 Stings
  -   Remove patient from water
  -   Pour rubbing alcohol on site
  -   Sprinkle site with meat tenderizer
  -   Dust site with talcum powder
 Injuries   from spines
  - Soak in hot water for 30 min
Emergency Medical Care

 Bites   or Stings
  - Reassure & calm patient
  - Place patient in a supine position
  - Insect stings
     • Remove stinger by scraping
     • Do not squeeze
Emergency Medical Care
(Cont)
 - Gently wash area - soap & water
 - Remove jewelry from area
 - Lower injured extremity
 - Apply ice or cold packs to area
   (except snake bites)
 - Observe for development of
   allergic reaction & treat findings
Emergency Medical Care
(Cont)
 - Spider Bites
    • Gently wash area - soap & water
    • Remove jewelry
    • Apply cold to the area
    • Look for signs of respiratory
      distress
Emergency Medical Care
(Cont)

 - Arizona Scorpion Stings
    • Notify medical control center
    • Rapid transport
 - Treat any complications
Emergency Medical Care
(Cont)
 - Snake Bites
    • Inform medical control
    • Medical control on use of venous
      tourniuet
    • Keep patient supine
    • Splint extremity
Emergency Medical Care
(Cont)

 - Snake Bites (Cont)
    • DO NOT apply cold to snake
      bites
    • Bring animal to hospital (if
      possible)
Dog & Human Bites

Dog Bites
 Characteristics:
  - Mouth is contaminated
  - Bite site is contaminated
  - Most bites are not serious
Dog & Human Bites

Dog bites (cont)
  - Possibility of rabies
     • Acute, usually fatal CNS
       infection
     • Transmitted by biting
     • Rabid animals may seem normal
       or vicious
     • Animal control secure animal
Dog & Human Bites

Dog bites (cont)
 Signs, symptoms, & treatment:
  -   Patient may be upset & frightened
  -   Open wound
  -   Calm and reassure patient
  -   Dry sterile dressing to wound
  -   Prompt transport
Dog & Human Bites

Human Bites
 Characteristics:
  - Relatively uncommon
  - Potentially most severe injury
  - Humans have more bacteria that
    dogs
  - Penetrating bites are very serious
Dog & Human Bites

Human bites
 Emergency Treatment
 - Immobilize area with splint &
   bandages
 - Apply dry sterile dressing
 - Transport
Summary

 General   Signs & Symptoms
  - obtain history
  - Look for signs & symptoms
 Spider   Bites
  - Black Widow
  - Brown Recluse Spider
Summary (cont)

 Snake    Bites
  - Pit Vipers
  - Coral Snakes
 Stings
  - Insects
  - Scorpions
  - Marine Animals
Summary (cont)

 EmergencyMedical Care
 Dog & Human Bites
 - Dog Bites
 - Human Bites
QUESTIONS?

				
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posted:11/30/2011
language:English
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