Antenna Calibration

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					                          Antenna Calibration – list of literature

Books, Antenna Theory in general:
      A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design
      J. D. Krauss, Antennas

Articles about calibration:


Antenna calibration aims at determining the so-called effective length vector of each antenna
combining orientation and length information. The analysis is performed in two steps: first, the
Stokes parameters (wave polarization) are determined using approximate antenna orientations
derived from laboratory measurements on a scale model of the spacecraft. Second, measurements
with high signal-to-noise ratio and pure circular polarization are selected and used for the
determination of the effective length vectors of the RPWS antennas. Two methods have been
developed for inverting the system of equations relating antenna parameters, wave parameters, and
measurements, both of which provide consistent results and present different advantages and
limitations which are discussed.
       D. F. Vogl, et al., In-flight calibration of the Cassini-Radio and Plasma Wave Science
        (RPWS) antenna system for direction-finding and polarization measurements
        [Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 109, 2004]

Application of the calibration method by [Dulk et al, 2001] to the data from the Cassini/Radio and
Plasma Wave Science receiver. Instrumental parameters such as the antennas' effective lengths and
base capacitance are constrained in the calibration process. The calibration procedure also allows
the comparison of Cassini measurements of the Jovian radio spectrum with ground-based
measurements performed , e.g. in Nançay above the ionospheric cutoff. It will be used to derive
absolute flux measurements during the Saturn tour.
      P. Zarka and B. Cecconi, Jupiter's low-frequency radio spectrum from Cassini/Radio and
       Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) absolute flux density measurements
       [Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 109, 2004]

calibration in general:

An article about the direction finding of incoming radio waves and the determination of the four
Stokes Parameters. This for, one has to know the effective antenna length vectors, which describe
the reception properties of the antenna system. Numerical determination of these vectors via the
wire-grid modeling is the subject of this article.
       G. Fischer, W. Macher, H. O. Rucker, H. P. Ladreiter, D. F. Vogl, and the Cassini RPWS
        Team, Wire-Grid Modeling of Cassini Spacecraft for the determination of effective antenna
        length vectors of the RPWS antenna length vectors of the RPWS antennas

Presentation of rheometry as a method for the determination of effective length vectors of short
antennas by means of electrolytic tank measurements. The paper covers the application of
rheometry to the three linear monopoles mounted for the purposes of the Radio and Plasma Wave
Science Experiment on the Cassini spacecraft. It is investigated how rheometry enables the
determination of the effective length vectors with the help of a scale model.
      H. O. Rucker, W. Macher, R. Manning, and H. P. Ladreiter, Cassini model rheometry
       [Radio Science, Vol. 31, Number 6, Pages 1299-1311, Nov.-Dec. 1996]
Other articles, somewhat related to direction finding:

This article provides the analysis of the direction-finding-equations for the Radio and Plasma Wave
Science (RPWS) experiment on the Cassini spacecraft by using SVD techniques. By using two
rotating noncollinear antennas or three spatially fixed noncoplanar antennas on a spacecraft, full
information on the polarization and the voltages created by the electric field of the incident wave
may be obtained. The physical parameters of the incoming wave are related to the received voltages
on the antenna system. The resulting system of equations is numericalle close to singular, and
generally no unique solution can be obtained. Yet, there exists a very powerful tool for dealing with
sets of equations that are singular or close to singular, known as singular-value decomposition
which is subject of this article.
       H. P. Ladreiter, P. Zarka, A. Lecacheux, W. Macher, H. O. Rucker, R. Manning, D. A.
        Gurnett, and W. S. Kurth, Analysis of electromagnetic wave direction finding performed by
        spaceborne antennas using singular-value decomposition techniques
        [Radio Science, Vol. 30, Number 6, Pages 1699-1712, 1995]

Presentation of the RPWS instrument that is designed to study radio emissions, plasma waves,
thermal plasma, and dust in the vicinity of Saturn. New capabilities of the RPWS, compared to
Voyagers 1 and 2 are introduced: (1) the greatly improved sensitivity and the dynamic range, (2) the
ability to perform direction-finding measurements of remotely generated radio emissions, (3) both
active and passive measurements of plasma resonances in order to give precise measurements of the
local electron density, and (4) Langmuir probe measurements of the local electron density and
        Gumett et al., The Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation

Presentation of an analytical inversion method to achieve direction-finding of arrival of an
incoming e.m. wave, its flux, and its full polarization state, using a system of two or three electric
dipole antennas on a three-axis stabilized spacecraft, such as the RPWS radio receiver on board
Cassini and the STEREO radio receiver have the capabilities. Using a known radio source, the
article provides an analytical solution of the inverse problem which consists of calibrating the
electric dipole orientations and effective lengths, too.
        B. Cecconi and P. Zarka, Direction finding and antenna calibration through analytical
         inversion of radio measurements performed using a system of two or three electric dipole
         antennas on three-axis stabilized spacecraft
         [Radio Sciencee, Vol. 40, RS3003, 2005]

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